Trending December 2023 # $2.5M From Sumner Redstone Creates Narrative Professorship # Suggested January 2024 # Top 18 Popular

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$2.5M from Sumner Redstone Creates Narrative Professorship Gift to COM will explore the power of storytelling

Sumner M. Redstone (Hon.’94) has given $2.5 million to the College of Communication to fund a new professorship in narrative studies. Photo by Kalman Zabarsky

Ever since the internet began to lure readers away from print, pundits have been predicting the end of long-form journalism. But the end, it turns out, is not in sight. In fact, if the popularity of websites like chúng tôi and chúng tôi is any indication, long-form is enjoying a new beginning.

At the College of Communication, a new professorship made possible by a $2.5 million gift from Viacom and CBS chair Sumner Redstone (Hon.’94) should help, by encouraging the production and appreciation of narrative storytelling. The new Sumner M. Redstone Professorship in Narrative Studies, endowed in perpetuity through a gift from the Sumner M. Redstone Charitable Foundation, will support a senior COM faculty member with scholarly and teaching expertise in the field of narrative studies.

The yet-to-be named professor will teach courses exploring the power of storytelling in communicating ideas, produce original narrative works or scholarly studies, and organize gatherings of others in the field.

“Storytelling in both entertainment and journalism has always been an integral focus of my business life through Viacom and CBS,” Redstone says. “I am so proud to help inspire others to the field by furthering the conversation and study of narrative storytelling at one of the country’s leading institutions.”

Thomas Fiedler, dean of COM, says the function of the new professorship aligns with the vision that has powered Redstone’s remarkable career.

“Sumner Redstone famously said, ‘Content is king,’” Fiedler (COM’71) says. “We define narrative as storytelling with a purpose, and see it as one of the fundamental skills that underpin every discipline we teach. In the media business, the quality of content will always trump methods of distribution, which constantly change with the evolution of technology.”

Redstone grew up in Boston’s West End and graduated first in his class from Boston Latin School. He graduated from Harvard University in 1944, then became a first lieutenant in the US Army and was selected by Harvard Japanese history professor Edwin Reischauer (later US ambassador to Japan) to join a special intelligence group whose mission was to break Japan’s high-level military and diplomatic codes. For his work, Redstone received two commendations from the Military Intelligence Division. He is also a recipient of the Army Commendation Award.

After earning a law degree at Harvard Law School and working as a law secretary with the US Court of Appeals and as a special assistant to the US Attorney General, in 1954 he joined National Amusements, Inc., which has since grown to 950 screens, including Showcase Cinemas, Multiplex Cinemas, and Cinema De Lux, as well as IMAX theaters in the United States and Argentina.

In 1982 Redstone became a faculty member of the BU School of Law, where he created one of the nation’s first courses in entertainment law. He also pioneered the school’s curriculum for protecting intellectual property in the entertainment industry. In 1994, Redstone received an honorary Doctor of Laws from BU.

Through the Sumner M. Redstone Charitable Foundation and personal donations, Redstone has contributed more than $216 million to charities around the world in the areas of medical research and education and to arts and entertainment institutions and organizations. Redstone has also played a significant role in the affairs of the entertainment and communications industries, serving as a member of the Advisory Council for the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences Foundation as well as a member of the executive committee of the National Association of Theatre Owners.

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Pangu Creates Official Reddit Account, Tweets Public Statement On Recent Hack Claims

Pangu was recently subjected to trust issues after a thread made it to Reddit claiming that some users had unauthorized charges from Beijing on their PayPal account after jailbreaking, others had their Facebook account show login attempts from various Asian countries, but mostly from China.

Despite all of the confusion, Pangu has made an official statement, and we have the scoop.

What exactly happened?

Over the weekend, a disgruntled jailbreaker took to Reddit claiming that he had jailbroken one of his devices with the Pangu jailbreak tool for iOS 9.3.3 with a burner Apple ID. After an hour or so later, he claimed he had noticed charges on his PayPal account originating from Beijing with an unknown email address.

The same person also claimed he wasn’t using any piracy stores or repositories, and the Beijing origin certainly seemed incriminating for 25PP, considering that the 25PP jailbreak originally came with a Beijing enterprise developer certificate. Within the following minutes and hours, other users also chimed in, noting they had some of their online accounts hacked as well.

Some people claimed having their debit/credit card accounts hacked after jailbreaking, while some go as far as to say their Facebook accounts were hacked following their jailbreak. For those were finances were involved, charges were as little as $50 and went up from there, with one person claiming 600 individual charges on their credit card.

