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Q. 1. State differences between acids and bases.

Q.2. Ammonia is found in many household products, such as window cleaners. It turns red litmus blue. What is its nature? 

Q.3.  Name the source from which litmus solution is obtained. What is the use of this solution?

Q.4. Is the distilled water acidic/basic/neutral? How would you verify it? 

Q.5 Describe the process of neutralization with the help of an example.

6. Mark ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if it is false: 

(i) Nitric acid turns red litmus blue. (T/F) 

(ii) Sodium hydroxide turns blue litmus red. (T/F) 

(iii) Sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid neutralize each other and form salt and water. (T/F) 

(iv) Indicator is a substance which shows different colors in acidic and basic solutions. (T/F) 

(v) Tooth decay is caused by the presence of a base. (T/F) 

Q.7.Dorji has a few bottles of soft drinks in his restaurant. But, unfortunately, these are not labeled. He has to serve the drinks on the demand of customers. One customer wants an acidic drink, another wants a basic one and the third one wants a neutral drink. How will Dorji decide which drink is to be served to whom? 

Q.8. Explain why: 

(a) An antacid tablet is taken when you suffer from acidity.

(b) Calamine solution is applied on the skin when an ant bites. 

(c) Factory waste is neutralized before disposing it into the water bodies.

Q. 9. Three liquids are given to you. One is hydrochloric acid, another is sodium hydroxide and the third is a sugar solution. How will you identify them? You have only a turmeric indicator. 

Q. 10. Blue litmus paper is dipped in a solution. It remains blue. What is the nature of the solution? Explain. 

Q.11. Consider the following statements: 

(a) Both acids and bases change the color of all indicators. 

(b) If an indicator gives a color change with an acid, it does not give a change with a base. 

(c) If an indicator changes color with a base,             it does not change color with an acid. 

(d) Change of color in an acid and a base depends on the type of the indicator. 

Which of these statements are correct? 

(i) All four (ii) a and d (iii) b, c, and d (iv) only d

Q.8. Explain why: 

(a) An antacid tablet is taken when you suffer from acidity.

(b) Calamine solution is applied on the skin when an ant bites. 

(c) Factory waste is neutralized before disposing it into the water bodies.

Q. 9. Three liquids are given to you. One is hydrochloric acid, another is sodium hydroxide and the third is a sugar solution. How will you identify them? You have only a turmeric indicator. 

Q. 10. Blue litmus paper is dipped in a solution. It remains blue. What is the nature of the solution? Explain. 

Q.11. Consider the following statements: 

(a) Both acids and bases change the color of all indicators. 

(b) If an indicator gives a color change with an acid, it does not give a change with a base. 

(c) If an indicator changes color with a base,             it does not change color with an acid. 

(d) Change of color in an acid and a base depends on the type of the indicator. 

Which of these statements are correct? 

(i) All four (ii) a and d (iii) b, c, and d (iv) only d

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Using Pbl In Environmental Science Class

A few years ago, my students became bothered by the number of plastic bags showing up in the Guyandotte River, which winds behind our school and through our rural southern West Virginia towns. They believed that recycling and other waste management options would decrease littering, but we didn’t know where to start—our rural county had no recycling program.

As an AmeriCorps alumna, I was familiar with launching community programs without a budget. By merging apprenticeships and project-based learning (PBL) in my environmental science class, we were able to create our county’s first recycling program. 

The Setup

Our students initially started an after-school recycling program, which rapidly evolved into our county’s only recycling center within one year. We grew so quickly that we needed outside help, fast. PepsiCo Recycling Rally provides curriculum and equipment to jump-start recycling collection at your school, so we started to use those resources.

Merging PBL with the apprenticeship model provided a framework for designing units with learning outcomes that build critical thinking and creative problem-solving skills. Operating a recycling center does not work if our student body and community do not know our recycling procedures, what can be recycled, or how recycling can save our streams. Students share their knowledge by organizing schoolwide recycling pep rallies featuring recycling games they develop. They organize school assemblies and create videos, theatrical performances, and rap songs about recycling procedures.

