You are reading the article **3 Web Hosting Tips For Beginners** updated in December 2023 on the website Daihoichemgio.com. We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. *Suggested January 2024 3 Web Hosting Tips For Beginners*

Web hosting is a service wherein you can upload your website for everyone on the world wide web to see. Most people would like to believe that web hosting is simple, but the reality is quite different. So, before you get an account, here are three web hosting tips to consider.

1. Know What A Content Management System IsBefore anything else, you need to know what a content management system is. A content management system (CMS) is a set of files on a website. It acts like a simple system that can help website owners manage, curate, and publish their content. One of the most popular CMS out there is WordPress.

If you want to learn more about CMS, you can find reliable companies like Ventra IP that provide WordPress web hosting to optimize your site. Significantly, your host will only install WordPress on your servers, making it distinct from standard hosting. This way, it’s now less of a hassle to maintain security and maximize your site’s performance.

2. Know What The Terminologies AreAside from a content management system, it would help to become familiar with other web hosting and development terminologies. Even if subscribing to a web hosting company is supposed to be an easy ordeal, that’s only true for those who are tech-savvy when it comes to web development.

Web hosting can be confusing, especially if you’re new to building and publishing a website. So, before you even sign up for a web host provider, you must be familiar with the most common terminologies. Some of them are the following:

Server

: A computer or network of computers that store your files and manage all the requests made by a website, such as streaming, downloading, uploading, etc.

Control Panel

: A page, website, or user interface in which you can control the settings of your web hosting account and select server settings for your website.

Domain

: Commonly referred to as a website address. Acquiring domains is typically separate from setting up a web hosting account. Typically, you need to lease it from a domain host server.

Bandwidth, CPU. Memory, And Storage Capacity

: These are a few server statistics directly correlated to your web hosting plan’s limitation. A hosting account with extreme limitations to these numbers can significantly impact the performance of your website.

Furthermore, there are many terminologies that you should be familiar with, like Web 3.0. Of course, the ones listed here are the most important, as most of the things you’ll do in your hosting account will revolve around these things.

3. Learn About Web Hosting PlansAside from those terminologies, you should know that most web hosting companies will offer their services in different plans. Depending on your website’s purpose and budget, you may need to choose the right plan for you. Typically, most web hosting plans can be categorized into three:

Personal

: This category often gives the bare minimum to a subscriber. Typically, it’ll allow you to publish and

design one or two websites

under an account. Plans that fall under this category are often ideal for people who want to publish an online portfolio or informational website for a small business.

Business

: This category is often ideal for business owners with an expansive website like an e-commerce website.

Corporate

: This category often gives large businesses an opportunity to establish an online presence and put their IT systems on their web host.

ConclusionYou're reading __3 Web Hosting Tips For Beginners__

## Best Free Web Hosting Services In 2023

Best Free Web Hosting Services in 2023

Save money with these free web hosting services

Funmi Looi Somoye

If you’re looking for the best free web hosting services available right now, you’ve come to the right place!

Whether you’re a developer, a blogger or looking to trial your first website, our experts have brought you the best free web hosting providers you can enjoy.

We have scoured the internet to find safe and reliable services that have superb features that would suit both personal and business needs. So, what are you waiting for? Let’s jump right in.

Products at a Glance

How we picked the best free web hosting servicesThere are numerous free web hosting services out there, but as you would expect every free plan has its limitations and drawbacks. Our experts have carefully selected top free web hosting services by considering key features. We made sure that each option provided decent customer support, great storage and excellent bandwidth offerings. As well as a few added perks such as a free domain name, email addresses and protection.

So if you are looking to launch your website with a free plan, keep on reading to discover top picks.

Our Recommended

Best Free Web Hosting Services in 2023

1

PROS

150+ Templates

Unlimited storage and bandwidth

Free email address

Ad-free

CONS

Paid custom domain

No email or phone support

x10Hosting offers a number of free web hosting services that would meet the needs of any individual and start-up. This service is perfect for anyone looking to build a free website or online shop thanks to their ready-made templates.

Their free plan offers a user-friendly website builder, over 150 templates and integration with other website platforms such as WordPress and Joomla.

You can use a custom domain with x10Hosting however this does come at a cost. Alternatively, for free you can use one of x10Hosting’s subdomains or connect to one you already own. As a bonus, you’ll also get a free email address.

2

PROS

Built-in protection

Excellent customer support

Free WordPress hosting

Free email address

Ad-free

CONS

Paid domain names

24/7 Support

AwardSpace is the perfect choice for free and cheap WordPress hosting. This web hosting service lets you build add-free websites easily. With their free plan, you’ll receive a free email address and you can connect your own domain name and create up to three subdomains underneath it. Unfortunately, domain names aren’t free with this plan but there are various paid plans which cover free domains forever.