Saurik later hopped onto the same thread to chime in. He had noted that he’s not particularly excited about the way the PP jailbreak tool handles stuff. Nevertheless, he created Cydia Impactor as a safe way to jailbreak your devices because it sends your Apple ID directly to Apple and no one else.

I don’t particularly like the concept of installing the 25PP tool (edit: this sentence used to say “trust”, but I think that was confusing), as Chinese companies tend to have software that is pretty intrusive and even “combative” against competitor’s software, and in general I am concerned about the way people do signature stuff (as it is just so much easier to do the signing on a server…) which is why I worked so hard to make Impactor be able to do all the signing and communication locally. That said, 25PP’s profit model would probably benefit from local signature work, so I can see them having the existing expertise and taking the time to do that “correctly”.

Does that mean 25PP sends your Apple ID information off to third-party sources? Well, that’s a tricky question to answer, and no one really knows. That’s why we recommend avoiding it and using the English version of the jailbreak from Pangu instead.

Despite what seems like a gloomy conversation, Saurik comes back saying that he trusts the Pangu jailbreak team, despite the mystery surrounding the joint 25PP/Pangu jailbreak app and the Chinese Windows tool.

I will also say I trust Pangu a lot… but I don’t know if the Chinese version of their app was only touched by them. I bet the English one was their work only, though you are downloading it from 25PP, which opens some issues: do you trust the employees at 25PP with control over their servers? I would say that it would be dumb to do quickly be trying to attack people rather than racking up more credentials before anyone becomes suspicious. You have to remember that there are millions of people who jailbreak. And Pangu specifically listed this subreddit on their website as a place to talk to people about their issues, so we are going to be seeing tons of people. Do we really have evidence that this is an issue with the jailbreak process as opposed to a string of random attacks that are being noticed here because we are all being extremely suspicious this week?

If anything, I bet there was just some website, maybe it was even one we all use more often than other people (like reddit! ;P) which was hacked in some way, and people were sharing passwords between there and PayPal, and that hack just happens to have happened at about the same time the jailbreak came out.

According to Saurik, there’s just not enough evidence that 25PP was actually the root cause of the unauthorized charges on the user’s PayPal account.

To be completely fair, it may have been a complete coincidence. The person may have even bought something online from a company that originated from the same location, or may have had a virus on his PC when he accessed his PayPal account from it. For all we know, maybe he actually was running pirated software on his device despite what he said.

There are too many unknowns to know for sure. And it’s just not wise to start pointing fingers, especially at those who bring jailbreaks to us free of charge.

To top things off, Pangu on Sunday made the decision to make a public statement on Twitter that defends their position from a lot of the criticism and slander they’ve faced from this ordeal.

In what appears to be a relatively frustrated response with this Reddit post and users’ reactions to it, Pangu clearly notes that they do not take money (nor does 25PP) as it would be “stupid.” They also wish to find out what really happened so the fears originating from confusion can be cleared up.

Neither we nor 25pp would be so stupid to make money by hacking users paypal account via jailbreak tool. We hope to find out the truth asap.

— PanguTeam (@PanguTeam) July 31, 2023

Pangu also appears to have made an official Reddit account to take a more active role in making postings and answering questions.

— PanguTeam (@PanguTeam) July 31, 2023

This might help foster trust with jailbreakers in the future, especially those who have lots of questions about the security and legitimacy about Chinese jailbreaks.

Is it safe?

Currently, no iDB team members have had any accounts compromised or have seen any unauthorized charges to our financial accounts. Moreover, our devices are running perfectly fine with our favorite jailbreak tweaks.

If you were interested in jailbreaking iOS 9.3.3, we see no reason not to, as the only major hurdles are side-loading the app on a weekly basis or semi-untethered booting your device after every reboot. One might also attempt to install the 1-year enterprise certificate on their jailbroken device to try and circumvent having to side-load their jailbreak app on a weekly basis.

When it comes right down to it, a jailbreak makes your device less secure. It opens your device up to more exploits because Apple’s security measures are no longer in control of your device; you are. I think the well-respected Luca Todesco says it best in this Tweet:

Remember: Jailbreaking your device makes it extremely insecure, no matter what.

— qwertyoruiop (@qwertyoruiopz) July 30, 2023

Every jailbreak is a trade-off between security and customization. But that’s not to say that the jailbreak was the cause for all these hacks. There isn’t enough evidence to blame the jailbreak for these people’s compromises, which may have in turn been caused by their own gross negligence.

