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Tom Patterson became ill in 2023 while vacationing in Egypt. He was felled by Acinetobacter baumannii, an often deadly bacterium resistant to every antibiotic his doctors tried. Patterson, a University of California San Diego psychiatry professor, should have died, but didn’t. (Experimental infusions of bacteria-killing viruses known as bacteriophages ultimately saved his life.) But his near-death experience from a superbug he picked up in a warm country — an organism that also has afflicted many hospitalized wounded troops in Iraq and Kuwait — raises provocative questions about drug-resistant bacteria and their relationship to our increasingly hotter planet. “Travelers returning from tropical and other warm areas where multi-drug resistant pathogens have become more widespread will increasingly challenge the antibiotics on our shelves,” said Robert T. Schooley, an infectious diseases specialist at UC San Diego, who treated Patterson. “Turning up the temperature of the incubator in which we live will clearly speed the evolutionary clock of bacterial and other pathogens with which we must co-exist.” Experts already know that climate change has become a significant threat to global public health, particularly as rising temperatures have produced greater populations of disease-transmitting insects, such as mosquitoes. But warmth also encourages bacteria to grow, providing them a chance to mutate and elude drugs that once easily killed them. While antibiotic resistance is believed largely due to the indiscriminate prescribing of antibiotics, experts now think that other environmental stresses — climate change among them — also may be at work.
The world is confronting a growing and frightening danger from multi-drug-resistant infections, with many now difficult or impossible to treat. The World Health Organization has described this scenario as “one of the biggest threats to global health, food security, and development today.” There are more than two million cases and 23,000 deaths from antibiotic-resistant infections annually in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
A recent study published in Nature Climate Change suggests that a link between climate change and bacterial resistance exists right here in the United States, particularly in its southern regions. Epidemiologists from Boston Children’s Hospital and the University of Toronto found that higher local temperatures and population densities correlated to a greater level of antibiotic resistance among a number of common bacterial strains.
A representation of antibiotic resistance caused by climate change. Fawn Gracey/Boston Children’s Hospital
“Most work to date on the effects of climate on infectious diseases have focused on vector-borne and diarrheal diseases,” said Derek MacFadden, a research fellow at Boston Children’s Hospital and the study’s lead author. “However, our work suggests that climate may have an impact on antibiotic resistance in bacteria. If this is the case, then our expectations on how the burden of antibiotic resistance will change over time would need to consider climate — and may be underestimates.”
For their study, the researchers assembled a large database of U.S. antibiotic resistance information related to E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and S. aureus from a variety of sources, including hospital, laboratory and disease surveillance collected between 2013 and 2023. Their database totaled more than 1.6 million bacteria from 602 records in 223 facilities and 41 states — samples all isolated from people with resistant infections.
They then compared their data to latitude coordinates, as well as to mean and median local temperatures, and found that higher local average minimum temperatures correlated the most with antibiotic resistance. Local average minimum temperature increases of 10 degrees Celsius were linked to surges of 4.2, 2.2, and 3.6 percent in resistant strains of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and S. aureus respectively, according to the study.
Finally, they also found that an increase of 10,000 people per square mile was related to 3 and 6 percent respective increases in resistance in E. coli and K. pneumoniae, indicating that population density also likely plays a role.
“Population growth and increases in temperature and antibiotic resistance are three phenomena that we know are currently happening on our planet,” said Mauricio Santillana, the study’s co-senior author and faculty member at Boston Children’s computational health informatics program. “But until now, hypotheses about how these phenomena relate to each other have been sparse. We need to continue bringing multidisciplinary teams together to study antibiotic resistance in comparison to the backdrop of population and environmental changes.”
The rising global surface temperature shows an increase of approximately 1.4°F since the early 20th century. NOAA
The study also found higher rates of antibiotic prescriptions across geographic regions in areas with increases in bacterial resistance.
While the study suggests the brunt of problem is occurring in the South, MacFadden warned that no part of the country was safe. “If temperature is playing a role, then the effects could be felt everywhere, typically in regions with the greatest potential changes in temperature over time as you move toward the poles,” he said.