AwardSpace also has a user-friendly website builder, Zacky that is free to use. Alternatively, you can also use the Zacky Installer to load WordPress or Joomla to the platform.

3

PROS

Free developer-level toolkit

Ad-free

Free email address

CONS

Not beginner friendly

No phone or email support

Byethost is another great web hosting service. With their free plan, you’ll be able to build a simple website including a free subdomain name, 1GB storage space, 50GB data allowance, five email addresses and WordPress integration. offers a robust free web hosting service for the tech-oriented user.

If you are a website developer or designer hoping to use free web hosting services, then Byethost is for you. It supports reseller accounts under the free plan, perfect for those who want to offer client-managed hosting as part of their business.

Byethost is not the most beginner-friendly option on our list. Although, if you are comfortable with FTP interfaces and server-level file management, Byethost could be the one for you.

4

PROS

Great Google Cloud intergration

Custom domain and SSL

Pay-as-you-go products

Free email, SSL and domain

CONS

Confusing pricing structure

Firebase is Google’s dedicated web hosting service. It is a great option for those who are looking to develop apps, games and websites. You can use free web hosting through its Spark plan which includes 10GB of storage and 360MB of bandwidth a day.

As you would expect, Firebase integrates seamlessly with Google Cloud. Although to be able to use this service you will have to upgrade your plan to Blaze. Luckily, the Blaze subscription is free but you will have to pay for any Google Cloud features you decide to use.

Features and ConsiderationsWhen looking for a free web hosting service, there are a number of features and considerations you should take into account.

Some of these include bandwidth, storage space, uptime, security, support, and scalability as these will ensure your website runs efficiently but is also safe from malicious attacks.

Moreover, customer support is also an important feature to look for. If you are hoping to build a website for a business, ensuring the platform has a dedicated customer support team is essential. This will help you solve any problems quickly meaning you’re site can remain up and running.

You should also consider paid add-ons. Despite some sites offering free plans, quite often they require you to purchase additional add-ons and upgrades, such as domains, in order to make the site fully usable.

If you’re looking for something different, why not read our other buying guides here?

Best Web Hosting For Small Business in 2023

Best Web Hosting Services in 2023

Best Cheap Web Hosting Services

What is the most affordable type of web hosting?The cheapest form of web hosting, is called shared hosting. As the name suggests, websites that have opted for shared hosting will be sharing resources with other websites on a single server.

Our VerdictEditor’s Choice

x10HostingShop on Amazon

Check Price

x10Hosting is an excellent web host provider that comes with a variety of free features. What’s great about this platform, is that you can try their services for free before upgrading to their paid option. With their free plan, you’ll receive unlimited storage and bandwidth, up to three free email accounts, an add-free website and up to three top-level domain accounts.

## 3 Fixes For Web Browser Does Not Support Opening Excel Files

3 Fixes for Web Browser Does Not Support Opening Excel Files Using an extension is the quickest solution to this error

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One of the major causes of this problem is large Excel files.

You may consider switching to a lightweight browser to resolve the problem.

As a last resort, we recommend resetting your Chrome browser.

Struggling with various browser issues? Try a better option: Opera One

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You found this article because your browser does not support Excel file opening; here is all you need to know.

Windows users can open a variety of files in native external applications instead of opening within browser pages, which is convenient in many ways.

However, some users have reported that they get an error from a web browser that does not support opening excel files while trying to open Excel files.

This article will show you the best ways to navigate this error.

Why can’t I open Excel in Chrome?A few things can hinder Excel from opening in your chrome browser. First, at the top of the list is a large Excel file size.

We already know that Chrome is a resource-intensive browser; hence opening a huge excel file on the browser may be too taking on your computer.

Other reasons could include old browser data and even an outdated browser.

Whatever the reason is, we will walk you through the most recommended ways to fix the issue.

How do I open Excel files directly from Chrome?

1. Use a different browserThis may be the case if you are trying to open a large file. Google Chrome is known for its intensive resource use. An alternative is the Opera browser.

It is also built on Chromium and supports all Chrome-based extensions, making adding additional features easy.

Opera

My Flow in this web app is organizing the way you open any file formats and saves them accordingly.

Free Visit website

2. Use Plugin for Firefox and ChromeIE Tab Extension For Chrome

If you cannot open an Excel file from a website, adding this extension will be a helpful solution.

3. Delete the browser cacheIf Chrome is not downloading Excel files, you should clear your browser data. Old data can make the browser non responsive to links and some websites.

How do I open an XLSX file in Chrome?You should try this extensions if the browser does not support excel files with encryption.

