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Introduction to Ansible Variables

In Ansible, variables play a very important role, as these are the reference points which your playbooks will refer to contain data. This is like any programming language. Also, in most ways’ variable behaves the same in Ansible as in some other programming language. In Ansible, variables can be defined at various places and in many ways. Variables have specifications also like valid name, defining variables, calling a variable, Ansible special variable, array of variable and importing from another file. We will try to explore a few of these in this article.

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Variables in Ansible

First, we need to understand what valid names for a variable in Ansible are. So, for this you must remember below:

Variable name must start with a

Variable name should contain characters, numbers or underscore

Some of the valid variable names are like abc1,

Some of the invalid variable names are like abc-1, abc%1, 12, abc xyz, xyz

Now, Let’s discuss the ways to define variables in Ansible. In Ansible, Variables can be defined in the following places: –

1. Inventory file

[host_list] test2     ansible_connection=ssh        ansible_user=my_user1

Also, you can try to define variables for the whole group like below: –

[Host_List] [Host_List:vars]

2. Playbook

In Playbooks, you can define variables which are referred in same playbook’s tasks. The position of defined variables also decides the scope of variables.

Take a simple like below: –

http_port: 80

http_port: 8080

3. Imported files and Roles

In production environments, you will be dealing with this, as using roles is more organized and In role structure, you can define your variable in a file and include in playbook.

Now take an example, where you have a variable file named as var_name.yaml with the below contents.

name1: test1

We can include this file in a playbook and use the variable name1 as below

– debug: msg=”My name is {{ name1 }}”

4. Variables passed on command line

Variables can also be passed on command line like below using — extra-vars argument or -e in key=value format and variable separated by space.

ansible-playbook chúng tôi --extra-vars "one_var=test1 other_var=test2"

Also note that all values passed in above way will be treated as strings. If you have some values in Integer, Booleans etc. then better way is to define these in JSON format, like below:

Adding to above, if you have a JSON or YAML file then also you can import it in your playbook like below during run time.

ansible-playbook chúng tôi --extra-vars "@file1.json"

5. Variables via Jinja2 templates

Once you have your variables defined you can use them in a playbook using Jinja2 templating system. Jinja2 provides many filter which you can use along with variable to get more tasks done on Control server end, So that Hosts not need to send unwanted information one end to another.

Like see below filter and variable use, where the variable test_var have will be passed and if no value is given to it a default value equal to 9 will be assigned to it.

Similarly, when passing the value of a variable is mandatory

In above locations, you can mention user defined variables. So now let’s discuss about the type of variable in Ansible: –

6. User Defined Variables

The variables which you define in your playbooks simply in key-value pair. These can be any value which is going to be used in your

An example is below, here we defined a variable colour and then used it later in a task simply where command module is running a command.

7. System Facts

These are the default variables in which Ansible Control Server stores information after discovering from nodes. By default, ansible_facts contain all the information in JSON format after setup runs to gather a lot of information in the form of facts from remote nodes. Then you can use this information like below variable in your plays.

{{ ansible_facts[‘nodename’] }}

8. Registered Variables

These are the variables in which the output of your task will be stored on Ansible Control Server. In simple word, when you want to run a command on remote computer and then store the output in a variable and use a piece of information from the output later in your plays. This kind of usage is possible by registered variables.

In fact, it is somehow like the system Facts which are discovered and fetched by setup module. Here whatever command you run its output will be saved in JSON format and then you use that information as same as you used facts.

var: apache_status

The JSON output will have fields like stdout, stdin, changed, rc etc. Using these fields we can get use a specific value, like below, where a variable apache_status[‘stdout_lines’] contains a specific piece of information that gives only service status.