Wrapping up

Although it seems scary, this kind of thing seems to pop up after every Chinese jailbreak is released. We’re not sure if it’s true or if people are just desperate for attention, but we can certainly say that nothing has happened to our personal accounts yet and we can also say that if Saurik vouches for Pangu, we do too.

One thing we will say is that if you jailbreak iOS 9.3.3 at all, you should use the English tool from Pangu and avoid the Chinese jailbreak tool for Windows that was a joint release between Pangu and 25PP. This will be your safest bet.

Also read:

Bitcoin: Separating Fact From Fiction

In the first part of this article, we discussed the difference between the power consumption of Bitcoin v. Visa transfers. We also introduced the idea of how much of BTC’s energy is actually coming from coal-powered sources and renewable energy. 

Is Bitcoin in the way of other energy processes?

Most critics jump the gun on Bitcoin’s energy usage and claim that its power intake can be better used. However, the levels of electricity wasted on Earth each year gives a clearer picture.

Now, China’s Xinjiang provinces were flagged for their coal-powered sources. However, China also produced 17 TWh of wind energy in 2023. This, according to some accounts, may have been enough to power the entire Bitcoin network.

Additionally, the total curtailment of Chinese electricity generated from solar and wind for 2023 was around 4.6 TWh and 16.9 TWh, respectively. Taken together, wasted wind and solar energy from China alone could have contributed 28% of the total energy required for Bitcoin.

Hence, enough power is being produced around the world for Bitcoin’s network. It is not taking a lion’s share of power away from any industrial setup either.

In fact, according to Sergi Gerasymovych, EZ Blockchain’s Founder and CEO,

“I strongly believe that Bitcoin mining’s huge power consumption can be used as a tool to solve the global waste energy problem with solutions like utilizing flared gas for mining or stranded natural gas. This area has to have more coverage and research.”

The hook in the case? Bitcoin-Xinjiang power outrage

When Bitcoin’s hash rate dropped during the flooding of a Xinjiang coal mine, it fell from ~20 ETH/s to ~10.5 ETH/s. The ensuing dump even fueled the likelihood of a vector attack on Bitcoin.

While no such incident transpired, critics were eager to jump the bandwagon yet again. By looking at Xinjiang sourcing most of its electricity from fossil fuels, they assumed the network’s environmental impact.

However, solar and wind energy facilities have been operating there since 2023. In fact, Xinjiang-generated renewables-derived power made up “a significant part” of the region’s 24% contribution to China’s total generated electricity in 2023.

Castle Island Ventures’ Nic Carter shared a similar sentiment, stating,

“The takeaway for me is that Xinjiang is most likely smaller in terms of its contribution to hash rate than we thought. That’s unequivocally positive. Second, it seems to me that China is harassing miners, and making sure they know who is in control. Inner Mongolia already banned mining, and this seems like an early move at potentially banning mining in Xinjiang too.”

According to Carter, this “would obviously be very positive for Bitcoin, especially for U.S.-based miners.”

Greener mining is possibly the future

Regardless of this debate, it is clear that greener mining needs to be established. Curiously, one can argue that the situation has already improved.

According to the Bitcoin Mining Council, 56% of the mining power during the end of June quarter came from renewable resources. The report also claimed that the U.S. wastes 65% of all energy used to generate and distribute power. On the contrary, Bitcoin mining wastes only 2.8%.

It is time to call out facts from fiction when the issue of Bitcoin mining and power consumption is raised. Every industry is equally utilizing power so, it is unfair that the spotlight always falls on the digital assets’ mining market.

From The Archives: A Forecast On Artificial Intelligence, From The 1980S And Beyond

To mark our 150th year, we’re revisiting the Popular Science stories (both hits and misses) that helped define scientific progress, understanding, and innovation—with an added hint of modern context. Explore the entire From the Archives series and check out all our anniversary coverage here.

Social psychologist Frank Rosenblatt had such a passion for brain mechanics that he built a computer model fashioned after a human brain’s neural network, and trained it to recognize simple patterns. He called his IBM 704-based model Perceptron. A New York Times headline called it an “Embryo of Computer Designed to Read and Grow Wiser.” Popular Science called Perceptrons “Machines that learn.” At the time, Rosenblatt claimed “it would be possible to build brains that could reproduce themselves on an assembly line and which would be conscious of their existence.” The year was 1958.

Many assailed Rosenblatt’s approach to artificial intelligence as being computationally impractical and hopelessly simplistic. A critical 1969 book by Turing Award winner Marvin Minsky marked the onset of a period dubbed the AI winter, when little funding was devoted to such research—a short revival in the early ‘80s notwithstanding. 