If your browser does not support opening any Excel file, the solutions in this article should come in handy. However, if none of the three fixes works as a last resort, you may consider resetting your browser. The downside is that you may lose some important browser data.

This article is helpful if your prefer to open an Excel file in browser instead of performing a file download.

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## Filezilla Guide For Beginners – Webnots

When you use any of the self-hosted platforms like chúng tôi it is necessary to know how to work with FTP applications. FileZilla is one of the easy to use File Transfer Protocol applications widely used by webmasters. You can use FileZilla to download files from your hosting server, upload new files and edit existing files remotely. If you are looking for learning how to use FTP, here is a FileZilla guide for beginner level users on how to setup FileZilla application and do file transfer.

Downloading FileZilla AppDownload FileZilla

Earlier, you have to download the application from chúng tôi website. However, this is not required any amore and you can directly download the app from FileZilla site. You have three options available for downloading – standard FileZilla, with manual and pro.

FileZilla Versions

The manual version offers a PDF manual along with the app download which will cost you $4.99. The basic app is the same for all three versions except with pro version you can use cloud services. You can download the free app from their site or get the pro app from App Store.

FileZilla Pro App

Connecting to ServerSite Manager Option in FileZilla

Add your FTP account details which you must have created with your hosting company. If you don’t know how to create FTP account, read our article on how to connect Bluehost FTP account with FileZilla.

FileZilla Screen OverviewOnce you connected to hosting server the screen will look something like below with various sections. Don’t get panic by looking various sections, it will take few minutes for you to understand the screen overview of FileZilla.

Copy Current Connection Settings to Site Manager

Message Log – Here you can view the connection status, command and response when you open each directory of your site on the server side. The file transfer status will also be shown here.

Local Site – This section is divided into two hals and all the folders of a selected path on your local system will be shown here in the first half. When a folder is selected, all files and folders under the selected folder will be showing in the second half.

Remote Site – Like local site, this section contains two halves to show remote site’s folder and the content inside the selected folder showing below. Remote site is nothing but your live site hosted on the server.

Transfer Queues – Here you can view the status of the transfer when you download, upload or edit a file on the server.

If you feel the screen is congested, you can enable or disable each section of the screen from the “View” menu or resize the viewing area by dragging the horizontal and vertical section dividers.

View or Hide FileZilla Screen Sections

Note: FileZilla toolbar shown above the quickconnect bar has quick shortcut icons for site manager, toggle each sections, disconnect server and few other options. Filelist status bars show the number of files and directories under the selected folders of local and remote site sections.

Upload, Download, View and Edit FilesDrag and drop files between local and remote sites to download or upload the files from or to server.

File TransferStatus of file upload and download can be seen both in message log and transfer queue sections.

Check File Transfer Status in FileZilla

Transfer queue has three sections – Queued files, Failed transfers and Successful transfers and each sections shows the corresponding file’s status.

File Permission Settings

View and Change File Permissions

In the pop-up menu, select the read, write or execute option for each category of owner, group and public. Based on the selection the numeric value will change which is the one you will be seeing under “Permissions” column as explained above.

Setting File Permissions in FileZilla

Viewing Hidden FilesDepending on the server settings sometimes hidden files are not shown in FileZilla and hence you will not be able to see files like .htaccess. Select “Force showing hidden files” option from “Server” menu to view and edit hidden files.

Showing Hidden Files in FileZilla

You will see a warning message like below when enabling this option. If you are not able to view normal directory structure properly then disable this option and try again.

Warning When Force Showing Hidden Files in FileZilla

Disconnecting from ServerAfter you have completed the transactions it is recommended to close your connection by choosing “Disconnect” option from “Server” menu.

Disconnect Server in FileZilla

Additional OptionsFollowing are some of the general operations you can do with FileZilla:

FileZilla is ideal FTP program for connecting to hosting server remotely for uploading, downloading and modifying files. You can use this app when migrating the whole site content to another hosting company.

Pros

Very easy to configure and connect to server

Supports FTP, FTPS and SFTP clients

Drag and drop support

Directory comparison

Available in 47 languages

Open source and free

Tabbed and easy graphical user interface

Works on macOS X, Windows and Linux based computers

Cons

Missing on-screen explanation of error messages.

## Lost Ark Destroyer Guide For Beginners

Lost Ark Destroyer guide for beginners

Here is a beginner’s guide to the Lost Ark Destroyer’s end game

Lost Ark’s second post-launch class has arrived with the destroyer ready to smash things super hard. With the launch of the new class, people are jumping in and want to know the ideal skills that players will be used towards the end game. This Lost Ark Destroyer takes a look at what Destroyer players in Korea and Russia typically use so you can jump into the action with ease.