9. Special Variable

These are the variables which is default to the system and can not be set by the user directly. But these will contain the data related to System’s internal state like version, forks, connection method etc. Some examples of these variables are inventory_file, inventory_dir, ansible_connection, ansible_host,


Using Ansible variables efficiently makes you easily work with loops, in multi hosts environments, multi connection type scenarios and many more setups where the hard coding a value is adding more difficulties. Understanding variables and usage is very important and you can learn more about the Ansible variables concept from Ansible community documentation.

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A Quick Glance Of Backward Integration

Introduction to Backward Integration

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For a garments manufacturer, integrating with a cotton-producing company or one of its raw material suppliers is a form of backward integration. This is done to reduce the inefficiency and dependence on another company and also to reduce costs of acquiring the raw material because this does away with the margin on raw material imposed by the third party suppliers.

At times it is also known as the vendor integration program when the integration is related mostly to vendors. It is not the same as horizontal or lateral integration in which the integration takes place among two or more competitors. It is a form of Vertical integration, which involves integration up the supply chain.

Example of Backward Integration

This can go as long back as the 1920s when most car manufacturers implemented such an approach by integrating with companies that produced tires and spare parts to become the largest producers in the market.

One of the more recent examples of the same is Mcdonald’s. Mcdonald’s is said to be one of the most famous players in the backward integration domain. They have their own meat-producing units for the use of meat in their burgers and other products. Apart from this, they own several other ingredients in self-owned factories.

Apart from this, Mcdonald’s also owns a fleet of trucks to transport the ingredients to the restaurants where they are used as inputs to produce the products offered to consumers. This ownership of transportation is another form of backward integration because it further reduces third party involvement.

Importance of Backward Integration

Below are the importance:

Positive differentiation: When the company can control all the predecessors in the supply chain, it becomes a differentiated company in the market. The consumers prefer such an organization because they don’t have to wait for a long feedback trail to convey their grievances, the consumers feel attended to with such an organization.

Better inventory management: As the market’s tastes and preferences keep changing, the production team can quickly impact the movement of raw material as the suppliers are under in house control and therefore prevent capital blocking in unwanted raw material and thereby control the inventory from piling up.

Difference between Backward Integration & Forward Integration

Meaning: Forward integration involves the integration of the supply chain after the products produced by a company. While backward integration is the integration of the supply chain before the products produced by the company.

Goal: The goal of backward integration is to reduce cost and create economies of scale while the goal of forwarding integration is to increase the market share of the products. Therefore if no such benefit is being achieved, then the plan for the integration process is dropped.


Technology gain: When the companies integrate they acquire the in house technology of each other and therefore they gain on the same. Later they may create newer lines of businesses by making such technology open to the market.

Confidentiality: When most of the supply chain is integrated, the chances of the leak of information such as trade secrets and so on are very low. Therefore, a high level of confidentiality is maintained.

Higher fixed Investment: The investment required for such integration is huge and therefore it is not always an option for all companies and therefore it is a niche option that can be availed only by companies of big stature.

Complacency: Due to lack of competition among the suppliers, the vendors may become highly complacent to improve the quality of the products they produce due to the level of security they achieve.

Time-consuming: The process is not very fast and therefore a lot of working hours go into implementing integration and bringing it to a level where it runs efficiently and independently. This is a tedious task.


Therefore we now know that backward integration is a form of vertical integration in which we integrate the supply chain elements before the current product of the company. It might have some good effects and some bad ones. It can reduce costs due to the reduction of margins, reduce dependence on outside parties, and create a cocoon of confidentiality.

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See 24,000 Years Of Climate History At A Glance

It shouldn’t come as a surprise that Earth hasn’t been this hot in a very long time, and, unfortunately, is on track to get hotter. Now, a map of global climate going back 24,000 years recently published in Nature allows us to see those changes over this time period, mapped out across the planet.

“This is the first time that you can really go through and get a very personal view of climate evolution at a spot that’s meaningful to you,” says Matthew Osman, a climatologist at the University of Arizona, and the study’s lead author. “I hope what this does is help ingrain a sense of just how severe climate change is today.”

