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Introduction to Backward Integration

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For a garments manufacturer, integrating with a cotton-producing company or one of its raw material suppliers is a form of backward integration. This is done to reduce the inefficiency and dependence on another company and also to reduce costs of acquiring the raw material because this does away with the margin on raw material imposed by the third party suppliers.

At times it is also known as the vendor integration program when the integration is related mostly to vendors. It is not the same as horizontal or lateral integration in which the integration takes place among two or more competitors. It is a form of Vertical integration, which involves integration up the supply chain.

Example of Backward Integration

This can go as long back as the 1920s when most car manufacturers implemented such an approach by integrating with companies that produced tires and spare parts to become the largest producers in the market.

One of the more recent examples of the same is Mcdonald’s. Mcdonald’s is said to be one of the most famous players in the backward integration domain. They have their own meat-producing units for the use of meat in their burgers and other products. Apart from this, they own several other ingredients in self-owned factories.

Apart from this, Mcdonald’s also owns a fleet of trucks to transport the ingredients to the restaurants where they are used as inputs to produce the products offered to consumers. This ownership of transportation is another form of backward integration because it further reduces third party involvement.

Importance of Backward Integration

Below are the importance:

Positive differentiation: When the company can control all the predecessors in the supply chain, it becomes a differentiated company in the market. The consumers prefer such an organization because they don’t have to wait for a long feedback trail to convey their grievances, the consumers feel attended to with such an organization.

Better inventory management: As the market’s tastes and preferences keep changing, the production team can quickly impact the movement of raw material as the suppliers are under in house control and therefore prevent capital blocking in unwanted raw material and thereby control the inventory from piling up.

Difference between Backward Integration & Forward Integration

Meaning: Forward integration involves the integration of the supply chain after the products produced by a company. While backward integration is the integration of the supply chain before the products produced by the company.

Goal: The goal of backward integration is to reduce cost and create economies of scale while the goal of forwarding integration is to increase the market share of the products. Therefore if no such benefit is being achieved, then the plan for the integration process is dropped.


Technology gain: When the companies integrate they acquire the in house technology of each other and therefore they gain on the same. Later they may create newer lines of businesses by making such technology open to the market.

Confidentiality: When most of the supply chain is integrated, the chances of the leak of information such as trade secrets and so on are very low. Therefore, a high level of confidentiality is maintained.

Higher fixed Investment: The investment required for such integration is huge and therefore it is not always an option for all companies and therefore it is a niche option that can be availed only by companies of big stature.

Complacency: Due to lack of competition among the suppliers, the vendors may become highly complacent to improve the quality of the products they produce due to the level of security they achieve.

Time-consuming: The process is not very fast and therefore a lot of working hours go into implementing integration and bringing it to a level where it runs efficiently and independently. This is a tedious task.


Therefore we now know that backward integration is a form of vertical integration in which we integrate the supply chain elements before the current product of the company. It might have some good effects and some bad ones. It can reduce costs due to the reduction of margins, reduce dependence on outside parties, and create a cocoon of confidentiality.

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This is a guide to Backward Integration. Here we discuss an introduction to Backward Integration with explanation, examples and it’s importance. You can also go through our other related articles to learn more –

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A Quick Glance Of 9 Different Ansible Variables

Introduction to Ansible Variables

In Ansible, variables play a very important role, as these are the reference points which your playbooks will refer to contain data. This is like any programming language. Also, in most ways’ variable behaves the same in Ansible as in some other programming language. In Ansible, variables can be defined at various places and in many ways. Variables have specifications also like valid name, defining variables, calling a variable, Ansible special variable, array of variable and importing from another file. We will try to explore a few of these in this article.

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Variables in Ansible

First, we need to understand what valid names for a variable in Ansible are. So, for this you must remember below:

Variable name must start with a

Variable name should contain characters, numbers or underscore

Some of the valid variable names are like abc1,

Some of the invalid variable names are like abc-1, abc%1, 12, abc xyz, xyz

Now, Let’s discuss the ways to define variables in Ansible. In Ansible, Variables can be defined in the following places: –

1. Inventory file

[host_list] test2     ansible_connection=ssh        ansible_user=my_user1

Also, you can try to define variables for the whole group like below: –

[Host_List] [Host_List:vars]

2. Playbook

In Playbooks, you can define variables which are referred in same playbook’s tasks. The position of defined variables also decides the scope of variables.

