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Alum Vies for Cooking Prize Grad hopes to claim Healthy Cook of the Year title

Alia Dalal prepares Afghani-style squash with curried kale and apples for the Cooking Light Healthy Cook of the Year contest.

While growing up in the Chicago area, Alia Dalal eagerly explored the city’s myriad ethnic family-owned restaurants with her Pakistani father and German-American mother.

“I don’t think you could say I’ve always been interested in food,” says Dalal (CAS’08). “But I’ve always been a good eater.”

These days, Dalal has more than an interest in food—she’s in the running for the top prize in a contest launched this year by Cooking Light magazine.

Her reaction? “Shocked! It’s funny to see your name on a finalist list,” she says, “but it’s even funnier to see your picture. I actually didn’t tell anyone for a few days because it felt kind of surreal.”


The finalists will compete in a cook-off on October 23 at the annual Taste of Atlanta food festival. The victor will claim the title Cooking Light Healthy Cook of the Year, have the opportunity to become a contributor to the magazine and website, and win $7,000 for a kitchen makeover and $3,000 for a year’s supply of groceries.

In her video, Dalal prepares Afghani-style squash with curried kale and apples. The recipe was inspired by kadu, an Afghani dish of sweet cooked pumpkin. “This contest ends in October, so I wanted to do something seasonal,” she says. “When you go to farmers markets in the late fall or the winter, there are basically three things there: squash, kale, and apples. So I was thinking, let me take these three things that are available seasonally in the fall and put them all together in one dish.”

She fine-tuned the recipe and shot the video with a friend in her tiny Brooklyn kitchen. “It literally has one square foot of counter space,” Dalal says. “I have to take off the dish rack anytime I want to cook.”

She will cook the same dish for a panel of judges in Atlanta. But first, she’ll do a practice run. “I’m envisioning some sort of Rocky-esque training montage, where I’m dicing veggies, lifting pots, and sharpening my knife,” she says. “But I’ll probably just rope a few friends into watching me make it; 24-year-olds are surprisingly obliging when you offer them free food.”

Dalal, who works full-time in public relations at the School of Visual Arts, in Manhattan, says she’s excited about the competition. “No matter how it goes, I’m honored to have made it this far,” she says, “especially since I’m still in school and only decided to pursue food and cooking less than a year ago.”

Still, she has some jitters. It’s not that she lacks performing experience. She sang with BU’s Hindi a cappella group Suno for four years, made a few appearances on the campus television show BU Tonight, and also wrote for the show.

What she’s most anxious about is cooking in the spotlight. “Knives, fire, electrical appliances—there’s definitely plenty of room for something to go wrong,” Dalal says, “and perhaps that’s why people find cooking-related entertainment so exciting.”


Cynthia K. Buccini can be reached at [email protected]; follow her on Twitter at @ckbuccini.

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Cfa Alum Strikes Deep Chord With First Four Notes

CFA Alum Strikes Deep Chord with First Four Notes Book looks at world through Beethoven’s Fifth

In his book The First Four Notes, Matthew Guerrieri (CFA’97) explores the far-reaching significance of the famous opening of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony. Photo by Michael Lionstar

In the two centuries since Ludwig van Beethoven wrote his Fifth Symphony, the piece’s iconic opening has etched itself into the human imagination. Those first four notes have become a kind of Rorschach test for a never-ending parade of musicologists, historians, and biographers speculating on Beethoven’s intentions.

In his book The First Four Notes: Beethoven’s Fifth and the Human Imagination (Knopf, 2012), Matthew Guerrieri takes readers on a wild, whimsical 277-page ride as he ponders the famous notes by pulling in far-flung references, from Steve McQueen to Napoleon Bonaparte to A Clockwork Orange to Unitarians. Although he plunges deep into the social, political, and musical world of the Romantic period, Guerrieri (CFA’97) doesn’t shy away from contemporary pop culture. Somehow, it works.