24,000 years of climate history in New York City, Los Angeles, and Houston. Courtesy Matthew Osman

The map is built by comparing sediment cores, which contain a record of temperatures over thousands of years, with historical climate models. Think of it like trying to reconstruct a game of pool, if all you can see are which balls landed in which pockets, and in what order. Each core only shows how the weather changed at a certain location. But researchers can use them to tweak a global model—essentially a time-lapse of the planet’s climate—until it shows a picture that matches the real-world temperature records.

Courtesy Matthew Osman

“[The finding] represents a fundamental reassessment of our understanding of climate change over the past 20,000 years,” writes Zeke Hausfather, a climate scientist with the Breakthrough Institute, on Twitter. “It now seems much clearer [that] current warming is unprecedented since at least before the last ice age.”

This new picture of how the planet has changed also gives climatologists a better view of how regional climate systems interact. “Everything is intimately coupled,” says Osman. “If you change the winds over, for example, China, that’s gonna have rippling effects on precipitation over North America. And so what a model does is it allows us to start to pick apart that coupling in a way that makes physical sense.”

The research also mirrors results from a paper published earlier this year that solved a longstanding problem in climate modeling. Although carbon levels rose consistently after the glaciers retreated, sediment cores appeared to show a cooling planet, a fact that climate skeptics latched onto. The previous research found that the apparent cooling was actually an illusion caused by too many sediment cores from the Northern Hemisphere and not enough from other pockets of the world, leading to an inaccurate picture. The work also found that if anything, the planet was much colder during the glaciation than previously thought.

[Related: Not convinced that humans are causing climate change? Here are the facts.]

The new map is built with an entirely different technique but finds the same story—when glaciers covered the Northern Hemisphere, the climate was 10 degrees Fahrenheit colder than it is now. It’s been warming ever since, with two rapid bursts about 18,000 years ago and 12,000 years ago.

Warming of 2 to 3 degrees would mean “essentially a large fraction of these interglacial changes occurring in a really, really short amount of time,” says Osman. “And that should be something that I think concerns everybody,” from individuals to entire countries.

Policies outlined in the Paris Climate Accord would limit warming to 2.7 degrees above pre-industrial levels, although most countries haven’t followed through on those commitments. According to the new research, that would be comparable to the warming that took place between roughly 12,000 and 200 years ago. The planetary change that accompanied that warming is mind-boggling: 12,000 years ago, most of North America was 36 degrees colder than it is today, largely because of the retreating ice sheets.

The planet warmed more than 2 degrees between 12,000 years ago and about 1900, and carbon emissions are on track to warm it the same amount in a matter of decades. Courtesy Matthew Osman

“These are huge, huge, natural changes that are occurring,” Osman says of this period, “where we’re fundamentally shifting the state of the climate system from an ice age into the world that each of us knows today.” We don’t want to find out what would accompany another 2.7 degrees.

A Different Kind Of Texas Candidate

A Different Kind of Texas Candidate Gina Ortiz Jones (CAS’03, GRS’03) is running for office because of Trump

Gina Ortiz Jones (CAS’03, GRS’03) is trying to turn a US House of Representatives seat blue in the reddest of red states: Texas. Photo by Ana Isabel

If Gina Ortiz Jones beats the Republican incumbent to win the US House of Representative seat in the Texas 23rd district this November, she will be the first woman to represent her district. She will also be the first Filipina American and the first lesbian to hold a US House seat from Texas. The Democrat and former Air Force intelligence officer might also be part of the so-called Blue Wave to tip the balance of power in Washington, D.C., against President Donald Trump.

In fact, it was Trump’s 2023 election, which Jones (CAS’03, GRS’03) calls a “gut check,” that persuaded her to quit her job at the Office of the United States Trade Representative and return home to San Antonio to start her campaign. She won the Democratic primary in March and a runoff in May and will face two-term Republican Representative Will Hurd, a former CIA agent, in the 2023 midterm election.