To determine the effectiveness of our outreach programs within our school, we conduct waste audits, analyzing data to see the percentage of recyclables and trash in correct bins. My students design educational activities for local fairs and festivals, teaching students why it’s important to understand where our waste goes and how to best manage it. They work with our communities to assess microplastic levels along our riverbank and launched a Spotify podcast, Waste in Our Waters. They also create and deliver presentations to our town councils and county commission because our ultimate goal is to create a countywide recycling network.

Our program is unique because there are both curricular and extracurricular components. Plastic pollution and waste management are only two units in the environmental science curriculum, so it’s challenging to dedicate the time to complete all the tasks for running a recycling program and addressing plastic pollution within a classroom. If we don’t complete our weekly requirements of collecting and sorting recyclables during class, which happens frequently due to teaching other content standards, then the after-school program picks up the slack. It takes seven to 10 students to stay on top of the recycling demands.

Transforming students into environmental leaders does not happen overnight. It requires time and intentional planning, but the outcomes are what we hope for as teachers: confident, engaged, and civically minded students.

Growing Student Environmental Leaders

Here are eight steps for creating environmental change makers. Although some of these features are standard in PBL, there is much more of an emphasis on building community relationships when using the apprenticeship model.

Make observations: Instruct students to record observations about the environment while walking around campus. Are there invasive species, sources of pollution, or suitable habitats for specific species?

Find patterns: Discuss patterns that emerge from your students’ observations. Record these ideas, and let students prioritize topics.

Identify community experts: Specialists may be found at museums, parks, and/or natural resource and environmental agencies. National Geographic’s Explorer Classroom and Exploring by the Seat of Your Pants YouTube channels connect classrooms to experts across the globe. The expert’s role is to extend the students’ background knowledge about the selected environmental issue. Ask students how they felt and what interested them after a session with an expert. Are there additional questions or ideas for solving their environmental issue?

Determine the environmental project: Tell students that local problems are often global problems, and instruct them to research ways that other organizations, states, and countries solve related environmental problems. Ask students to share what they learned. Are there feasible projects for the students to modify or replicate? Is there a stand-out project that clearly fits your students’ interests?

Identify stakeholders: Instruct students to brainstorm individuals and organizations in your community that have a vested interest in helping fix this environmental problem. Reach out to these stakeholders for help.

Create a step-by-step plan: Guide students through enumerating all actions required to complete their project. What materials do they need? What is the time frame for completing the project? Who can complete each task? Allow students to express their interests and self-select tasks.

Work alongside community mentors: While meeting with an expert provides environmental content knowledge, the mentor guides the students through tasks to complete the project. Sending a survey home to see if guardians have related skill sets and are willing to help out is a way to build connections with your students’ families. 

Achieve goals: What are low-hanging fruits for the students to accomplish first to feel successful? Some projects take time, and their efforts may be the first steps toward a larger project. After a step from your plan is achieved, identify the next step, and create an associated goal within a realistic time frame. Celebrate your success as each goal is completed.

A Closer Look at Apprenticeships

The apprenticeship model helps intentionally build long-lasting mentorships with community partners and experts in the field in order to improve our program and student learning outcomes. In the beginning, our students secured community volunteers to help haul recyclables and worked alongside them to learn unloading procedures. My students began meeting with our neighboring county’s Solid Waste Authority’s director of education, taking tours of their large-scale recycling operations in order to learn the recycling ropes to create a sustainable operation in our county.

One of our students’ grandmothers became a board member of our county’s Solid Waste Authority, and she continues to work with our students biweekly to solve logistical problems and determine new outreach possibilities with our students. Other businesses, like Alpha Metallurgical Resources, reached out to us, and several students work directly with their environmental compliance manager to plan biannual Adopt-A-Highway litter clean-up events. Working alongside community members and experts in the field to solve a critical community issue nurtured my students’ leadership capabilities and confidence. 

Creating a Lasting Legacy

Middle and high school students can develop ingenious solutions to problems such as air and water pollution, threatened species, and the lack of green space. At the same time, taking students outdoors jump-starts learning by awakening the senses and increasing connectedness and happiness. Through goal setting, hard work, and problem-solving, our recycling program grew and now serves as the only plastic recycling location in our entire county. 