UC San Diego’s Schooley — who was not involved in the study — said any number of biological factors likely are involved. “With warmer temperatures, environmental populations of bacteria might increase in size, the horizontal transmission of bacterial resistance genes might increase, and interactions with animal populations — from a health perspective — might also evolve,” he said.
Still, he added: “A 10-degree change in minimum temperature is a relatively big change in climate since they are talking about a 6-degree change in mean global temperature by the end of the century. Nonetheless, this is yet more food for thought about why those who trivialize the potential impact of climate change are putting the planet at risk.”
The study authors called for additional research. “We have found associations, and more work is needed to identify the consistency of these findings across regions and possible mechanisms,” MacFadden said.
John Brownstein, the other senior co-author and director of Boston Children’s computational epidemiology group, pointed out that public health estimates already predict a perilous escalation in antibiotic resistance in the coming years. “But with our findings that climate change could be compounding — and accelerating — an increase in antibiotic resistance, the future prospects could be significantly worse than previously thought,” he said.
Marlene Cimons writes for Nexus Media, a syndicated newswire covering climate, energy, policy, art and culture.
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You may be having a rough day, but at least you didn’t have to swab the anal glands of a fully conscious meerkat. But we can’t all have jobs where we get to sit quietly in air conditioned offices. Some people spent November 2011 creeping up on unsuspecting meerkats lounging outside their dens to swab for bacteria inside their scent glands. No meerkats were harmed in the making of this study, but they probably weren’t thrilled about the whole thing.
These are the things biologists do for science. And it doesn’t end at anal gland swabbing—there was anal paste, too. Before we get to the gritty details (and here “gritty” is both metaphoric and literal), let’s pause for a moment to ask a crucial question: why were biologists swabbing meerkat butts in the first place?
It’s not an unreasonable question. Sure, everyone is wired differently and some people obviously aren’t that bothered by anal glands, but they’re still probably not going to do it just for kicks. No, these biologists are driven by a quest for knowledge. More specifically, they were curious how bacterial communities differ from meerkat to meerkat, and how those bacteria influence anal gland scent (aren’t we all?). Lots of animals use scent to send social signals. Anal gland secretions can help mark your territory or tell your fellow mammals that you’re ready to mate. They’re why dogs sniff each other’s behinds; they’re just trying to get to know one another. Meerkats do the same thing, but unlike dogs they live in complex social hierarchies.
Meerkats rub their little furry butts on bushes and rocks for much the same reason that the youths make graffiti: to make their mark on the world, literally. Neighboring colonies need to establish their grounds and alpha meerkats (read: not Timon from The Lion King) want to assert their smelly dominance. Just because our mongoose friends use their behinds doesn’t make it less legitimate. If anything, meerkats take their glands more seriously than we take our spray paint.
Meerkats also mark things using their cheeks, much like cats, which is far cuter but less interesting. Courtesy of Lydia Greene, Duke University
It’s not enough to know that there are bacteria living in there, though. Nor is it enough to know that the types of bacteria vary between meerkats. You have to show that the chemicals produced by specific bacteria breaking down anal paste vary according to the bacteria type, and by meerkat traits. And to do that, you have to swab some glands. The group of biologists who took it upon themselves to do so published a similar study in 2014, but weren’t able to fully tie all the pieces together. They published their updated results on Monday in Scientific Reports.
As it turns out, meerkats living in Kuruman River Reserve in South Africa have become so habituated to human presence that a little anal swabbing is par for the course. Up until now, you were probably picturing an anal pouch as a small hole on their butts that extruded some kind of liquidy paste, kind of like a more musky anus. Think again.
You can’t unsee this. Courtesy of Lydia Greene, Duke University
Those pouches are wide open. They’re almost asking to be swabbed. Collecting the paste pre-pouch mixing required more finesse and some general anesthesia. To get pure anal paste, you have to partially evert the anal pouch, which means basically to turn it inside out. Then you have to gently—gently—squeeze the anal gland and collect the paste in a small tube. Presumably this is where alien myths come from in the meerkat world and perhaps why UFOs visiting Earth assume that we, too, want our anal glands probed.