Take a simple like below: –

http_port: 80

http_port: 8080

3. Imported files and Roles

In production environments, you will be dealing with this, as using roles is more organized and In role structure, you can define your variable in a file and include in playbook.

Now take an example, where you have a variable file named as var_name.yaml with the below contents.

name1: test1

We can include this file in a playbook and use the variable name1 as below

– debug: msg=”My name is {{ name1 }}”

4. Variables passed on command line

Variables can also be passed on command line like below using — extra-vars argument or -e in key=value format and variable separated by space.

ansible-playbook chúng tôi --extra-vars "one_var=test1 other_var=test2"

Also note that all values passed in above way will be treated as strings. If you have some values in Integer, Booleans etc. then better way is to define these in JSON format, like below:

Adding to above, if you have a JSON or YAML file then also you can import it in your playbook like below during run time.

ansible-playbook chúng tôi --extra-vars "@file1.json"

5. Variables via Jinja2 templates

Once you have your variables defined you can use them in a playbook using Jinja2 templating system. Jinja2 provides many filter which you can use along with variable to get more tasks done on Control server end, So that Hosts not need to send unwanted information one end to another.

Like see below filter and variable use, where the variable test_var have will be passed and if no value is given to it a default value equal to 9 will be assigned to it.

Similarly, when passing the value of a variable is mandatory

In above locations, you can mention user defined variables. So now let’s discuss about the type of variable in Ansible: –

6. User Defined Variables

The variables which you define in your playbooks simply in key-value pair. These can be any value which is going to be used in your

An example is below, here we defined a variable colour and then used it later in a task simply where command module is running a command.

7. System Facts

These are the default variables in which Ansible Control Server stores information after discovering from nodes. By default, ansible_facts contain all the information in JSON format after setup runs to gather a lot of information in the form of facts from remote nodes. Then you can use this information like below variable in your plays.

{{ ansible_facts[‘nodename’] }}

8. Registered Variables

These are the variables in which the output of your task will be stored on Ansible Control Server. In simple word, when you want to run a command on remote computer and then store the output in a variable and use a piece of information from the output later in your plays. This kind of usage is possible by registered variables.

In fact, it is somehow like the system Facts which are discovered and fetched by setup module. Here whatever command you run its output will be saved in JSON format and then you use that information as same as you used facts.

var: apache_status

The JSON output will have fields like stdout, stdin, changed, rc etc. Using these fields we can get use a specific value, like below, where a variable apache_status[‘stdout_lines’] contains a specific piece of information that gives only service status.


9. Special Variable

These are the variables which is default to the system and can not be set by the user directly. But these will contain the data related to System’s internal state like version, forks, connection method etc. Some examples of these variables are inventory_file, inventory_dir, ansible_connection, ansible_host,


Using Ansible variables efficiently makes you easily work with loops, in multi hosts environments, multi connection type scenarios and many more setups where the hard coding a value is adding more difficulties. Understanding variables and usage is very important and you can learn more about the Ansible variables concept from Ansible community documentation.

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This is a guide to Ansible Variables. Here we discuss the introduction to Ansible variables concept along with 9 different valid variables. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

See 24,000 Years Of Climate History At A Glance

It shouldn’t come as a surprise that Earth hasn’t been this hot in a very long time, and, unfortunately, is on track to get hotter. Now, a map of global climate going back 24,000 years recently published in Nature allows us to see those changes over this time period, mapped out across the planet.

“This is the first time that you can really go through and get a very personal view of climate evolution at a spot that’s meaningful to you,” says Matthew Osman, a climatologist at the University of Arizona, and the study’s lead author. “I hope what this does is help ingrain a sense of just how severe climate change is today.”

24,000 years of climate history in New York City, Los Angeles, and Houston. Courtesy Matthew Osman

The map is built by comparing sediment cores, which contain a record of temperatures over thousands of years, with historical climate models. Think of it like trying to reconstruct a game of pool, if all you can see are which balls landed in which pockets, and in what order. Each core only shows how the weather changed at a certain location. But researchers can use them to tweak a global model—essentially a time-lapse of the planet’s climate—until it shows a picture that matches the real-world temperature records.

Courtesy Matthew Osman

“[The finding] represents a fundamental reassessment of our understanding of climate change over the past 20,000 years,” writes Zeke Hausfather, a climate scientist with the Breakthrough Institute, on Twitter. “It now seems much clearer [that] current warming is unprecedented since at least before the last ice age.”