If a recycling program isn’t a good fit for your school, there are myriad other projects that students can pursue, such as doing a survey of microplastics or coming up with technological solutions to environmental challenges. Both the EPA’s Microplastic Beach Protocol for freshwater or marine waters and The Big Microplastic Survey provide citizen science opportunities for students to collect and report data, and Samsung’s Solve for Tomorrow gives students a chance to win classroom technology.

5 Best Bumper Cases For Iphone 7 And 7 Plus

Apple recently launched the brand new iPhone 7 and 7 Plus and while they bring decent upgrades from their predecessors, the removal of the headphone jack has become the butt of jokes & memes. Headphone jack or not, millions of people will be buying the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus and if you are one of those people, we’ll recommend you to get a case for the device. The iPhone 7 and 7 Plus are premium smartphones but they aren’t indestructible, right? We have already listed you the best cases you can buy for the iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus, but if you are looking for bumper cases specifically, here are the 5 best iPhone 7 and 7 Plus bumper cases you can buy:

1. Spigen Clear Bumper Case

Spigen offers a number of cases for the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus but we especially like its clear bumper case. As the name suggests, the case features a clear back with a colored or crystal clear bumper in a very slim profile. Along with the hard TPU bumper, which protects the iPhone 7’s edges, it features raised bezels to protect the display. It features pronounced buttons in the bumper, which are easy to feel and press. The case also brings great transparency in the back, which makes sure the beautiful back of the iPhone is visible. The case is available in bumper colors like Black, Crystal Clear, Mint and Rose Crystal.

Price: $13.99

2. Xdesign Inception Bumper Case

Price: $13.99

3. i-Blason Bumper Case

i-Blason is another sleek, slim and good-looking bumper case for the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus. It features a shock absorbing frame, which not only protects your device against drops but also looks pretty good. The bumper is available in multiple colors like Black, Blue, Green, Orange and White and features a texture, which definitely adds a unique touch. Like most other bumper cases, i-Blason’s offering too features raised edges to protect the iPhone 7’s Retina display.

4. Ringke Fusion Bumper Case

The Ringke Fusion bumper case is another clear case, which comes in various different colors for the bumper like Crystal Clear, Rose Gold and Smoke Black. The Ringke case features TPU cushions on the corners from the inside, while on the outside, it features soft flexible edges on the four corners, to make sure that your device gets ultimate protection. It is MIL-STD 810G – 516.6 certified, which means military grade protection against drops. Also, Ringke has not made any comprises in the quality of the back too, as you get a completely transparent case, which really shows off your iPhone 7.

Price: $10.99

5. Supcase Unicorn Beetle Bumper Case

The Supcase Unicorn Beetle bumper case is named so because of the dual-tone colors it brings. While it’s clear case, the bumper is available in a variety of colors like Black, Navy, Green and Pink. All of these colors features accents at edges of the bumper, which looks pretty good, For instance, the Black case features Gray accent and Navy features Sky Blue accents. Plus, the case is made of shock resistant high quality TPU and PC and it’s rubbery, which makes holding the case a lot better. Like other cases, it too features elevated bezels for display protection. Price: $11.99

SEE ALSO: 5 Best Lightning Headphones for iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus

Show off your iPhone 7 or 7 Plus while giving it great protection

We like bumper cases due to the fact that they feature a clear back, which shows off your brand new iPhone while packing in heavy duty protection on the corners and edges. It’s certainly a win-win offering. So, if you are looking for bumper cases for the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, the aforementioned 5 cases and covers should suit your needs perfectly. Well, go ahead and buy one of them and let us know the one you bought and how you like it.

Specialty Residence For Women In Science And Engineering

Specialty Residence for Women in Science and Engineering WISE-UP House fosters community

With hours to go before a big organic chem test, several female students are holding a powwow in their Bay State brownstone, trying to understand how carbon-containing compounds react. It’s just another night at WISE-UP House, the specialty community residence for female STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) sophomores, juniors, and seniors that opened in September to much celebration and support.

“It’s important to have a community of other women when you’re studying in the STEM fields,” says resident assistant Iriny Ekladious (ENG’17), a second year graduate student. “It can be intimidating, and women often feel outnumbered. Having a community like this gives students confidence and empowers them to say, ‘I’m good at this and I can do this,’ despite all the hurdles.”