In a 1989 Popular Science piece, “Brain-Style Computers,” science and medical writer Naomi Freundlich was among the first journalists to anticipate the thaw of that long winter, which lingered into the ‘90s. Even before Geoffrey Hinton, considered one of the founders of modern deep learning techniques, published his seminal 1992 explainer in Scientific American, Freundlich’s reporting offered one of the most comprehensive insights into what was about to unfold in AI in the next two decades. 

“The resurgence of more-sophisticated neural networks,” wrote Freundlich, “was largely due to the availability of low-cost memory, greater computer power, and more-sophisticated learning laws.” Of course, the missing ingredient in 1989 was data—the vast troves of information, labeled and unlabeled, that today’s deep-learning neural networks inhale to train themselves. It was the rapid expansion of the internet, starting in the late 1990s, that made big data possible and, coupled with the other ingredients noted by Freundlich, unleashed AI—nearly half a century after Rosenblatt’s Perceptron debut.

“Brain-style computers” (Naomi J. Freundlich, February 1989)

I walked into the semi-circular lecture hall at Columbia University and searched for a seat within the crowded tiered gallery. An excited buzz petered off to a few coughs and rustling paper as a young man wearing circular wire-rimmed glasses walked toward the lectern carrying a portable stereo tape player under his arm. Dressed in a tweed jacket and corduroys, he looked like an Ivy League student about to play us some of his favorite rock tunes. But instead, when he pushed the “on” button, a string of garbled baby talk-more specifically, baby-computer talk-came flooding out. At first unintelligible, really just bursts of sounds, the child-robot voice repeated the string over and over until it became ten distinct words. 

“This is a recording of a computer that taught itself to pronounce English text overnight,” said Terrence Sejnowski, a biophysicist at Johns Hopkins University. A jubilant crowd broke into animated applause. Sejnowski had just demonstrated a “learning” computer, one of the first of a radically new kind of artificial-intelligence machine. 

Called neural networks, these computers are loosely modeled after the interconnected web of neurons, or nerve cells, in the brain. They represent a dramatic change in the way scientists are thinking about artificial intelligence- a leaning toward a more literal interpretation of how the brain functions. The reason: Although some of today’s computers are extremely powerful processors that can crunch numbers at phenomenal speeds, they fail at tasks a child does with ease-recognizing faces, learning to speak and walk, or reading printed text. According to one expert, the visual system of one human being can do more image processing than all the supercomputers in the world put together. These kinds of tasks require an enormous number of rules and instructions embodying every possible variable. Neural networks do not require this kind of programming, but rather, like humans, they seem to learn by experience. 

For the military, this means target-recognition systems, self-navigating tanks, and even smart missiles that chase targets. For the business world, neural networks promise handwriting-and face-recognition systems and computer loan officers and bond traders. And for the manufacturing sector, quality-control vision systems and robot control are just two goals. 

Interest in neural networks has grown exponentially. A recent meeting in San Diego brought 2,000 participants. More than 100 companies are working on neural networks, including several small start-ups that have begun marketing neural-network software and peripherals. Some computer giants, such as IBM, AT&T, Texas Instruments, Nippon Electric Co., and Fujitsu, are also going full ahead with research. And the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (or DARPA) released a study last year that recommended neural-network funding of $400 million over eight years. It would be one of the largest programs ever undertaken by the agency. 

Ever since the early days of computer science, the brain has been a model for emerging machines. But compared with the brain, today’s computers are little more than glorified calculators. The reason: A computer has a single processor operating on programmed instructions. Each task is divided into many tiny steps that are performed quickly, one at a time. This pipeline approach leaves computers vulnerable to a condition commonly found on California freeways: One stalled car-one unsolvable step-can back up traffic indefinitely. The brain, in contrast, is made up of billions of neurons, or nerve cells, each connected to thousands of others. A specific task enlists the activity of whole fields of neurons; the communication pathways among them lead to solutions. 

The excitement over neural networks is not new and neither are the “brain makers.” Warren S. McCulloch, a psychiatrist at the Universities of Illinois and Chicago, and his student Walter H. Pitts began studying neurons as logic devices in the early 1940s. They wrote an article outlining how neurons communicate with each other electrochemically: A neuron receives inputs from surrounding cells. If the sum of the inputs is positive and above a certain preset threshold, the neuron will fire. Suppose, for example, that a neuron has a threshold of two and has two connections, A and B. The neuron will be on only if both A and B are on. This is called a logical “and” operation. Another logic operation called the “inclusive or” is achieved by setting the threshold at one: If either A or B is on, the neuron is on. If both A and B are on, then the neuron is also on. 