By analyzing the chemical components of each meerkat’s anal paste, the biologists figured out that it was indeed due to native bacteria that the animals’ scents varied. A similar phenomenon has been observed in hyenas, but this is the first time specific bacteria have been linked to the odorants they produce in the paste. Before, we only had correlative evidence. The type of bacteria may vary between animals, but that could easily be because certain microorganisms tend to flourish depending on the composition of the paste. This evidence shows that it goes the other way—the bacterial profile is what’s giving the paste its distinct smell. Female meerkats have more Corynebacterium, while the males have more of a proteobacterium. Each of these microorganisms break down particular chemicals into odorous molecules, giving male and female meerkats their distinctive musks. The scent even varies between individual meerkats. Males tend to have more variation than females, which the authors think may be because males travel between colonies more and thus need to be able to adjust their microbiota more frequently.
Next up: understanding what each scent tells a meerkat. Sure, dominant meerkats have one smell and subordinate females another, but what actually tells a meerkat that? We can try asking them, though there’s really only one way to find out: more anal swabs.
What is Staph Infection?
A specific kind of bacterial infection called staph infection is brought on by Staphylococcus bacteria. Healthy people frequently have this bacterium on their skin and in their noses, but when it gets into the body through a cut or wound, it can lead to an infection. Staph infections can range in severity from less dangerous infections like cellulitis, sepsis, and pneumonia to more serious infections like impetigo, folliculitis, and sepsis.
A staph infection may cause the following symptoms −
Warmth, redness, and pain at the infection site
Bruising, discomfort, or pus-filled blisters
Chills and a fever
Fatigue and soreness in the muscles
Nausea and diarrhoea
Antibiotics can be used to treat staph infections, however occasionally the bacteria may be resistant and call for alternative treatment methods. If you think you might have a staph infection, you should visit a doctor right away since timely treatment can help stop the illness from spreading and leading to more serious problems. Staph infections can be avoided by practising good hygiene, which includes routine hand washing, keeping cuts and wounds clean and protected, and not sharing personal objects.Staph Infection: Causes
The Staphylococcus bacteria, which is frequently present on healthy people’s skin and in their noses, is what causes staph infections. By a cut, wound, or other sort of skin opening, the bacteria can enter the body and lead to an infection. Through direct contact with an infected wound or by coming into contact with contaminated objects or surfaces, staph infections can be transferred from one person to another.
Those with compromised immune systems, those with diabetes or other chronic illnesses, those who work in healthcare settings, those who live in crowded or unhygienic environments, and those who engage in contact sports are among those who are more likely to have staph infections.
Moreover, the staph bacterium can become resistant to antibiotics, making the management of staph infections more challenging. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, also known as MRSA, is frequently found in healthcare facilities like hospitals and nursing homes. If you think you might have a staph infection, you should visit a doctor right away since timely treatment can help stop the illness from spreading and leading to more serious problems.Staph Infection: Treatments
Depending on the location and severity of the infection, staph infections may also be treated with various methods outside surgery. These remedies could consist of −
Antibiotics − The first line of defence against staph infections is often an antibiotic regimen. The kind of antibiotic that is administered will depend on the kind and severity of the infection as well as any potential antibiotic resistance. Antibiotics can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically at the infection site.
Wound care − To prevent skin infections, it’s crucial to keep the affected area dry and clean. Ointments or dressings used topically can aid in healing and stop the spread of illness.
Drainage − In some circumstances, it may be required to drain an abscess or an infected area in order to facilitate healing and stop the spread of infection.
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) − IVIG is a medication that may be used to strengthen the immune system and aid in the battle against the infection in severe cases of staph infection.
Anti-inflammatory drugs − Staph infections can become more severe and spread more widely as a result of inflammation. To lessen inflammation and encourage healing, anti-inflammatory drugs may be utilised.
If you think you might have a staph infection, you should visit a doctor right once since untreated infections can cause life-threatening complications. Staph infections can also be prevented by taking precautions including maintaining excellent hygiene, covering open wounds, and not sharing personal objects.Antibiotics for Staph Infection
The particular antibiotic prescribed to treat a staph infection will vary depending on a number of variables, including the location and severity of the infection, whether or not there is any antibiotic resistance present, and the patient’s general condition. In general, the following antibiotics are frequently used to treat staph infections −
Penicillin − Although many different strains of Staphylococcus aureus can be treated with penicillin, certain strains have developed resistance to it.