What are the hurdles? According to a recent National Science Foundation (NSF) report, in 2011 men earned the vast majority of bachelor’s degrees awarded in engineering, computer sciences, and physics, despite the fact that women outnumber men in undergraduate education. Since 2000, the number of bachelor’s degrees in computer sciences earned by women has declined by 10 percent, in mathematics by 5 percent, in physics by 2 percent, and in engineering by 2 percent.

Goldberg, a College of Arts & Sciences professor of physics and a College of Engineering professor of biomedical engineering, points to studies that show that “living and learning communities are supportive, and create a sense of belonging and ownership associated with a student’s academic choice. Students feel supported even though they are minorities in the classrooms and labs in which they work.”

Like WISE@Warren, the specialty house, at 163 Bay State Road, has weekly group house meetings as well as lectures and events, such as a trip to this year’s National Symposium for the Advancement of Women in STEM, held at Harvard, and a workshop to prepare students thinking about entering medical, dental, veterinary, or another health-related school. The house has a new mentoring program, where undergrad residents pair up with a grad student enrolled in the same STEM field.

WISE-UP House accommodates 21 women majoring in fields as diverse as physics, mathematics, electrical engineering, chemistry, molecular biology, and human physiology. Many current residents previously lived on WISE@Warren. Just months after opening, WISE-UP has become a popular housing option; according to David Zamojski, director of residence life and an assistant dean of students, 51 students have applied to live there next year.

“What I like about WISE-UP is that when you’re really stressed, the people in the house completely understand, and if you need to stay up late to do work, you have someone studying right alongside you,” says Felicia Estrada (CAS’16). “And sometimes you’ll just come home and see someone’s face and right off the bat say to them, ‘You had an exam today, didn’t you?’ We get it.”

Many University programs are aimed at increasing the representation and success of women in science and engineering; in fact, from 2006 to 2013 the University’s STEM retention initiative PROSTARS received $1.7 million from the NSF’s STEM Talent Expansion Program.

“Women in science face different challenges than men in science do,” says Kathryn Vessel (SAR’16). “We have a lot of obstacles and barriers to overcome, but we grow by being all together.”

Explore Related Topics:

Our Favorite Science And Tech Stories Of 2023

A lot of momentous events went down in 2023, from our first image of a black hole to Greta Thunberg’s proliferation of climate activism around the globe. In other words, we’ve had a busy year at Popular Science covering news that shocked, delighted, and amused us. Here are our favorite stories of the year.

This deeply reported, smartly written story puts architectural and neighborhood preservation, and the rise of mixed-use urban development, in historical context by highlighting the life and work of one of its staunchest allies. You’ll be smarter for having read it. —Chuck Sqautriglia, Senior Editor

I always thought of prairie dogs as adorable, innocuous rodents (albeit ones with unexpectedly complex language)—something you got to ogle while driving across South Dakota. But one of our contributors brought this story to our attention, which is about how surprisingly contentious prairie dogs actually are. I love this piece, and it made me love these little critters even more. —Sara Chodosh, Assistant Editor

I love stories reexamining traditions through unexpected lenses. If only more internet science writing could be as curious and original. Also, I love snakes. —Tom McNamara, Senior Multimedia Producer

Is it possible to stan a plant any harder? Agaves—the mega-succulents of Mexican deserts—are fascinating on their own, but Maya gives the rest of her genus a run for their monocarpic ways. In this artfully spun obituary, PopSci’s Chicago-based contributor Alex Schwartz documented the powerful life and graceful death bloom of a well-hidden gem in his city. For passersby in East Garfield Park, it serves as a reminder to look up. For the rest of us, it’s a gentle nudge to remember that humans are far from the only complex, well-storied species on Earth. —Purbita Saha, Senior Editor

I’ve been in this business long enough to have edited a few “I flew with the Thunderbirds (or Blue Angels)” stories (and read a lot more of them), and most of them essentially say, “Holy shit, it was awesome.” Rob’s was the first I’ve seen to say, “Actually, no. It kicked my ass” and then explain the physical rigors of flying these amazing machines. His honesty, and passion for the subject matter, made this a fascinating, fun, and informative read. —Chuck Sqautriglia, Senior Editor