In 1958 Cornell University psychologist Frank Rosenblatt used hundreds of these artificial “neurons” to develop a two-layer pattern-learning network called the perceptron. The key to Rosenblatt’s system was that it learned. In the brain, learning occurs predominantly by modification of the connections between neurons. Simply put, if two neurons are active at once and they’re connected, then the synapses (connections) between them will get stronger. This learning rule is called Hebb’s rule and was the basis for learning in the perceptron. Using Hebb’s rule, the network appears to “learn by experience” because connections that are used often are reinforced. The electronic analog of a synapse is a resistor and in the perceptron resistors controlled the amount of current that flowed between transistor circuits.  

Other simple networks were also built at this time. Bernard Widrow, an electrical engineer at Stanford University, developed a machine called Adaline (for adaptive linear neurons) that could translate speech, play blackjack, and predict weather for the San Francisco area better than any weatherman. The neural network field was an active one until 1969. 

In that year the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert—major forces in the rule-based AI field—wrote a book called Perceptrons that attacked the perceptron design as being “too simple to be serious.” The main problem: The perceptron was a two-layer system-input led directly into output-and learning was limited. ”What Rosenblatt and others wanted to do basically was to solve difficult problems with a knee-jerk reflex,” says Sejnowski. 

The other problem was that perceptrons were limited in the logic operations they could execute, and therefore they could only solve clearly definable problems–deciding between an L and a T for example. The reason: Perceptrons could not handle the third logic operation called the “exclusive or.” This operation requires that the logic unit turn on if either A or B is on, but not if they both are. 

According to Tom Schwartz, a neural-network consultant in Mountain View, Calif., technology constraints limited the success of perceptrons. “The idea of a multilayer perceptron was proposed by Rosenblatt, but without a good multilayer learning law you were limited in what you could do with neural nets.” Minsky’s book, combined with the perceptron’s failure to achieve developers’ expectations, squelched the neural-network boom. Computer scientists charged ahead with traditional artificial intelligence, such as expert systems. 

Underground connections

During the “dark ages” as some call the 15 years between the publication of Minsky’s Perceptrons and the recent revival of neural networks, some die-hard “connectionists” –neural-network adherent–prevailed. One of them was physicist John J. Hopfield, who splits his time between the California Institute of Technology and AT&T Bell Laboratories. A paper he wrote in 1982 described mathematically how neurons could act collectively to process and store information, comparing a problem’s solution in a neural network with achieving the lowest energy state in physics. As an example, Hopfield demonstrated how a network could solve the “traveling salesman” problem- finding the shortest route through a group of cities a problem that had long eluded conventional computers. This paper is credited with reinvigorating the neural network field. “It took a lot of guts to publish that paper in 1982,” says Schwartz. “Hopfield should be known as the fellow who brought neural nets back from the dead.” 

The resurgence of more-sophisticated neural networks was largely due to the availability of low-cost memory, greater computer power, and more-sophisticated learning laws. The most important of these learning laws is some- thing called back-propagation, illustrated dramatically by Sejnowski’s NetTalk, which I heard at Columbia. 

With NetTalk and subsequent neural networks, a third layer, called the hidden layer, is added to the two-layer network. This hidden layer is analogous to the brain’s interneurons, which map out pathways between the sensory and motor neurons. NetTalk is a neural-network simulation with 300 processing units-representing neurons- and over 10,000 connections arranged in three layers. For the demonstration I heard, the initial training input was a 500-word text of a first-grader’s conversation. The output layer consisted of units that encoded the 55 possible phonemes-discreet speech sounds-in the English language. The output units can drive a digital speech synthesizer that produces sounds from a string of phonemes. When NetTalk saw the letter N (in the word “can” for example) it randomly (and erroneously) activated a set of hidden layer units that signaled the output “ah.” This output was then compared with a model: a correct letter-to-phoneme translation, to calculate the error mathematically. The learning rule, which is actually a mathematical formula, corrects this error by “apportioning the blame”-reducing the strengths of the connections between the hidden layer that corresponds to N and the output that corresponds to “ah.” “At the beginning of NetTalk all the connection strengths are random, so the output that the network produces is random,” says Sejnowski. “Very quickly as we change the weights to minimize error, the network starts picking up on the regular pattern. It distinguishes consonants and vowels, and can make finer distinctions according to particular ways of pronouncing individual letters.” 