This new picture of how the planet has changed also gives climatologists a better view of how regional climate systems interact. “Everything is intimately coupled,” says Osman. “If you change the winds over, for example, China, that’s gonna have rippling effects on precipitation over North America. And so what a model does is it allows us to start to pick apart that coupling in a way that makes physical sense.”

The research also mirrors results from a paper published earlier this year that solved a longstanding problem in climate modeling. Although carbon levels rose consistently after the glaciers retreated, sediment cores appeared to show a cooling planet, a fact that climate skeptics latched onto. The previous research found that the apparent cooling was actually an illusion caused by too many sediment cores from the Northern Hemisphere and not enough from other pockets of the world, leading to an inaccurate picture. The work also found that if anything, the planet was much colder during the glaciation than previously thought.

[Related: Not convinced that humans are causing climate change? Here are the facts.]

The new map is built with an entirely different technique but finds the same story—when glaciers covered the Northern Hemisphere, the climate was 10 degrees Fahrenheit colder than it is now. It’s been warming ever since, with two rapid bursts about 18,000 years ago and 12,000 years ago.

Warming of 2 to 3 degrees would mean “essentially a large fraction of these interglacial changes occurring in a really, really short amount of time,” says Osman. “And that should be something that I think concerns everybody,” from individuals to entire countries.

Policies outlined in the Paris Climate Accord would limit warming to 2.7 degrees above pre-industrial levels, although most countries haven’t followed through on those commitments. According to the new research, that would be comparable to the warming that took place between roughly 12,000 and 200 years ago. The planetary change that accompanied that warming is mind-boggling: 12,000 years ago, most of North America was 36 degrees colder than it is today, largely because of the retreating ice sheets.

The planet warmed more than 2 degrees between 12,000 years ago and about 1900, and carbon emissions are on track to warm it the same amount in a matter of decades. Courtesy Matthew Osman

“These are huge, huge, natural changes that are occurring,” Osman says of this period, “where we’re fundamentally shifting the state of the climate system from an ice age into the world that each of us knows today.” We don’t want to find out what would accompany another 2.7 degrees.

What Is System Integration Testing (Sit) Example

What is System Integration Testing?

System Integration Testing is defined as a type of software testing carried out in an integrated hardware and software environment to verify the behavior of the complete system. It is testing conducted on a complete, integrated system to evaluate the system’s compliance with its specified requirement.

System Integration Testing (SIT) is performed to verify the interactions between the modules of a software system. It deals with the verification of the high and low-level software requirements specified in the Software Requirements Specification/Data and the Software Design Document. It also verifies a software system’s coexistence with others and tests the interface between modules of the software application. In this type of testing, modules are first tested individually and then combined to make a system. For Example, software and/or hardware components are combined and tested progressively until the entire system has been integrated.

Why do System Integration Testing?

It helps to detect Defect early

Earlier feedback on the acceptability of the individual module will be available

Scheduling of Defect fixes is flexible, and it can be overlapped with development

Correct data flow

Correct control flow

Correct timing

Correct memory usage

Correct with software requirements

How to do System Integration Testing

It’s a systematic technique for constructing the program structure while conducting tests to uncover errors associated with interfacing.

Correction of such errors is difficult because isolation causes is complicated by the vast expansion of the entire program. Once these errors are rectified and corrected, a new one will appear, and the process continues seamlessly in an endless loop. To avoid this situation, another approach is used, Incremental Integration. We will see more detail about an incremental approach later in the tutorial.

There are some incremental methods like the integration tests are conducted on a system based on the target processor. The methodology used is Black Box Testing. Either bottom-up or top-down integration can be used.

Test cases are defined using the high-level software requirements only.

Software integration may also be achieved largely in the host environment, with units specific to the target environment continuing to be simulated in the host. Repeating tests in the target environment for confirmation will again be necessary.

Confirmation tests at this level will identify environment-specific problems, such as errors in memory allocation and de-allocation. The practicality of conducting software integration in the host environment will depend on how much target specific functionality is there. For some embedded systems the coupling with the target environment will be very strong, making it impractical to conduct software integration in the host environment.

Large software developments will divide software integration into a number of levels. The lower levels of software integration could be based predominantly in the host environment,with later levels of software integration becoming more dependent on the target environment.

Note: If software only is being tested then it is called Software Software Integration Testing [SSIT] and if both hardware and software are being tested, then it is called Hardware Software Integration Testing [HSIT].