Your only knowledge of naked mole rats might be from Disney’s Kim Possible, and that’s OK. But hear me out—there is so much more to learn about these wrinkly little guys. Our Senior Multimedia Producer Tom McNamara made an entire video about them, and it is 100% worth a watch. Also worth checking out is his video on the unit of measurement called the mole, in which he turns a sphere of silicon into a crystal ball. Magical (yet scientific) stuff. —Jess Boddy, Assistant Editor

The words “NASA” and “Mars” show up approximately 33.9 million times in PopSci’s fall “Out There” issue—and for good reason: The Red Planet is the next great frontier that humankind can physically explore. But at what cost? Sarah Scoles gets into the mind bending details of how long-term space flights can shape people’s behaviors and psyches, adding a touch of compassion and empathy to the whole Mars colony narrative. —Purbita Saha, Senior Editor

The workshops photo essay was my favorite story of the year. I was excited to photograph interesting spaces and tell the story of people doing something truly remarkable. It was right around the time we went looking for the secret entrance to a sewing machine repair shop at the back of a convenience store that I knew it was going to be hard to top. —Stan Horaczek, Technology Editor

Eating meals that are good for your health—and that taste good—is a hard task. But how our food choices affect the environment is equally important. However, little, if any, information on the environmental impact of food is available to consumers. Sara’s article breaks this data down into easily-digestible (pun intended!) charts, allowing readers to make the best choices for themselves and their planet. —Claire Maldarelli, Associate Editor

This is one of those articles you read and say, “Duuuuuuuuuuude—I’ve been wondering about this for years!!!” I love how the narrative weaves psychology and stats and luck (even the Salem Witch Trials!) together as a way to examine why a ball player will scratch their butt for the rest of their life because one-time they hit a home run after scratching their butt. —Tom McNamara, Senior Multimedia Producer

Editing this feature taught me so much about something I’d been exposed to countless times—there are more than 13 million videos on YouTube designed to trigger ASMR shivers—but never really thought much about the mechanics of. ASMR and misophonia are research topics we’ll still be working on cracking for years, but this overview tells you everything you need to know about the current state of the science. —Rachel Feltman, Articles Editor

I love a story about climate change that isn’t 100% doom and gloom. And it has a fun history lesson. —Sara Kiley Watson, Editorial Assistant

Often, setting records or breaking barriers is nothing more than chest-thumping pursuit of bragging rights. Props are nice, sure, but in his mission to touch the bottommost points on Earth, Victor Vescovo went further: He opened up the depths of our oceans—which we actually know less about than we do outer space—for a new era of scientific exploration and inquiry. This four-part series chronicles his journey. —Corinne Iozzio, Executive Editor

I certainly hate to bang my own drum here, but this story was definitely one of the highlights of my year at PopSci. People’s reaction to this piece on social media could have triggered a story all on its own. It reminded me how embedded in our society toxic masculinity is, and just how powerful science can be against it. —Sandra Gutierrez G., Assistant DIY editor

It’s rare that a DIY story has the potential to save lives and keep people safe worldwide. This one could. Sandra Gutierrez, our assistant DIY editor, went all-out describing how the weapon works and how to protect yourself and others from its noxious fumes. And yeah, maybe you’re not being tear-gassed right now, but it’s good to be prepared. —John Kennedy, DIY Editor

There was no weirder, funnier, or more delightful story published on our website this past year than John Kennedy’s epic, 12-hour-plus attempt to make mac and cheese in a plastic bag, stovetop. It’s got everything you might hope for in a work of serious first-person journalism, including badly-cooked pasta, hot butter knives, smoked gouda, and a moment when the author lies down next to a kitchen trash bin, where he feels he belongs. Plus, there’s baseball. —Rob Verger, Assistant Technology Editor

Only in the Instagram influencer era could we seriously have to ask, and answer, the question, “can you really absorb solar energy straight into your anus?” I won’t give away the answer, but I will say Rachel uses it as an opportunity to present some smart, science-based, helpful information about the health benefits of sunlight and how to get them safely. —Chuck Sqautriglia, Senior Editor

When Space Probes Crash–For Science And Otherwise

NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft has been enjoying the past four years zipping around the planet Mercury. Launched in 2004, the probe traveled for six and a half years to reach the closest rock to the Sun, inserting itself into orbit around the planet in March 2011. During its time in rotation, the probe has collected valuable data about this little world, including information that indicates ice and other crazy materials in the planet’s polar regions.