The book has earned widespread critical acclaim and landed Guerrieri, the Boston Globe’s classical music critic, an appearance on the The Colbert Report. In Leon Botstein’s Wall Street Journal review, he writes: “With a quick mind and wit, he traverses two centuries of musical culture, literature, and politics with uncommon authority.” Publisher’s Weekly notes that Guerrieri “clothes his erudition in lucid, breezy prose…the result is a fresh, stimulating interpretation that shows how provocative the familiar classic can be.”

BU Today spoke with Guerrieri recently about the power of those four notes, the enduring mystique of the Fifth, and why no words written on the subject will be the last.

BU Today: An NPR piece on your book refers to the opening of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony as “the most well-known notes in classical music.” Do you agree?

Guerrieri: I do. What makes them so particular is they’re probably the four notes of classical music that most people who aren’t even part of classical music would know. They have some sense of who Beethoven was and why the piece is famous. The piece has acquired a fame that’s transcended even the experience of the piece itself in a way.

You write a lot about how the symphony begins “literally, with silence,” an eighth rest that translates into a beat given by conductors. But when Beethoven wrote the symphony, there were no conductors. What was he up to?

There were no conductors, but somebody would have gotten it started, usually the concertmaster. The rest is there almost for housekeeping. It’s there because you have to fill out the bar. Beethoven could have started it as just a three-note pickup. But he decided to put the rest in for whatever reason, and probably didn’t think nearly as hard about it as I did. There’s this thing that happens right before the notes that’s in the score, that you don’t actually hear, just a sort of a little intellectual takeoff. It was too much fun to resist. But it is there to indicate this downbeat. And there’s this tradition with Beethoven’s Fifth that you’re supposed to get it started giving one beat, which happens to follow exactly where that rest is, so even the rest has become more important probably than Beethoven intended.

Did the idea for the book hit you like a bolt of lightning or did it germinate for a long time?

Actually, it wasn’t my idea. It was an editor’s idea, a man named Marty Asher, who at the time was working at Knopf. And he had this idea that there was a small book there. I ended up delivering a lot more book than he expected, and even that amount of material was really pretty much only scratching the surface of Beethoven and the history of the reception of this piece. I mean, it was a better idea than even he had thought. I was attracted to the idea just because of the sheer variety of angles you could come at it from. Everybody seemingly who’s ever listened to the Fifth Symphony has felt compelled to write something down about it. And the fact that from generation to generation, everybody has felt the need to take stock of it in terms of their own era also just makes it this wonderful timeline.

In what ways was Beethoven a pioneer?

Musically, he was an incremental innovator. It’s very easy to trace what he’s drawing from the previous generation, from Mozart, who he loved, and from Haydn, who he actually studied with for a time, although they didn’t really get along. The reviewers talk about the fact that with Beethoven, there’s so many more notes, or, there’s so much more going on. The ideas are coming just a little bit faster or a little bit more abruptly than they’re accustomed to. But still, there’s this idea that he’s very much drawing on the previous generation. I think what makes him such an innovator is that he just never settled. He said, you know, I’m finally there. Because even just tracing his own career, the Fifth Symphony is so different from the music he wrote as a young man. In turn, the music he wrote late in his life is so different from even the Fifth Symphony. He never really stopped.

You also paint him as a self-promoter. Did you come to like Beethoven as a person?

Well, parts of him. There are very attractive parts of his personality. There are very unattractive parts of his personality, partially because of who he was and partially because of his reputation and his fame. Those tendencies on both sides tend to be somewhat amplified. You read stories going around of him spurning royalty and even insulting royalty in a way that sort of promoted the equality of men. And that’s somewhat overstated. His own family life was terrible. He seems to have been able to lose friends with great skill. Reading Beethoven’s biography, in a lot of ways, is just watching him having one falling out after another with all manner of people. He certainly seems to have been an incredibly irascible person and a very stubborn person. So it’s hard to say. Would I have liked him as a person? Probably. Would he have liked me? That’s another story.

The book, by necessity, sort of dances around the truth, doesn’t it?