Lost Ark Destroyer Guide

The core of this guide is running with the recent information that you can find on Lost Ark Destroyer builds over in Korea. The typical playstyle uses the Rage Hammer class engraving, which enhances your crit rate and damage based on your cores used while casting gravity release skills (purple skills).To get these Gravity Cores, you need to use blue skills. So, the Destroyer will use a mixture of blue and purple skills to help generate cores and whack your targets. This is the core playstyle as the builder spender of the end game Destroyer.

Lost Ark Destroyer Skills

Image via Amazon Games Studio / Smilegate

As for the Destroyer skills, there are only typically nine skills that highly honed players use. There is a core of six skills, which players will use in both raids, chaos dungeons, and abyss dungeons. The two skills that you can rotate out are Dreadnought and Gravity Impact. Dreadnought is more raid friendly, as it has some setup time you can use for big bonks. Meanwhile, Gravity Impact is a big AOE that hits multiple times and relocates enemies left alive at the end of it into a ball for more smacking. You also swap Full Swing for Running Crash. Below you will find tables for each of the Destroyer builds for Chaos Dungeons and your Abyssal and Guardian Raid combat encounters.

It is also worth mentioning that the Destroyer prefers the Big Bang awakening skill. It gathers gravitational energy, and then blasts enemies in a 3.2 meter radius to unleash the big dam. You receive 50% damage immunity while the awakening skill is casting and gaining immunity to push backs, pushes and move speed reductions. It also allows you to move while gathering gravitational energy and ignoring unit collision. You can then increase the damage and the radius of the effect based on the amount of energy gathered. This is the go-to awakening for all PvE content and is even useful when paired with gravitation CC effects in PvP.

Another general rule of thumb is that you want to use your Galewind runes on skills with casting speeds. You charge attacks like Seismic Hammer and full swing are prime examples of this. You can also equip Overwhlem’s stagger damage on skills like Dreadnaught and Jumping Smash, which are mid-high stagger skills.

Destroyer Chaos Dungeon Skills

SkillDescriptionTripod 1Tripod 2Tripod 3Earth ShatterSmash the ground behind you and then throw three rocks. You then swing your hammer again at the chúng tôi Shards – increase rock damage by 50%.Perspiration – AOE radius increaseRock Storm – Change to holding mode. Removes the final strike but allows you to move while holding and increases movement speed.Endure PainInflict damage 6 meters around you. Gain a buff that makes you immune to Pushes and reduces Incoming Damage by 40% for 5 seconds. Gain 3 chúng tôi hit – 25% radius increase.Taunt – Taunt non-player foes for 3 seconds.Hidden pain – reduces incoming damage by 90% instead of 40%Gravity ImpactYour hammer hits the ground and creates a gravitational pull effect which attacks foes 8 times, which then explodes. Generate 2 gravity cores.Charge Enhancement – Reduces the cooldown by 0.5 for every enemy hit by the first attack. Capped at eight targets.Tough Mind – Reduces all incoming damage by 10% for every enemy hit by the first attack. Capped at 6 enemiesWill Enhancement – Increases the gravity pull effect.Heavy Crush Raise your hammer and smash it to the ground – generates 1 core.Quick Hit – reduces charge chúng tôi of the jungle – Increased damage to lesser and normal foes.Aftershock – Causes earthquake that deals periodic damage for 5 seconds.Jumping SmashLeap 10 meters and inflict damage. Generate 2 Gravity chúng tôi Flume – Increase crit rate by 15% and make it dark damage. Armor Destruction – Reduces foe’s defence by 12% for 14 seconds.Smash -Leap 5 meters towards the target area and boost damage by 100%Perfect SwingCharged attack that allows you to move forward. Partial charge moves 3 meters while full charge moves 4 meters. The length of the charge affects chúng tôi point DetectionAbsolute StrengthHour of Slaughter – removes charges and casts immediately and generates a wave that does 30% of the max charge damage.Running CrashSprint forward and alter gravity around you. It then explodes upon cancel or max hold and launches enemies into the air.Agile Movement – Attack speed increases by 10%Elaborate Pain – Stun foes caught in the gravitational explosion for 3 seconds.Seismic HammerJump on the spot and smash the ground, creating an 11-meter long wall that deals massive damage.Quick PrepLaw of the jungle – 100% damage increase to lesser and normal foes.Starving Strength – Increases wall damage and creates the wall at 7 meters.