“For the first time in history we now have real knowledge about the planet Mercury that shows it to be a fascinating world as part of our diverse solar system,” said John Grunsfeld, associate administrator for the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington.

But the time has come for NASA to kill its MESSENGER. The probe was originally supposed to orbit Mercury for a year, but the space agency extended its mission twice after figuring out ways to save fuel early on. Now, the vehicle is about to run out of propellant for good, meaning it cannot sustain its orbit any longer.

Rather than go quietly into the night, the space probe has a much more impactful ending to look forward to. Last week, NASA conducted a series of orbit correction maneuvers for MESSENGER. The idea was to keep the spacecraft in orbit as long as possible, but now that those are finished, the probe won’t be able to fight the Sun’s gravity, which is constantly dragging it down. On April 30, MESSENGER will slam into Mercury’s surface at more than 8,750 miles per hour, effectively ending its mission and all further communication with the probe for good.

This isn’t the first time a spacecraft has been sent on a violent collision course with a space rock. In the vast cosmos, objects move rather quickly, and sometimes it takes a deep impact in order to collect vital data about our solar system. And sometimes, what was meant to be a soft landing doesn’t go according to plan.

Check out a few of spacecraft’s greatest hits below:

Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS)

Back in 2009, NASA was curious if water might be lurking underneath the Moon’s surface. To put their speculations to rest, NASA researchers sent the Centaur booster rocket to “dive bomb” a lunar crater called Cabeus A, a formation many thought to be harboring water ice. Centaur slammed into the crater at 5,600 miles per hour, sending debris plumes into the air above the lunar surface. A second Shepherding Spacecraft flew through these clouds to analyze their composition. And as predicted, evidence of water was indeed found.

Deep Impact

No, this has nothing to do with the sappy doomsday film starring Téa Leoni and Robert Duvall. But NASA’s Deep Impact mission does involve a fateful collision with a comet. In January 2005, the space agency launched the Deep Impact spacecraft, which traveled for the next seven months to its ultimate destination: Comet Tempel 1. Once it met up with Tempel 1, the spacecraft released an impactor out into space, which positioned itself so that the comet would run right into it. Up until three seconds before the collision, the impactor sent back a number of close-up images of Tempel 1, showing large craters on the comet’s surface. Further analysis of the impact revealed a ton of interesting facts about the rock’s inner structure.

Venera 3

In the 1960s, back when the space race was in full swing, the Soviet Union undertook the challenging task of sending a space probe to the surface of Venus. Dubbed Venera–the Russian word for Venus–the missions consisted of sending numerous spacecraft to the tempestuous planet. Venera 1 and 2 both flew by Venus without entering orbit, but Venera 3 was made with the intention of landing on the planet’s surface to collect data. However, communication was lost just as Venera 3 reached Venus’ atmosphere. The probe impacted the surface shortly thereafter, making it the first spacecraft to land on another world—though no communication from Venera 3 was ever received again.


After traveling to space and back, it can be hard to stick the landing. Genesis was a sample return mission conducted by NASA from 2001 to 2004. The goal: Capture and return particles of solar wind for study. The space agency sent the Genesis probe to a point in space just under 1 million miles out from Earth—an area free from our atmosphere and magnetic field. After snagging samples of solar wind in its many collectors, Genesis made the long trip back to our planet. But during its descent to the Earth’s surface, the spacecraft’s drogue parachute failed to deploy, causing the vehicle to crash in the Utah desert. Fortunately, researchers were able to salvage some of the samples.

Philae Lander

Honorable mention goes to the ESA’s Rosetta spacecraft, which made headlines last year for being the first manmade vehicle to land on a comet. Except the “landing” didn’t go as smooth as the agency had wanted. On November 12, 2014, Rosetta released its Philae lander, which traveled down to the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Philae was equipped with harpoons, meant to shoot out and anchor the lander to the comet’s surface. However, the harpoons failed to deploy, and mission specialists admitted it’s possible Philae bounced off the comet before touching down for good. “Maybe today we didn’t just land once, we landed twice,” landing manager Stephan Ulamec joked at a press conference.

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