One of the things that fueled the Fifth Symphony’s fame was the fact that there are so many stories about it, so many anecdotes about it, so many things that Beethoven supposedly said about it, and the stories themselves are really squishy in terms of what we would think of as historical veracity. The most famous one is this idea that Beethoven called the opening four notes the sound of fate knocking at the door, which is a very suspicious story, because it comes from Anton Schindler, who was a very suspicious, and the only, source for that story, which didn’t come out until about 10 years after Beethoven died. And yet immediately people adopted it, because it’s such a good story. I mean, if Schindler made it up, you’ve got to give him credit.

Tell us how you researched the book.

I actually didn’t do very much traveling for it. I am lucky enough to live in an era when the digitalization of a lot of these stories and sources is proceeding apace. But also, a lot of it I was just able to look at on microfilm. So it was thanks to a previous, less glamorous information revolution, which involved this massive microfilming of everything in every library all over the place over the past 50 years. So the fact is that I can go to a library in Boston and be looking at a microfilm of the original manuscript of the Fifth Symphony; it was a little bit of armchair traveling, which was a bit surreal.

Much has been written about when Beethoven became deaf. Is that really a big deal in your mind?

I don’t think it’s that big a deal. It’s an interesting story, because of the persistence of the idea that he went suddenly, immediately, and profoundly deaf, that he was struck deaf, which is in some ways more dramatic and in some ways less dramatic than the actual story. The actual story is that his deafness was progressive. And he first noticed it when he was quite young, and it deteriorated over a period of many years, which from a biographical standpoint is much more interesting. Because if you follow Beethoven through his life, you can see him gradually coming to terms with the fact that he’s going deaf, even before he finally reaches that point of being completely deaf.

A critic has written that your book restores a sense of beauty, wonderment, and profundity to classical music. Was that your intention?

I don’t think there’s any getting around the fact that we live in an era when the primary way that most people interact with music is passive. We’re passive listeners. There’s a lot of music in the culture that’s specifically designed to be listened to in a more or less passive way, which is not to say that that music can’t yield a lot of really beautiful things when you listen to it in a more active way. I don’t know if the book does this at all. But I would be very happy if it did in some small way encourage people to listen to music, listen to this piece, listen to any piece in a really active way, in a really engaged way, knowing not only that there is this wealth of ideas and history behind any piece of music, classical, pop, or whatever, but also that their own life of ideas and their own life of the mind can also be brought into that experience and can enrich that experience.

What’s it like for you now listening to the Fifth Symphony?

You know, the nice thing for me was, I don’t remember when I first heard it. There are a lot of pieces that I remember the first time I heard them, but the Fifth Symphony has always just kind of been there, which meant probably I came to it the way that most people, musicians or nonmusicians, come to it. It’s just always been part of the culture. Immediately after writing the book, I said, okay, I’m not listening to it for six months at least. But now I hear it, and even before the piece starts, I can sort of cycle through all the collected conventional wisdom of the piece and review it all, reject it all, and then try and come to the piece fresh.

It’s a great piece of music. And you know, in a good performance, no matter how familiar you are with it, it still has an effect. I think it also helps that I tend to have a poor memory, which is kind of bad for a pianist. It’s actually one of the reasons I spent a lot of my time playing for singers, because you didn’t have to memorize the music, which I was always very bad at. But it’s sort of like, every time I hear a piece, even a piece this familiar, there will always be something about the piece I’ve forgotten.

Gavin Fahey (Cfa’22) Named Grand Prize Winner At 2023 Kahn Awards Competition

Painter and Sculptor Gavin Fahey (CFA’22) Wins $20,000 Grand Prize in Annual Kahn Award Competition Annual event to support aspiring artists also fetes five other finalists

This year’s Kahn winners are Savannah Panah (CFA’22), music and vocal performance (from left), Devon Russo (CFA’22), music and vocal performance, grand prize winner Gavin Fahey (CFA’22), painting, Chen Peng (CFA’22), painting, Mya Ison (CFA’22), theater arts and performance, and Noah Putterman (CFA’22), directing.

Fine Arts

Gavin Fahey (CFA’22) Named Grand Prize Winner at 2023 Kahn Awards Competition Annual event to support aspiring artists also fetes five other finalists

Gavin Fahey was your standard-issue overachiever—a double-major in math and economics at Swarthmore College—before a junior year drawing class roused the native Chicagoan’s inner artist.