Destroyer Raid Skills

SkillDescriptionTripod 1Tripod 2Tripod 3DreadnaughtSlam the ground and send a wave of energy. You then jump in the air and slam your hammer down again. Generate 2 cores.Tenacity – Grants push immunity.Toughened Belly – Reduces incoming damage by 30% while using the skill.Violent Hammer- Gain another attack in the air and increase outgoing damage by 60%Earth EaterSmash the ground behind you and throw three rocks. You then swing your hammer again at the target.Enhanced Strike – Direct damage increased from the hammer.Tenacity – Push immunityEarthern Rage – Changes to charge mode. Increases all the different parts of the skills damage window significantly.Endure PainInflict damage 6 meters around you. Gain a buff that makes you immune to Pushes and reduces Incoming Damage by 40% for 5 seconds. Gain 3 chúng tôi hit – 25% radius increase.Taunt – Taunt non-player foes for 3 seconds.Hidden pain – reduces incoming damage by 90% instead of 40%Full SwingSlam your hammer behind you and then spin 3 times.Agile Movement – attack speed increased by 10%.Scary Hammer – 10% damage increase per swing.Beast’s Eye – Charge Duration reduced by 50% and gain 1 charge level. Overcharge allows you to spin 7 times and inflict 125% more damage. Scales with Cary Hammer.Heavy Crush Raise your hammer and smash it to the ground – Generates 1 core.Quick Hit – reduces charge time.Jumping SmashLeap 10 meters and inflict damage. Generate 2 Gravity Cores.Superior Charge – + 2 metersArmor Destruction – Reduces foe’s defence by 12% for 14 seconds.Smash – Leap 5 meters towards the target area and boost damage by 100%Perfect SwingCharged attack that allows you to move forward. Partial charge moves 3 meters while full charge moves 4 meters. The length of the charge affects chúng tôi point DetectionAbsolute StrengthIntemperance – Reduces charge duration and gains an extra charge level. Overcharge damage increased to 125%.Seismic HammerJump on the spot and smash the ground, creating an 11-meter long wall that deals massive damage.Quick PrepAbsolute Strength – While possessing 3 cores, increase damage to push immune foes by 40%Starving Strength – Increases wall damage and creates the wall at 7 meters.

Destroyer Engravings

As discussed earlier, the core class engraving you want to focus on is Rage Hammer. This is the core class engraving that benefits your builder spender playstyle. The other key engravings you want to look at are Master Brawler and Keen Blunt Weapon. Master Brawler is good since most attacks from the Destroyer hare head attacks, such as your skills that make you jump into the air and slam the hammer down. Keen Blunt Hammer is also a great engraving since you naturally have higher crit rates, thanks to the Rage Hammer bonuses.

Grudge and Cursed Doll are also good engravings, which are less threatening at max rank. Grudge’s incoming damage is not as threatening as the Destroyer has access to several damage reduction buffs, such as Endure Pain, Big Bang, Gravity Impact and Dreadnaught, depending on the build you are running per the content you are in.

This concludes the basics that you need to know in this Lost Ark Destroyer guide. For more information, feel free to check out our Lost Ark hub for more content!

## Python Numpy Tutorial For Beginners: Learn With Examples

What is NumPy in Python?

NumPy is an open source library available in Python, which helps in mathematical, scientific, engineering, and data science programming. It is a very useful library to perform mathematical and statistical operations in Python. It works perfectly for multi-dimensional arrays and matrix multiplication. It is easy to integrate with C/C++ and Fortran.

For any scientific project, NumPy is the tool to know. It has been built to work with the N-dimensional array, linear algebra, random number, Fourier transform, etc.

NumPy is a programming language that deals with multi-dimensional arrays and matrices. On top of the arrays and matrices, NumPy supports a large number of mathematical operations. In this part, we will review the essential functions that you need to know for the tutorial on ‘TensorFlow.’

Why use NumPy?NumPy is memory efficiency, meaning it can handle the vast amount of data more accessible than any other library. Besides, NumPy is very convenient to work with, especially for matrix multiplication and reshaping. On top of that, NumPy is fast. In fact, TensorFlow and Scikit learn to use NumPy array to compute the matrix multiplication in the back end.

In this Python NumPy Tutorial, we will learn:

How to Install NumPyTo install NumPy library, please refer our tutorial How to install TensorFlow. NumPy is installed by default with Anaconda.

In remote case, NumPy not installed-

You can install NumPy using Anaconda:

conda install -c anaconda numpy

In Jupyter Notebook :

import sys !conda install --yes --prefix {sys.prefix} numpy Import NumPy and Check VersionThe command to import numpy is:

import numpy as npAbove code renames the Numpy namespace to np. This permits us to prefix Numpy function, methods, and attributes with ” np ” instead of typing ” numpy.” It is the standard shortcut you will find in the numpy literature

To check your installed version of NumPy, use the below command:

print (np.__version__)Output:

1.18.0 What is Python NumPy Array?NumPy arrays are a bit like Python lists, but still very much different at the same time. For those of you who are new to the topic, let’s clarify what it exactly is and what it’s good for.