Entry and Exit Criteria for Integration Testing

Usually while performing Integration Testing, ETVX (Entry Criteria, Task, Validation, and Exit Criteria) strategy is used.

Entry Criteria:

Completion of Unit Testing


Software Requirements Data

Software Design Document

Software Verification Plan

Software Integration Documents


Based on the High and Low-level requirements create test cases and procedures

Combine low-level modules builds that implement a common functionality

Develop a test harness

Test the build

Once the test is passed, the build is combined with other builds and tested until the system is integrated as a whole.

Re-execute all the tests on the target processor-based platform, and obtain the results

Exit Criteria:

Successful completion of the integration of the Software module on the target Hardware

Correct performance of the software according to the requirements specified


Integration test reports

Software Test Cases and Procedures [SVCP].

Hardware Software Integration Testing

Hardware Software Integration Testing is a process of testing Computer Software Components (CSC) for high-level functionalities on the target hardware environment. The goal of hardware/software integration testing is to test the behavior of developed software integrated on the hardware component.

Requirement based Hardware-Software Integration Testing

The aim of requirements-based hardware/software integration testing is to make sure that the software in the target computer will satisfy the high-level requirements. Typical errors revealed by this testing method includes:

Hardware/software interfaces errors

Violations of software partitioning.

Inability to detect failures by built-in test

Incorrect response to hardware failures

Feedback loops incorrect behavior

Incorrect or improper control of memory management hardware

Data bus contention problem

Incorrect operation of mechanism to verify the compatibility and correctness of field loadable software

Hardware Software Integration deals with the verification of the high-level requirements. All tests at this level are conducted on the target hardware.

Black box testing is the primary testing methodology used at this level of testing.

Define test cases from the high-level requirements only

A test must be executed on production standard hardware (on target)

Things to consider when designing test cases for HW/SW Integration

Correct acquisition of all data by the software

Scaling and range of data as expected from hardware to software

Correct output of data from software to hardware

Data within specifications (normal range)

Data outside specifications (abnormal range)

Boundary data

Interrupts processing


Correct memory usage (addressing, overlaps, etc.)

State transitions

Note: For interrupt testing, all interrupts will be verified independently from initial request through full servicing and onto completion. Test cases will be specifically designed in order to adequately test interrupts.

Software to Software Integration Testing

It is the testing of the Computer Software Component operating within the host/target computer

Environment, while simulating the entire system [other CSC’s], and on the high-level functionality.

It focuses on the behavior of a CSC in a simulated host/target environment. The approach used for Software Integration can be an incremental approach ( top-down, a bottom-up approach or a combination of both).

Incremental Approach

Incremental testing is a way of integration testing. In this type of testing method, you first test each module of the software individually and then continue testing by appending other modules to it then another and so on.

Incremental integration is the contrast to the big bang approach. The program is constructed and tested in small segments, where errors are easier to isolate and correct. Interfaces are more likely to be tested completely, and a systematic test approach may be applied.

There are two types of Incremental testing

Top down approach

Bottom Up approach

Top-Down Approach

Starting with the main control module, the modules are integrated by moving downward through the control hierarchy

Sub-modules to the main control module are incorporated into the structure either in a breadth-first manner or depth-first manner.

Depth-first integration integrates all modules on a major control path of the structure as displayed in the following diagram:

The module integration process is done in the following manner:

The main control module is used as a test driver, and the stubs are substituted for all modules directly subordinate to the main control module.

The subordinate stubs are replaced one at a time with actual modules depending on the approach selected (breadth first or depth first).

Tests are executed as each module is integrated.

On completion of each set of tests, another stub is replaced with a real module on completion of each set of tests

To make sure that new errors have not been introduced Regression Testing may be performed.

The process continues from step2 until the entire program structure is built. The top-down strategy sounds relatively uncomplicated, but in practice, logistical problems arise.

The most common of these problems occur when processing at low levels in the hierarchy is required to adequately test upper levels.

Stubs replace low-level modules at the beginning of top-down testing and, therefore no significant data can flow upward in the program structure.

Challenges Tester might face:

Delay many tests until stubs are replaced with actual modules.

Develop stubs that perform limited functions that simulate the actual module.

Integrate the software from the bottom of the hierarchy upward.

Note: The first approach causes us to lose some control over correspondence between specific tests and incorporation of specific modules. This may result in difficulty determining the cause of errors which tends to violate the highly constrained nature of the top-down approach.

The second approach is workable but can lead to significant overhead, as stubs become increasingly complex.