Methicillin − Methicillin is a form of penicillin that was created to treat staph infections that were resistant to other types of antibiotics; however, certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus have evolved resistance to this medication as well.
Vancomycin − Treatment for severe staph infections that are resistant to other antibiotics frequently involves the use of the antibiotic vancomycin.
Clindamycin − To treat staph infections that are resistant to penicillin and other antibiotics, use the drug clindamycin.
Linezolid − Antibiotic linezolid is effective against staph infections that have become resistant to other antibiotics.Staph Infection: Surgery
In some staph infection situations, surgery may be required. Surgical procedures may be used to drain abscesses, remove infected tissue, or repair damaged sections, depending on the location and severity of the infection.
For instance, surgery might be required to drain the joint and remove any contaminated tissue if a staph infection develops in a joint. To treat severe joint infections, joint replacement surgery may occasionally be required.
Surgery may be required in situations of heart-related staph infections to replace or repair damaged heart valves. A staph infection is often treated successfully with surgery in addition to antibiotic therapy. The particular instance and the doctor’s discretion will determine when and how much surgery is performed.
It is important to remember that many staph infections can be successfully treated with antibiotics and other non-surgical treatments, negating the need for surgery in many instances. The specifics of the infection and the healthcare provider’s recommendation will determine whether to conduct surgery.Staph Infection: Cure and Care
Following are some staph infection treatment and care options −
Clean the infected area − Cleaning the diseased area is the first step in treating a staph infection. Dryness and cleanliness are also important. Wash the area several times a day with warm water and soap. Avoid using abrasive soaps or rubbing the region too vigorously because doing so can irritate the skin even more.
Apply a warm compress − Compress the afflicted region with a warm cloth: Compressing the affected area with a warm cloth will assist to lessen pain and swelling. Use a fresh washcloth that has been soaked in warm water to the diseased region for a few minutes at a time throughout the day.
Antibiotics − In some circumstances, using antibiotics to treat a staph infection is necessary. The type of infection, its severity, and your medical history will all be taken into consideration by your doctor when choosing the best antibiotic. Even if you begin to feel better, make sure you finish the entire course of antibiotics.
Drain the infection − Your doctor may need to drain a skin abscess (a pocket of pus) in order to speed up the healing process. You shouldn’t try to do this at home because it can spread the virus and lead to more problems.
Follow good hygiene practices − Use excellent hygiene habits, such as routine hand washing, refraining from sharing personal objects like towels and razors, and keeping any wounds clean and covered, to prevent the spread of the staph infection.
If you believe you have a staph infection, you must contact a doctor immediately, especially if you are experiencing fever, excruciating pain, or other symptoms. The majority of staph infections can be successfully treated with quick and adequate care.
The Popular Science #CrowdGrant Challenge
See other finalists!
We’ve all basked in the glow of different light bulbs: incandescent, fluorescent, halogen, neon, LED, and more. But a lamp that harbors living, light-emitting bacteria — a biological bulb, if you will — is something radically different from what’s available on the market today.
Three undergraduate students from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, hope to change that with the help of crowdfunding.
The young scientists, who are finalists in the Popular Science #CrowdGrant Challenge, recently launched a crowdfunding campaign for a kit that anyone can use to make a Biobulb.
“The Biobulb is essentially a closed ecosystem in a jar,” says biochemistry major Michael Zaiken in the team’s video pitch. “It’s going to contain several different species of microorganisms, and each organism plays a role in the recycling of vital nutrients that each of the other microbes need to survive.”
The kit’s key ingredient will be a genetically engineered species of Escherichia coli bacteria. These microbes live inside the intestines of humans and other animals, and they don’t normally glow in the dark. But Zaiken and his two teammates, Alexandra Cohn (a genetics and philosophy double-major) and AnaElise Beckman (a neurobiology and anthropology double-major), plan to insert a loop of DNA into E. coli that will allow the bacteria to bioluminesce like jellyfish, fireflies, squid, or some other light-producing lifeform.