Trained on 1,000 words, within a week NetTalk developed a 20,000-word dictionary. “The important point is that the network was not only able to memorize the training words, but it generalized. It was able to predict new words it had never seen before,” says Sejnowski. “It’s similar to how humans would generalize while reading ‘Jabberwocky.’ “

Generalizing is an important goal for neural networks. To illustrate this, Hopfield described a munition identification problem he worked on two summers ago in Fort Monmouth, N.J. “Let’s say a battalion needs to identify an unexploded munition before it can be disarmed,” he says. “Unfortunately there are 50,000 different kinds of hardware it might be. A traditional computer would make the identification using a treelike decision process,” says Hopfield. ”The first decision could be based on the length of the munition.” But there’s one problem: “It turns out the munition’s nose is buried in the sand, and obviously a soldier can’t go out and measure how long it is. Although you’ve got lots of information, there are always going to be pieces that you are not allowed to get. As a result you can’t go through a treelike structure and make an identification.”

Hopfield sees this kind of problem as approachable from a neural-network point of view. “With a neural net you could know ten out of thirty pieces of information about the munition and get an answer.”

Besides generalizing, another important feature of neural networks is that they “degrade gracefully.” The human brain is in a constant state of degradation-one night spent drinking alcohol consumes thousands of brain cells. But because whole fields of neurons contribute to every task, the loss of a few is not noticeable. The same is true with neural networks. David Rumelhart, a psychologist and neural-network researcher at Stanford University, explains: “The behavior of the network is not determined by one little localized part, but in fact by the interactions of all the units in the network. If you delete one of the units, it’s not terribly important. Deleting one of the components in a conventional computer will typically bring computation to a halt.”

Simulating networks

Although neural networks can be built from wires and transistors, according to Schwartz, “Ninety-nine percent of what people talk about in neural nets are really software simulations of neural nets run on conventional processors.” Simulating a neural network means mathematically defining the nodes (processors) and weights (adaptive coefficients) assigned to it. “The processing that each element does is determined by a mathematical formula that defines the element’s output signal as a function of whatever input signals have just arrived and the adaptive coefficients present in the local memory,” explains Robert Hecht-Nielsen, president of Hecht-Nielsen Neurocomputer Corp. 

Some companies, such as Hecht- Nielsen Neurocomputer in San Diego, Synaptics Inc. in San Jose, Calif., and most recently Nippon Electric Co., are selling specially wired boards that link to conventional computers. The neural network is simulated on the board and then integrated via software to an IBM PC-type machine. 

Several military contractors including Bendix Aerospace, TRW, and the University of Pennsylvania are also going ahead with neural networks for signal processing-training networks to identify enemy vehicles by their radar or sonar patterns, for example. 

Still, there are some groups concentrating on neural network chips. At Bell Laboratories a group headed by solid-state physicist Larry Jackel constructed an experimental neural-net chip that has 75,000 transistors and an array of 54 simple processors connected by a network of resistors. The chip is about the size of a dime. Also developed at Bell Labs is a chip containing 14,400 artificial neurons made of light-sensitive amorphous silicon and deposited as a thin film on glass. When a slide is projected on the film several times, the image gets stored in the network. If the network is then shown just a small part of the image, it will reconstruct the original picture. 

Finally, at Synaptics, CalTech’s Carver Mead is designing analog chips modeled after human retina and cochlea. 

Cheap imitation

”There are at least fifty different types of networks being explored in research or being developed for applications,” says Hecht-Nielsen. ”The differences are mainly in the learning laws implemented and the topology [detailed mapping] of the connections.” Most of these networks are called “feed-forward” networks-information is passed forward in the layered network from inputs to hidden units and finally outputs. 

John Hopfield is not sure this is the best architecture for neural nets. “In neurobiology there is an immense amount of feedback. You have connections coming back through the layers or interconnections within the layers. That makes the system much more powerful from a computational point of view.” 

That kind of criticism brings up the question of how closely neural networks need to model the brain. Fahlman says that neural-network researchers and neurobiologists are “loosely coupled.” “Neurobiologists can tell me that the right number of elements to think about is tens of billions. They can tell me that the right kind of interconnection is one thousand or ten thousand to each neuron. And they can tell me that there doesn’t seem to be a lot of flow backward through a neuron,” he says. But unfortunately, he adds, “they can’t provide information about exactly what’s going on in the synapse of the neuron.” 

The cover of the February 1989 issue of Popular Science featured a deadly new fighter plane and news in glues.

Some text has been edited to match contemporary standards and style.