Ortiz Jones graduated from BU with a bachelor’s degree in East Asian studies and a master’s degree in economics. She served with Air Force intelligence in Iraq and elsewhere from 2003 to 2006, and in a variety of other intelligence positions before joining the trade office in 2023.

Her district, which stretches from San Antonio to the outskirts of El Paso in southwest Texas, traditionally leans Republican, but the seat has been swapped back and forth between the parties for a decade. Trump’s stance on immigration—including separating children of asylum-seekers from their parents—should help Ortiz Jones with the more than two-thirds of voters who identify as Hispanic.

“This is a district that very much mirrors the challenges and opportunities we face as a country,” she says. “It’s a majority-minority district, something the whole country will be by 2040. We talk about the Wall and immigration policy because 40 percent of the US-Mexico border is in this district. A lot of the issues being discussed nationally are playing out in this district.”

Bostonia spoke with Ortiz Jones last week about her Congressional race and some of the issues confronting voters.

Bostonia: Is the United States a country in crisis?

Ortiz Jones: It depends who you talk to. There are some legal experts who would argue we are in a constitutional crisis. I think the election was such a significant emotional event for me because I’ve seen what it looks like in other countries when women and minorities are targeted. I’ve seen what it looks like when a government disregards conflict of interest, and hollows out the middle class, and ultimately their democracy. I’ve also seen what happens when good people don’t stand up and fight back. I am trying to respond by seeking public service again.

How do you respond to things like the separation of immigrant families?

It’s egregious. The pictures we’ve seen! With 40 percent of the border in the district, I think we see this issue just a little bit differently than the rest of the country. But frankly, as Americans, we all know that seeing a young child, a toddler, crying as they’re being held in a cage like an animal—that’s not the right thing to do. It’s so far from American, it’s unbelievable. It’s atrocious. I think we need leaders who are going to speak up and not be silent when this is happening. I look forward to doing that.

I think I also see it differently as a first-generation American myself. My country is special. There are not a lot of other countries where the daughter of someone who came to the country as a domestic helper can run for Congress. That doesn’t just happen. It happens because this country has historically understood that immigrants are the lifeblood of our country, and I think we need representatives who recognize that. When you look back, not only are compassionate immigration policies the right thing to do, but they make economic sense.

You have both intelligence experience and international trade experience. What did you think of Trump’s summit with Kim Jong Un?

It’s concerning on a number of levels. Is it historic that the two met? Yes. But we have no idea what they talked about. It sure does look like a wonderful photo opportunity and not a lot of substance. And what’s not lost on me is that we validated a dictator, someone with a known record of attacking his own people, someone who sent back an American who was tortured and in awful physical shape and died shortly thereafter.

But I don’t only think of the North Korea deal, but of what President Trump did before that at the G7 summit. Frankly, the way he’s treated our allies is just unbelievable. It shows what happens when you don’t know our history, don’t care about our history. We need members of Congress who are going to be a check on these things.

Given your service in intelligence in the Middle East, where do you stand on “enhanced interrogations” and waterboarding, things Trump is talking about bringing back?

Look, torture is against our values and has no place in our national security. That’s how I feel about that.

You came to BU on an ROTC scholarship, so you were bound by the “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy in the military at that time. That meant keeping secrets?

It was actually a very deep secret. I could not be as open as I would have liked, because I needed that scholarship to stay at BU. I knew what I had to do. And when I served in the Air Force, that policy applied to me too. If someone is ready and willing to serve their country, there shouldn’t be any policies—especially policies rooted in bigotry—that would prevent that.

When I think of national security, I don’t just think of Iraq, China, Russia—I think of the pipeline of talent into national security. I don’t think we think about that nearly enough. I think it’s outrageous that someone like President Trump, who’s never served a day in uniform, or anyone else in his administration is intent on crafting these policies that strip away rights from the LGBT community, including serving in our military. I think it’s just egregious, and I look forward to ensuring that it doesn’t happen.