As the name kind of gives away, a NumPy array is a central data structure of the numpy library. The library’s name is actually short for “Numeric Python” or “Numerical Python”.

Creating a NumPy ArraySimplest way to create an array in Numpy is to use Python List

myPythonList = [1,9,8,3]To convert python list to a numpy array by using the object np.array.

numpy_array_from_list = np.array(myPythonList)To display the contents of the list

numpy_array_from_listOutput:

array([1, 9, 8, 3])In practice, there is no need to declare a Python List. The operation can be combined.

a = np.array([1,9,8,3])NOTE: Numpy documentation states use of np.ndarray to create an array. However, this the recommended method.

You can also create a numpy array from a Tuple.

Mathematical Operations on an ArrayYou could perform mathematical operations like additions, subtraction, division and multiplication on an array. The syntax is the array name followed by the operation (+.-,*,/) followed by the operand

Example:

numpy_array_from_list + 10Output:

array([11, 19, 18, 13])This operation adds 10 to each element of the numpy array.

Shape of ArrayYou can check the shape of the array with the object shape preceded by the name of the array. In the same way, you can check the type with dtypes.

import numpy as np a = np.array([1,2,3]) print(a.shape) print(a.dtype) (3,) int64An integer is a value without decimal. If you create an array with decimal, then the type will change to float.

#### Different type b = np.array([1.1,2.0,3.2]) print(b.dtype) float64 2 Dimension ArrayYou can add a dimension with a “,”coma

Note that it has to be within the bracket []

### 2 dimension c = np.array([(1,2,3), (4,5,6)]) print(c.shape) (2, 3) 3 Dimension ArrayHigher dimension can be constructed as follow:

### 3 dimension d = np.array([ [[1, 2,3], [4, 5, 6]], [[7, 8,9], [10, 11, 12]] ]) print(d.shape) (2, 2, 3)Objective Code

Create array array([1,2,3])

print the shape array([.]).shape

What is numpy.zeros()?numpy.zeros() or np.zeros Python function is used to create a matrix full of zeroes. numpy.zeros() in Python can be used when you initialize the weights during the first iteration in TensorFlow and other statistic tasks.

numpy.zeros() function Syntax

numpy.zeros(shape, dtype=float, order='C')Python numpy.zeros() Parameters

Here,

Shape: is the shape of the numpy zero array

Dtype: is the datatype in numpy zeros. It is optional. The default value is float64

Order: Default is C which is an essential row style for numpy.zeros() in Python.

Python numpy.zeros() Example

import numpy as np np.zeros((2,2))Output:

array([[0., 0.], [0., 0.]])Example of numpy zero with Datatype

import numpy as np np.zeros((2,2), dtype=np.int16)Output:

array([[0, 0], [0, 0]], dtype=int16) What is numpy.ones()?np.ones() function is used to create a matrix full of ones. numpy.ones() in Python can be used when you initialize the weights during the first iteration in TensorFlow and other statistic tasks.

Python numpy.ones() Syntax

numpy.ones(shape, dtype=float, order='C')Python numpy.ones() Parameters

Here,

Shape: is the shape of the chúng tôi Python Array

Dtype: is the datatype in numpy ones. It is optional. The default value is float64

Order: Default is C which is an essential row style.

Python numpy.ones() 2D Array with Datatype Example

import numpy as np np.ones((1,2,3), dtype=np.int16)Output:

array([[[1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1]]], dtype=int16)numpy.reshape() function in Python

Python NumPy Reshape function is used to shape an array without changing its data. In some occasions, you may need to reshape the data from wide to long. You can use the np.reshape function for this.

Syntax of np.reshape()

numpy.reshape(a, newShape, order='C')Here,

a: Array that you want to reshape

newShape: The new desires shape

Order: Default is C which is an essential row style.

Example of NumPy Reshape

import numpy as np e = np.array([(1,2,3), (4,5,6)]) print(e) e.reshape(3,2)Output:

[[1 2 3] [4 5 6]] array([[1, 2], [3, 4], [5, 6]])numpy.flatten() in Python

Python NumPy Flatten function is used to return a copy of the array in one-dimension. When you deal with some neural network like convnet, you need to flatten the array. You can use the np.flatten() functions for this.

Syntax of np.flatten()

numpy.flatten(order='C')Order: Default is C which is an essential row style.

Example of NumPy Flatten

e.flatten()Output:

array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6])What is numpy.hstack() in Python?