How To Download Songs From Soundcloud

SoundCloud is one of the best online music streaming websites out there that has more than 175 million monthly listeners from across the globe. SoundCloud is a social media platform from which users can record and upload songs and share them with other users. From big music production companies to individual music composers – everyone does use this website to distribute their music among music lovers. Hundreds of awesome music composers join this website every year, and hence, it has become one of the best music streaming websites. Sometimes, we want to download

Sometimes, we want to download a song from SoundCloud. However, this website doesn’t allow users to download any song or instrumental music from it. But, if you want to download songs from SoundCloud, here are some web apps that will let you do so within moments.

How to download songs from SoundCloud

This is quite easy with the help of these free web tools. However, you cannot use any song in any YouTube video or anywhere else unless the composer has given you the rights. Otherwise, you may end up violating someone’s copyright. One more thing you should know is that you need to get the exact URL of the song since some of the tools may not allow you to download the whole playlist.


SCDownloader is one of the best and simplest websites out there that lets users download a song that has been uploaded to SoundCloud website. It is very easy o use and not much time-consuming as well. First, copy the song URL from SoundCloud, head over to their official website, enter the URL, hit the Download button. Following that, you will get an option to download the song in .mp3 format.


This is mainly designed to download online videos. However, you can utilise the same tool to download songs from SoundCloud. The specialty of this tool is you can convert the song in different formats such as M4A, AAC, etc. Go to their official website, paste the song URL, hit the Continue button. Following that, you need to choose a file format. After that, you will be able to download the song in that preferred format.

Anything2mp3 is yet another useful website that can be used to download songs from SoundCloud. Although the process to download is very simple, it takes more time than any other tool. But, at the end of the day, this is a reliable downloader. To get started, go to their website, enter the song URL, and hit the Convert button. Now, you can download that song from this website.


9SoundCloud Downloader allows users to download the whole playlist at once and this is the specialty of this tool. Talking about the process, this is exactly the same as other tools. That means you need to copy the song URL from SoundCloud website, open their website, paste the link, hit the Download button. You should get the download option on your screen.

Why can’t I download songs on SoundCloud? How do you download a song from SoundCloud to your phone?

To download a song from SoundCloud to your phone, you can use the aforementioned online tools. chúng tôi chúng tôi chúng tôi etc., are some of the best options. No matter which tool you use, you must obtain the link first.

Mwc 2023: Live Updates From Barcelona

Harley Maranan / Android Authority

MWC 2023 is here! The Android Authority team is live on the ground in Barcelona and delighted to be covering the latest devices, gadgets, technology, events, and industry trends as they happen. Follow Android Authority live for updates over the next four days.

MWC 2023 runs Monday, February 28, through Thursday, March 3, located at the Fira Gran Via, though events can be found across the city, as well as some virtual events too.

MWC Day 3

8:00AM CET: The Spanish tourism board may have forgotten to arrange for the sun to be up this morning, but it’s there somewhere…

Highlights of today include handing out our Best of MWC 2023 awards, and taking a chance to soak up the full show offerings.

Tristan Rayner / Android Authority

MWC Day 2

7:00PM CET:  Our HONOR Magic 4 Pro and HONOR Magic V hands-on videos are live, if you want to take a look at something coming soon, and something you can’t get, in that order.

And don’t miss our initial thoughts on the HONOR Magic 4 Pro’s camera, playfully called the Eye of Muse, which is fun and strange!

6:00PM CET:  Eric Zeman found a tough new 5G hotspot. The Cat Q10 is built for mishandling, with an shock and waterproof ratings, and it can be dropped from 1.8m or just under 6 feet, with 10 hours battery. Plus, there’s a magnetic bottom panel so you can stick it onto something to keep it in one place.

Eric Zeman / Android Authority

5:00PM CET: Here’s the show floor from above as the second day winds down. The Android Authority team will be heading back a little earlier to deliberate over the all-important Best of MWC 2023 awards, following the major announcements all taking place.

Tristan Rayner / Android Authority

4:45PM CET: Our HONOR Magic V hands-on is live, with handy comparisons to the Galaxy Z Fold 3 and the OPPO Find N.

Magic V, Fold 3, Find N

4:30PM CET: C. Scott Brown grabbed a meeting with Nothing founder Carl Pei, who didn’t announce anything, sadly. However, Pei talked up Nothing’s brand strategy with Qualcomm in attendance as well.

Other Nothing representatives mentioned multiple product launches will happen in 2023, which is encouraging for the new brand. There are, of course, plenty of hints that something might be coming with Android, one day.