We think of Texas as the reddest of red states. Has it been difficult campaigning there?

I must say Texas can at times get a bad rap. There’s a lot of opportunity here. I am the product of Texas just as much as some of the other people you hear about. We won our primary. I know that being a first-generation American lesbian veteran running for office in Texas is challenging some assumptions, but look, that’s the real Texas. There’s a fierce independence about every Texan. We’re a great state, and I’m looking forward to changing our representation so it reflects that.

Growing up with your mother and sister, was the social safety net important to you?

I know exactly where I came from and how I got here. For a time it was quite difficult, as my mother was working to get back into education, which is what she was trained in academically. There were times when she worked several jobs, and it was hard to make ends meet. Reduced-price school lunch, subsidized housing—I don’t see these as handouts, I see them as critical investments. Those were investments by my country and my community, and I went on to serve my country in and out of uniform for 14 years, and now I’m looking to preserve those opportunities for someone else. That’s why the election was such a gut check—I know exactly how I got here, and I didn’t do it by myself.

This interview has been edited and condensed for clarity.

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Different Steps Of Coreldraw Fonts

Introduction to CorelDRAW fonts

In this article, we are going to learn how to use CorelDRAW fonts. We will be using Corel Font Manager, which is installed with the CorelDRAW graphics suite. It is available on both Windows and Mac platforms, and it also works in the same way. Corel Font Manager is an application that works with CorelDRAW and photo paint to search, filter, and organize fonts and includes various font-related features. It helps to keep the workflow streamlined with its font management features. It is one place for all the fonts and no more sorting through thousands of fonts to find the one you need.

Steps of CorelDRAW fonts

The following steps are mention below:

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Step #1

First, let’s see how the font list can also be accessed from the main CorelDraw application while using the text tool in the property bar. The current count of the font is shown. Some fonts are from windows, and the remaining are from the watched folders.

Step #2

Step #3

There is an option to even filter the fonts according to different criteria

Step #4

Step #5

After opening, we can see the number of fonts at the bottom, which matches the font list in Corel draw. But when we use this standalone application, we get much more information about the font themselves.

Step #6

Enable the show font properties from the toolbar, which will give us more information about the fonts.

Step #7

By default, you will get the glyph preview when you select any font in the preview pane. We will look at glyph later in detail.

Step #8

Step #9

There is an option at the bottom to adjust the font preview size and adjust the size of the glyphs.

Step #10

The green bar on the right indicates that the fonts are installed.

Step #11

Protected System Font is also shown by a green bar but with a lock icon.

Step #12

Fonts which are available in CorelDraw only and are not installed are shown with a yellow bar.

Step #13

Filters can be applied if you want to see a specific type of fonts from the libraries pane.

Step #14

Step #15

Step #16

If the header of the font is Gray in color, then the family contains both installed and non installed fonts.

Step #17

Step #18

Step #19

Step #20

You can enter sample text to see how the font looks than the rather default font name. Clearing the sample text field will give the default font name preview.

Step #21

A specific font name can also be searched from the search field.

Step #22

The letters on the side indicate the type of font. T indicates true type font, and O indicated open type font.

Step #23

When a font is selected, we get the glyph preview on the properties panel, and there are various filters. The filters are divided into categories like common, scripts, OpenType if the font is of that type.

Step #24

In the library panel, some folders contain fonts. If you want to add a folder, you can browse to the folder to add those fonts.

Step #25

As we can see, we have added a folder with the fonts using either the file menu or from the toolbar.

Step #26

Step #27

Step #28

Step #29

Then let’s add a collection from the toolbar or the file menu. We have added a collection called scripts.

Step #30

Step #31

Step #32

Then there are various filters for the fonts, which include font status, embedding rights, font technology, weight, width, style, character range, and OpenType

Step #33

Then there is some user interface customization from the settings icon on the top right, like changing the theme from light, medium, dark, black. Also, the windows border color can be tweaked. The size of the window can be changed to scale according to the display.