Numpy.hstack is a function in Python that is used to horizontally stack sequences of input arrays in order to make a single array. With hstack() function, you can append data horizontally. It is a very convenient function in NumPy.

Lets study hstack in Python with an example:

Example:

## Horitzontal Stack import numpy as np f = np.array([1,2,3]) g = np.array([4,5,6]) print('Horizontal Append:', np.hstack((f, g)))Output:

Horizontal Append: [1 2 3 4 5 6]What is numpy.vstack() in Python?

Numpy.vstack is a function in Python which is used to vertically stack sequences of input arrays in order to make a single array. With vstack() function, you can append data vertically.

Lets study it with an example:

Example:

## Vertical Stack import numpy as np f = np.array([1,2,3]) g = np.array([4,5,6]) print('Vertical Append:', np.vstack((f, g)))Output:

Vertical Append: [[1 2 3] [4 5 6]]After studying NumPy vstack and hstack, let’s learn an example to generate random numbers in NumPy.

Generate Random Numbers using NumPyTo generate random numbers for Gaussian distribution, use:

numpy.random.normal(loc, scale, size)Here,

Loc: the mean. The center of distribution

Scale: standard deviation.

Size: number of returns

Example:

## Generate random nmber from normal distribution normal_array = np.random.normal(5, 0.5, 10) print(normal_array) [5.56171852 4.84233558 4.65392767 4.946659 4.85165567 5.61211317 4.46704244 5.22675736 4.49888936 4.68731125]If plotted the distribution will be similar to following plot

Example to Generate Random Numbers using NumPy

NumPy Asarray FunctionThe asarray()function is used when you want to convert an input to an array. The input could be a lists, tuple, ndarray, etc.

Syntax:

numpy.asarray(data, dtype=None, order=None)[source]Here,

data: Data that you want to convert to an array

dtype: This is an optional argument. If not specified, the data type is inferred from the input data

Order: Default is C which is an essential row style. Other option is F (Fortan-style)

Example:

Consider the following 2-D matrix with four rows and four columns filled by 1

import numpy as np A = np.matrix(np.ones((4,4)))If you want to change the value of the matrix, you cannot. The reason is, it is not possible to change a copy.

np.array(A)[2]=2 print(A) [[1. 1. 1. 1.] [1. 1. 1. 1.] [1. 1. 1. 1.] [1. 1. 1. 1.]]Matrix is immutable. You can use asarray if you want to add modification in the original array. Let’s see if any change occurs when you want to change the value of the third rows with the value 2.

np.asarray(A)[2]=2 print(A)Code Explanation:

np.asarray(A): converts the matrix A to an array

[2]: select the third rows

Output:

[[1. 1. 1. 1.] [1. 1. 1. 1.] [2. 2. 2. 2.] # new value [1. 1. 1. 1.]] What is numpy.arange()?numpy.arange() is an inbuilt numpy function that returns an ndarray object containing evenly spaced values within a defined interval. For instance, you want to create values from 1 to 10; you can use np.arange() in Python function.

Syntax:

numpy.arange(start, stop, step, dtype)Python NumPy arange Parameters:

Start: Start of interval for np.arange in Python function.

Stop: End of interval.

Step: Spacing between values. Default step is 1.

Dtype: Is a type of array output for NumPy arange in Python.

Example:

import numpy np np.arange(1, 11)Output:

array([ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10])Example:

If you want to change the step in this NumPy arange function in Python example, you can add a third number in the parenthesis. It will change the step.

import numpy np np.arange(1, 14, 4)Output:

array([ 1, 5, 9, 13]) NumPy Linspace FunctionLinspace gives evenly spaced samples.

Syntax:

numpy.linspace(start, stop, num, endpoint)Here,

Start: Starting value of the sequence

Stop: End value of the sequence

Num: Number of samples to generate. Default is 50

Endpoint: If True (default), stop is the last value. If False, stop value is not included.

Example:

For instance, it can be used to create 10 values from 1 to 5 evenly spaced.

import numpy as np np.linspace(1.0, 5.0, num=10)Output:

array([1. , 1.44444444, 1.88888889, 2.33333333, 2.77777778, 3.22222222, 3.66666667, 4.11111111, 4.55555556, 5. ])If you do not want to include the last digit in the interval, you can set endpoint to false

np.linspace(1.0, 5.0, num=5, endpoint=False)Output:

array([1. , 1.8, 2.6, 3.4, 4.2]) LogSpace NumPy Function in PythonLogSpace returns even spaced numbers on a log scale. Logspace has the same parameters as np.linspace.

Syntax:

numpy.logspace(start, stop, num, endpoint)Example:

np.logspace(3.0, 4.0, num=4)Output:

array([ 1000. , 2154.43469003, 4641.58883361, 10000. ])Finaly, if you want to check the memory size of an element in an array, you can use itemsize

x.itemsize

Output:

16Each element takes 16 bytes.