Electricity won’t power the bulb. The genetically modified E. coli plus a growth media, microbes that use ambient light to create food and recycle waste, and a bulb should be able to glow and recharge repeatedly, perhaps for days or months. (Sort of like a glowing version of those aquatic ecosystems sealed into glass spheres that you see in airline catalogs.)
Biobulb isn’t available yet; the team still needs to study the best genes, kit ingredients, and caretaking methods. One of the current challenges is finding a way to keep the DNA that codes for bioluminescence inside the E. coli as the cells replicate. “Right now we are looking at a couple of strategies to keep the [bioluminescence] genes stable over long periods of time,” Zaiken says on the Biobulb project’s RocketHub page.
More than delivering a cool product, Cohn hopes the crowdfunding project will cast a positive light on the field of synthetic biology. “Many people don’t understand what exactly synthetic biology is,” she says.
Women and people of color are underrepresented in STEM fields, and this can change if all students feel they belong in STEM classrooms.
I met Dr. Judith Salley when I was a student at South Carolina State University, a historically Black university in Orangeburg, South Carolina. Salley was only the second Black educator I had encountered since second grade and the first Black female scientist I had ever interacted with. She asked me a question no one ever had before: “You know, Jackie, you really are excelling in my comparative anatomy class. Have you ever considered going into a science field?”
I hadn’t. For starters, my vision of a scientist came from central casting: White, male, usually over 50, with an unruly crop of gray hair and horn-rimmed spectacles. That wasn’t me. Plus, despite my obvious aptitude, no educator had ever suggested science as a pathway until that day.
I am far from the only female or Black student who only began to contemplate a future in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM) in college. Women and people of color remain underrepresented in STEM-related professions: Only 29 percent of women held science and engineering jobs as of 2023, and only 13 percent of such jobs were held by “underrepresented minorities.”
Organizations like mine, chúng tôi are working to boost those numbers by making computer science and related subjects more engaging and accessible to all K–12 students, especially young women and underrepresented groups. Based on my teaching experience, here are four ways that teachers can engage and support students from diverse backgrounds in STEM classes.
1. Reflect Who They Are
Early in my career as an elementary school science teacher, I would spend hours searching for posters for my classroom’s walls. I wanted students of all races, genders, and faith traditions to see themselves in those images and to draw inspiration from them. One of my favorites featured Michael Jordan in his No. 23 Chicago Bulls jersey, accompanied by a quote explaining how his “failures” made him a better player.
What a missed opportunity. I was teaching science, not basketball. My students needed to see pictures of STEM professionals who looked like them, like Darryll Pines, a Black aerospace engineer who is now president of the University of Maryland, or Angela Benton, an entrepreneur whose name routinely appears on lists of prominent African Americans in the technology sector.
Students of color do not see many people of color in the STEM field. As they progress from high school to college, the numbers of their peers of color decrease, they often lack support from a community of their peers, and they often feel alone and discouraged. Surround your students with images of successful STEM professionals, and they’ll grow up knowing they can become one.
2. Elevate Their Voices
Classrooms should provide opportunities to learn other perspectives in an inclusive environment or space. They should be a place where students’ ideas are valued and respected, not dismissed as naive or idealistic.
Encourage debates inside the classroom. Seek input from students on problems in their communities that STEM can solve. Make space for students to present evidence from hands-on projects to their peers, explaining why their conclusion is the right one.
In my science classes, I’d routinely group students together to design investigations and develop and explain their conclusions. Then I’d encourage them to defend their work. My students used large whiteboards to capture their ideas and thoughts. They used these boards to explain their conclusions using pictures, words, and or symbols. They would call a “board” meeting, and we would gather in a circle and the students would present their findings to their peers. The discussions often became quite lively, especially when individual students disagreed with the group’s conclusions. These discussions built a community of learning where each student had a voice—and the chance to use it.