Bottom-up Approach

Bottom-up integration begins construction and testing with modules at the lowest level in the program structure. In this process, the modules are integrated from the bottom to the top.

In this approach processing required for the modules subordinate to a given level is always available and the need for the stubs is eliminated.

This integration test process is performed in a series of four steps

Low-level modules are combined into clusters that perform a specific software sub-function.

A driver is written to coordinate test case input and output.

The cluster or build is tested.

Drivers are removed, and clusters are combined moving upward in the program structure.

As integration moves upward, the need for separate test drivers lessons. In fact, if the top two levels of program structure are integrated top-down, the number of drivers can be reduced substantially, and integration of clusters is greatly simplified. Integration follows the pattern illustrated below. As integration moves upward, the need for separate test drivers lessons.

Note: If the top two levels of program structure are integrated Top-down, the number of drivers can be reduced substantially, and the integration of builds is greatly simplified.

Big Bang Approach

In this approach, all modules are not integrated until and unless all the modules are ready. Once they are ready, all modules are integrated and then its executed to know whether all the integrated modules are working or not.

In this approach, it is difficult to know the root cause of the failure because of integrating everything at once.

Also, there will be a high chance of occurrence of the critical bugs in the production environment.

This approach is adopted only when integration testing has to be done at once.


Integration is performed to verify the interactions between the modules of a software system. It helps to detect defect early

Integration testing can be done for Hardware-Software or Hardware-Hardware Integration

Integration testing is done by two methods

Incremental approach

Big bang approach

While performing Integration Testing generally ETVX (Entry Criteria, Task, Validation, and Exit Criteria) strategy is used.

Configure A Vpn For Zonealarm With 5 Quick & Easy Steps

Configure a VPN for ZoneAlarm with 5 Quick & Easy Steps Setup your VPN to work well alongside ZoneAlarm for maximum security






To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool

Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:

Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

Fortect has been downloaded by


readers this month.

ZoneAlarm Firewall is comparable to Windows’ built-in firewall, but the former has more features than the latter. As a result, it draws the attention of many users who are seeking more elbow room in regards to configuration.

However, the fact that it offers a more extensive set of configurable rules also means it’s more complicated to operate. This goes especially for using several security tools along with ZoneAlarm Firewall, such as an antivirus or a VPN.

Doez ZoneAlarm have a VPN?

ZoneAlarm isn’t just a firewall, although this is the utility they’re probably best known for. ZoneAlarm has several security programs fit for almost every need on its belt, but unfortunately, a VPN isn’t one of them.

Currently, the only programs you can benefit from in the security bundle are the firewall, an anti-ransomware utility, and an antivirus.

It’s worth mentioning that each of them works great, and they work even better when you team them up.

Will a VPN work with ZoneAlarm?

Essentially and ideally, no firewall, including ZoneAlarm, should block VPN traffic. However, in reality, things are quite different. By default, ZoneAlarm offers you the possibility to configure VPNs automatically.

As a result, you’ll need to undo the settings and make sure every VPN-related component is outside the blacklist and can access the Internet without restrictions.

Therefore, to answer the original question: yes, VPNs usually work with ZoneAlarm, if you don’t explicitly block them.

How to configure a VPN with ZoneAlarm 1. Use automatic VPN configuration

As we’ve mentioned above, ZoneAlarm integrates automatic VPN recognition features. As a result, you can install the VPN client on your computer as usual, without giving a thought to the firewall.

The next time you’ll establish a VPN connection, ZoneAlarm might promptly notify you with an alert. However, you must understand that these alerts are usually normal whenever a new connection is detected.

And since connecting to a VPN server is deemed as a new connection, we’ll let you do the math.

2. Perform manual configuration for your VPN

There are a few cases where ZoneAlarm doesn’t detect your VPN connection automatically. Therefore, you’ll need to configure your VPN manually so the firewall won’t block it on the spot.

Don’t worry, though, ZoneAlarm has a habit of letting you know whenever manual assistance is required. Usually, manual configuration only requires 4 steps:

Adding VPN resources such as the gateway, DNS servers, and local subnets to the Trusted Zone

Removing VPN gateways from blocked subnets or ranges

Modify ZoneAlarm settings to allow VPN protocols

Allow VPN software to run on your computer (under ZoneAlarm firewall)

3. Make sure your VPN protocols are supported

Once you’re here, check the Allow VPN protocols box to make ZoneAlarm accept common VPN protocols. Currently, ZoneAlarm only provides support for a few protocols. Namely:


If your VPN runs on a protocol other than the ones we’ve listed above, you will need to perform additional configuration.