Step #34

Back in the main CorelDraw application, we can find the folder we have created and the script collection.


In this article, we have seen how Corel font manager works in the CorelDRAW graphics suite ecosystem. We have seen how to manage fonts and organize them to understand the system fonts and the installed fonts, and the fonts that are only available in the CorelDRAW application. Apart from that, we have looked at filters, collections, and glyph.

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Different Types Of Economic Utility

Definition of Economic Utility

Economic Utility is the total satisfaction a consumer derives from consuming a product. In other words, it is the satisfying power of any good or commodity. For example, Mr. Vivek can go to his workplace by cycling or by car. He prefers cycling as he derives greater utility (both health-wise and cost-saving) from it.

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In the above example, the utility is not measured in numbers. When numbers come in to measure utility, we mostly use them to compare products.

Therefore economic utility is totally psychology. The utility of a given product may be different for every person based on the demands of the person.

A consumer/buyer usually purchases a particular product when he will derive some benefit/benefit by using the product. He believes that the use or consumption of the purchased goodwill fulfills his want. Utility depends on consumer demand. A consumer’s demand/want will be fulfilled on the basis of the amount of utility fulfilled by the product.

Types of Economic Utility

An economic utility can be broadly divided into four main types:





We will now discuss each form of utility in detail:-

1. Form

A utility is created by changing its form. Form utility is the value that the customer sees in the finished product. Every company tries to increase its form utility as the finished product is more useful to the consumer than the raw materials used to make it.

Companies always try to understand and analyze the target market segment. This will help the company to figure out what kind of product they should make.

For example

A company may use wood to make finished products like cabinets which will add significant value for the customers and thus increase the form utility.

Wood logs converted to furniture.

Wood pulp is used to make finished products like paper which add significant value to the customer in everyday life.

2. Place

The physical location for the availability of the product increases the attractiveness of the good to the consumers. So the place utility has more to do with the physical location of the product’s availability and the distribution channels.

For examples

If goods are sold in stores close to the buyer’s home or office, it will be convenient and efficient for the buyer.

Goods in store increase the utility of place.

3. Time

The availability of products and services when the customer needs them. The customer wants a good or service depending on the season and the weather conditions.

For examples

During the rainy seasons, umbrellas are very important, and their demand also increases. During the winter, the demand for warm clothes increases. Time utility increases when the product is easily available when the customer needs it.

Companies are increasing the time utility even more with e-commerce’s coming up with one-day or same-day delivery services. In this way, time utility increases as the customer gets a product when he needs it the most.

4. Possession

If a product is useful for multiple purposes, the possession utility of the product increases. Like when we buy a product for one use but use it for multiple purposes.

For example

we can use a vase for keeping flowers, as an item for decoration, or to keep cutleries.

Vase is used to keep cutleries or flowers.

Can we measure Economic Utility?

Consumers buy a product for different kinds of reasons. The price a buyer is ready to pay is the worth of the product. No buyer will be ready to pay more than the derived utility from the product.

For example

If I buy a television for ₹ 25,000, I derive a utility equivalent to the value of ₹ 25,000. Similarly, if I buy furniture for ₹ 5,000, I will derive utility equivalent to the amount I pay.

But many economists have not agreed with the above statement by Prof Marshall because the utility is different for different people, and it is completely personal and psychological.

A brand of a television set might fulfill my demand, but the same brand X might not satisfy the need of another person.


Therefore economic utility is the total satisfaction or usefulness a consumer derives by consuming the good. In other words, economic utility is how the consumer perceives a given product to fulfill its demand. As discussed, there are four different types of utility: Form, Place, Time, and Possession.

Form utility is the value a consumer sees in the final product. Place utility makes a good or service more easily available to the target customers. Time utility provides easy availability of a good or service when customers need or want it. And lastly, possession utility describes the benefits available to the customers from owning the product.

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