3. Leverage Their Experiences
There’s no place in STEM instruction for students to simply sit at their desks struggling to pay attention to a boring lecture. Science demands their action and participation. Real-world phenomena resonate with kids, which is why new resources like BrainPOP Science are using such phenomena to engage kids through scientific investigations.
Teachers can provide students with experiences that demonstrate the day’s lesson, then leverage those experiences to make learning come alive. Science can come alive in your classroom through a student’s lived experience. This requires some investigation on your part, for you to know where students live and their community.
When I was a STEM coordinator in Washington, DC, public schools, we embarked on a grade-wide STEM project. Students were placed into four groups representing the four quadrants of DC. Part of their project was to convince a non-DC resident which quadrant was the best to live in based on several factors, including the environment. Students tested water and soil samples, and we used simulations to manipulate large data sets. BrainPop provides this type of invaluable resource to the classroom. Students were able to connect their science classroom to their community.
4. Start With Their Teacher: You
Building an inclusive classroom begins with the teacher. Recognize unconscious biases and understand how your own educational experiences have impacted the way you teach STEM subjects. Acknowledge the lack of diversity in science. Call it out not only to build awareness, but to highlight the opportunities and possibilities that exist.
Kids, especially girls and students of color, shouldn’t have to wait until they’re in college to consider STEM as a career pathway. The first step in that process is making all students realize they belong in the STEM classroom—and workplace.
About 1,300 light-years away, a young triple-star system is warping and splitting a disk of dust and gas where planets could one day form. Unlike the flat disk that gave rise to the planets in our own Solar System, the system’s disk consists of three misaligned rings.
GW Orionis, as the wonky system is known, consists of two stars locked in a close do-si-do that are orbited by a third star farther out at a distance of eight times that of Earth to the sun. According to new research, as the stellar trio move in their complicated paths, their gravities tug on the gas around and between them. The findings, published in Science last week, provide the first concrete evidence that stars’ gravities can carve bizarre and fantastic shapes in planet-forming disks, providing new insight into how planets are born in bizarre orbits.
“This is the first time that we see this disk-tearing effect in a real astrophysical system,” says Stefan Kraus, professor of astrophysics at the University of Exeter and lead author of the paper. “We can directly link it to the gravitational influence from the three stars that are in the center of the disk.”
There are three separate rings with different orientations in the massive protoplanetary disk of the triple system, located roughly 46, 185, and 336 times the Earth-Sun distance from the disk’s center. (For perspective, Neptune is about 30 times the distance from Earth to the sun.) Properly envisioning the shape and cause of the system’s misalignment meant studying GW Ori for a staggering 11 years—one complete orbital period—using different instruments on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The extensive observations allowed them to reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of the disk torn apart by the influences of the three stars.
GW Ori has long been an exemplar for all the special dynamical effects that go on in such a system. But this is the first time there’s really been a clear picture of the system’s geometry: “This study is really a truly comprehensive look at the stellar orbits and the disk at very high spatial resolution,” says Penn State astronomer Ian Czekala, who was not involved in the study.
An independent team of researchers had also examined GW Ori and its tilted discs in a study published in May. However, the researchers speculate that a separate, existing planet may have caused the disk to be torn apart in the first place—not only by the star trio. “Our simulations show that the gravitational pull from the triple stars alone cannot explain the observed large misalignment,” says Nienke van der Marel, co-author of the May study, in a press release. “We think that the presence of a planet between these rings is needed to explain why the disc was torn apart.”
Kraus and his team don’t rule out a planet as a potential cause: The system’s inner ring has enough dust to build 30 Earths, which he says is sufficient to form a planet within the ring. He adds that a planet formed in this misaligned part of the fractured disk would have a highly unusual orbit.
“What we find here is that multiple stars can move material out of the disk plane and put it onto these extreme oblique orbits,” Kraus says. “That’s a completely new mechanism for forming wide separation planets on misaligned orbits; you can basically get any orbit orientation with this mechanism.”
Future studies will have to determine for certain what is happening in the cattywampus system. With the next generation of telescopes like the European Southern Observatory’s Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) scheduled to come online in 2025, the hunt for young, wonky-ringed stellar systems like GW Ori should pick up steam.
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