Head back to the same menu as above, and make sure the Allow uncommon protocols at high security box is checked.

4. How to allow VPN software in ZoneAlarm

Make sure your programs is on the list, in the first place, otherwise you won’t be able to modify any inbound and outbound traffic settings. If your VPN isn’t on the list, you can use the Add button to insert it manually.

5. Grant permission to VPN components

Note that VPN-related settings might not be available in the free version of the firewall.

Is ZoneAlarm free version safe to use?

If you’re using the free version of ZoneAlarm Security, you’ll have absolutely no issue using a VPN on your computer. The free version has no VPN configuration options, but it still prompts you with some notifications.

We’ve used ExpressVPN during our tests, and we encountered absolutely zero issues while using it with the free version of ZoneAlarm Security.

You’ll notice that ZoneAlarm will ask you a bunch of times if you want to allow or block the VPN client, service, and daemon. If you use the notifications to allow your VPN client, everything should be a-ok.


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Yes, VPN can work with ZoneAlarm

All things considered, if you’re worried about compatibility issues between your VPN service and ZoneAlarm, you can rest assured.

ZoneAlarm Security has several VPN configuration options, and most of them are set to run automatically, so if you have a ZoneAlarm VPN problem, check your configuration.

Even if you’ve tampered with the firewall’s settings, creating rules to allow VPN traffic and whitelisting the VPN software on your computer couldn’t be easier.

Furthermore, ZoneAlarm supports numerous common VPN protocols such as PPTP, IPsec, L2TP, and OpenVPN, but also provides support for less-common ones.

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Quick Image Editing With Gwenview

When you think of editing images and other digital graphics on Linux, your first thought may be of GIMP, which is an excellent all-around graphics program. But when it comes to doing quick image editing for my posts here at Make Tech Easier, my tool of choice is Gwenview, the default KDE image viewer. That’s right; it’s primarily a viewer but has some convenient editing functions. The following is a tutorial for using these functions.


Firstly, if you’re not using Kubuntu, you can install Gwenview from the Software Centre, or with the following command:


apt-get install


It will then appear in the “Graphics” application sub-menu. You can also search for it from the Dash.


I use Gwenview in order to prepare screenshots for posting here on MTE, and I’m able to do each one in about fifteen seconds. I use the keyboard shortcuts whenever possible. For each screenshot, I usually have to crop out unnecessary parts of the image and reduce the width to an appropriate size.

Find an image you’d like to edit in your file manager of choice, and use the “Open with…” option to view it in Gwenview. Before we get to the quick image editing, take note of the left and right arrows in the toolbar. You can use these to cycle through all the image files in the same directory as the file you selected to open (you can also use the Space key to go forward and the Backspace key to go backward through the images). I’ll typically take all the screenshots as I’m preparing an article, but cycle through and adjust them all at the end right before uploading.

The first step is to crop the image. A “Shift + C” keypress displays the crop guidelines shown below. Grab each one as appropriate and place it to outline the area you’d like the crop to.

An “Alt + C” keypress will actually crop the image.

To resize “Shift + R” is the key combo you want to display the resize dialog. The width field is highlighted by default. enter the appropriate width and height as needed.

Once the cropping and/or resizing is done, a “Ctrl + S” will save over the original image, or “Alt + F, A” combo will allow you to “Save As.”

Alternate Tools

Gwenview can’t draw anything on the screen, such as annotations or call-outs. Use Kolourpaint for this – the combo “Alt + F, W, K” will open the current image in this application.

You also won’t be able to do anything involving layers, but you can open the currently-viewed image in Krita with “Alt + F, W, R” for more sophisticated editing.

Gwenview is a very light and quick image viewer, but some of the rudimentary editing functions allow you to do some quick image editing on a whole folder of images. By the way, I used Gwenview to prepare (crop and resize) the six graphics above in this article – the process took me one minute and twenty-seven seconds.

Image credit: By Torax (Own work) via Wikimedia Commons

Aaron Peters

Aaron is an interactive business analyst, information architect, and project manager who has been using Linux since the days of Caldera. A KDE and Android fanboy, he’ll sit down and install anything at any time, just to see if he can make it work. He has a special interest in integration of Linux desktops with other systems, such as Android, small business applications and webapps, and even paper.

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