Indexing and Slicing in PythonExample:

## Slice import numpy as np e = np.array([(1,2,3), (4,5,6)]) print(e) [[1 2 3] [4 5 6]]Remember with numpy the first array/column starts at 0.

## First column print('First row:', e[0]) ## Second col print('Second row:', e[1])Output:

First row: [1 2 3] Second row: [4 5 6]In Python, like many other languages,

The values before the comma stand for the rows

The value on the rights stands for the columns.

If you want to select a column, you need to add : before the column index.

: means you want all the rows from the selected column.

print('Second column:', e[:,1]) Second column: [2 5]To return the first two values of the second row. You use : to select all columns up to the second

## Second Row, two values print(e[1, :2]) [4 5] Statistical Functions in PythonNumPy has quite a few useful statistical functions for finding minimum, maximum, percentile standard deviation and variance, etc from the given elements in the array. The functions are explained as follows −

Numpy is equipped with the robust statistical function as listed below

Function Numpy

Min np.min()

Max np.max()

Mean np.mean()

Median np.median()

Standard deviation np.std()

Consider the following Array:

Example:

import numpy as np normal_array = np.random.normal(5, 0.5, 10) print(normal_array)Output:

[5.56171852 4.84233558 4.65392767 4.946659 4.85165567 5.61211317 4.46704244 5.22675736 4.49888936 4.68731125]Example of NumPy Statistical function

### Min print(np.min(normal_array)) ### Max print(np.max(normal_array)) ### Mean print(np.mean(normal_array)) ### Median print(np.median(normal_array)) ### Sd print(np.std(normal_array))Output:

4.467042435266913 5.612113171990201 4.934841002270593 4.846995625786663 0.3875019367395316 What is numpy dot product?Numpy.dot product is a powerful library for matrix computation. For instance, you can compute the dot product with chúng tôi chúng tôi product is the dot product of a and b. numpy.dot() in Python handles the 2D arrays and perform matrix multiplications.

Syntax:

numpy.dot(x, y, out=None)Parameters

Here,

x,y: Input arrays. x and y both should be 1-D or 2-D for the np.dot() function to work

out: This is the output argument for 1-D array scalar to be returned. Otherwise ndarray should be returned.

Returns

The function numpy.dot() in Python returns a Dot product of two arrays x and y. The dot() function returns a scalar if both x and y are 1-D; otherwise, it returns an array. If ‘out’ is given then it is returned.

Raises

Dot product in Python raises a ValueError exception if the last dimension of x does not have the same size as the second last dimension of y.

Example:

## Linear algebra ### Dot product: product of two arrays f = np.array([1,2]) g = np.array([4,5]) ### 1*4+2*5 np.dot(f, g)Output:

14 Matrix Multiplication in PythonThe Numpy matmul() function is used to return the matrix product of 2 arrays. Here is how it works

1) 2-D arrays, it returns normal product

3) 1-D array is first promoted to a matrix, and then the product is calculated

Syntax:

numpy.matmul(x, y, out=None)Here,

x,y: Input arrays. scalars not allowed

out: This is optional parameter. Usually output is stored in ndarray

Example:

In the same way, you can compute matrices multiplication with np.matmul

### Matmul: matruc product of two arrays h = [[1,2],[3,4]] i = [[5,6],[7,8]] ### 1*5+2*7 = 19 np.matmul(h, i)Output:

array([[19, 22], [43, 50]]) DeterminantLast but not least, if you need to compute the determinant, you can use np.linalg.det(). Note that numpy takes care of the dimension.

Example:

## Determinant 2*2 matrix ### 5*8-7*6np.linalg.det(i)Output:

-2.000000000000005 Summary

NumPy is an open source library available in Python, which helps in mathematical, scientific, engineering, and data science programming.

numpy.zeros() or np.zeros Python function is used to create a matrix full of zeroes.

numpy.ones() in Python can be used when you initialize the weights during the first iteration in TensorFlow and other statistic tasks.

Python NumPy Reshape function is used to shape an array without changing its data.

Python NumPy Flatten function is used to return a copy of the array in one-dimension.

Numpy.hstack is a function in Python that is used to horizontally stack sequences of input arrays in order to make a single array.

Numpy.vstack is a function in Python which is used to vertically stack sequences of input arrays in order to make a single array.

numpy.arange() is an inbuilt numpy function that returns an ndarray object containing evenly spaced values within a defined interval.

Numpy.dot product is a powerful library for matrix computation.

The Numpy matmul() function is used to return the matrix product of 2 arrays.

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