“For now, 240W SuperVOOC is capable of having a battery lifespan that meets the industrial standards, which is to maintain 80% of its original capacity after as many as 800 charge cycles,” the manufacturer told Android Authority in an emailed response.

realme admitted that faster charging does mean less battery capacity, but didn’t elaborate on exact details.

My colleague Rob Triggs, our technical writer told me: “The impact on space happens because larger C rate batteries (ones that can handle more current) are not as dense. In other words, you need a larger battery to achieve the same capacity with a higher C rate.”

Earlier: MWC Day 1 Recap

C. Scott Brown / Android Authority

Speaking of 150W charging, OPPO and OnePlus will be sharing new 150W Super VOOC charging, with a charger in the box.

Here’s a look at how that’ll work on both OPPO and OnePlus devices:

Think that’s super-fast? Well, OPPO is upping the ante even more by demonstrating 240W charging capabilities. The company noted on Twitter that this results in a 4,500mAh battery hitting a 100% charge in just nine minutes. There’s no word on battery degradation and we’re also wary of brands differentiating between “100%” and an actual full charge. Nevertheless, you can check out the video below.

ZTE launch

Eric Zeman / Android Authority

4:30PM CET: ZTE President Xiao Ming hosted a launch of ZTE’s new Blade V40 range, including four new models. ZTE’s announcement had a few gaps, with no pricing, but as Eric Zeman said: these Blades won’t cut deep, with modest pricing expected. The ZTE Blade V40 Pro has the highest ambitions of the four new models, with a 6.67-inch OLED screen and 65W fast charging. That’s about all the information: no details on cameras, processor, availability. It’ll come in time.

The best worst slide at MWC?

C. Scott Brown / Android Authority

“This is a real slide from a real presentation at MWC,” C Scott Brown mentioned in the Android Authority Slack group upon sharing this picture. We figured it was too awfully amazing or amazingly awful not to share here.

Snapdragon X70 modem launch

C. Scott Brown / Android Authority

2:30PM CET: Qualcomm has revealed the Snapdragon X70 modem, which is expected to appear inside 2023’s flagship phones. You’re still getting the same 10Gbps peak downlink speed and 3.5Gbps peak uplink speed as the X65 modem inside the Snapdragon 8 Gen 1, but the new modem now supports every commercial 5G band — should the smartphone brand include all the antennas and RF hardware. A big step forward for truly global 5G support, potentially.

HONOR Magic 4 Launch

Earlier: POCO has announced its latest smartphones in the POCO X4 Pro 5G and POCO M4 Pro 4G, starting at €299/€219. It’s a refreshed Redmi Note 11 Pro with new design and the POCO launcher.

Hadlee Simons / Android Authority

Xiaomi CyberDog spotted Lenovo has laptops

That’s us signing off for the evening ahead of a big first day of MWC proper tomorrow.

And here’s our very own Eric Zeman watching the Samsung virtual event from his Galaxy Z Fold 3 at a rooftop bar, as you do when on site. The video is on the top half, and YouTube live chat on the bottom:

Kris Carlon / Android Authority

Catch all the earlier happenings down below from Samsung, TCL, HUAWEI, and more.

Samsung MWC Event 2023

Samsung launched its new Galaxy Book 2 series laptops during its virtual MWC event — four new Windows-based laptops headlined by the Galaxy Book 2 360 and Pro 360, running Intel’s 12th generation processors, Windows 11, and a hint of Samsung’s tweaks and touches. Prices range from $1,250 for the Book 2 Pro 360 to $900 for the non-Pro 360.

Samsung is claiming the Galaxy Book 2 Pro 360 gets 21 hours of battery life, which is getting into M1 Mac territory — we can’t wait to see if that holds up.

Harley Maranan / Android Authority

…it’s a book, get it?

New from TCL

HUAWEI Smart Office launch

Kris Carlon / Android Authority

HUAWEI had plenty of non-smartphone devices to show off at its pre-MWC event in Barcelona. This includes the MatePad Paper e-ink reader/tablet (seen above), the MateBook X Pro 2023, the MateStation X (an iMac rival), and the MateBook E. You can check out our full rundown here.



We’ve also seen a phones from brands that are attending MWC but launched early to beat the rush.

OPPO Find X5 series — which we also reviewed and gave a solid 4.5-star rating.

The nubia REDMAGIC 7 also landed before the main event.

Arguably, the Galaxy S22 was also an MWC-related launch, with reviews out sales starting just before the MWC newscycle started.

Stay tuned for more updates across the early part of MWC 2023.

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