He indulged his left brain after graduation with a job at RAND Corporation, the global think tank, while simultaneously exercising his creativity by teaching himself to paint. At the College of Fine Arts School of Visual Arts, Fahey (CFA’22) studied for an MFA in painting, but gravitated to sculpture as well, an effort “to subvert the painted image,” he says.

“I even stopped painting altogether and made a series of fake political signs I created in Photoshop and printed out on a large-format printer.”

Today, Fahey says, “I still paint, but my new subversion is that I’m the only one who can see the paintings, as they are hidden inside a wooden sculpture. The paintings I bury are portraits of bad actors: corporate malfeasants, shoe-bombers, and ecoterrorists. They’re individuals who tried to remake the world, but ultimately failed to do so,” from Ted Kaczynski (the Unabomber) to I. Lewis “Scooter” Libby (the George W. Bush aide jailed in connection with leaking a CIA operative’s identity).

Fahey’s work, viewable on his website, has earned the young artist the $20,000 grand prize in CFA’s annual Esther B. and Albert S. Kahn Career Entry Awards competition.

Painter and wood sculptor Gavin Fahey (CFA’22), here with Harvey Young, CFA dean, won the school’s annual Kahn Awards grand prize.

Funded by a $1 million endowment from the late Esther Kahn (Wheelock’55, Hon.’86), the competition is open to CFA students in their final undergraduate or graduate semester.

“My sculptures are, in a sense, Trojan horses, smuggling sinister characters into the white-cube gallery under the guise of formalist sculptural explorations,” Fahey says. “I want my audience to understand the abstruse structures of power Ted Kaczynski fought against, and Scooter Libby fought to maintain. I want the audience to appreciate that the physical space these sculptures occupy is also a sociopolitical space.

“Finally, I want the audience to recognize that they themselves are not simply a group of powerless individuals, but rather a collective of political beings more powerful than the sum of their parts.”

“Gavin’s intervention on the contemporary public art landscape is often profound and thought-provoking,” says Harvey Young, dean of CFA. “With his playful political posters, which ask, Do people even pay attention to slogans? or his satirical spin on newsprint tabloids or his more recent embrace of reliquaries, Gavin challenges us to think about how we see and experience art in our everyday world.”

He and his partner will be able to remain in Brighton for at least a year while he rents work space in Allston. Fahey says he’ll use that year to continue sculpting, including what he calls a “new, Boston-centric body of work” addressing the city’s Jekyll-and-Hyde contradictions. This haven of revolutionaries and abolitionists also has been marred by “deep structural racism and a widening wealth gap,” he notes, while its leading academic institutions have produced graduates who became both “neoliberal and neoconservative politicians.”

In addition to the grand prize, five other Kahn winners each received $2,500 for their art or performance: 

Savannah Panah (CFA’22), School of Music

Devon Russo (CFA’22), School of Music

Noah Putterman (CFA’22), School of Theatre

Mya Ison (CFA’22), School of Theatre

Chen Peng (CFA’22, School of Visual Arts

Judges for this year’s competition were Young; Ty Furman, managing director of the BU Arts Initiative; and Beverly Brown, School of Public Health director of development, industry.

The artwork of Fahey and other MFA painters and sculptors was exhibited recently at BU’s Faye G., Jo, and James Stone Gallery as the capstone of their two years of study.  

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10 Tips For Building A Workforce For The Future

The trick to a thriving company not merely means focusing on the clients’ requirements but making certain your workers are well engaged also. People are the most crucial asset of a company.

It isn’t important when you’ve got the very best strategy or merchandise on earth and secured financing — without the ideal men and women that are fulfilled, fulfilled and happy, your company won’t ever achieve long-term success.

Here are few Tips for Building a Workforce for the Future To devise a welcoming environment

A lot of men and women spend over half of their day to the desk in the front of the monitor when working. This kind of act of extended changes, no breaks, without a individual contact may demotivate and produce the employee lethargic.

If you would like to keep everyone engaged and energized, there should be an environment in which the workers would want to develop and become part of the organization’s growth.

This may be accomplished by creating places where workers can unwind, informally socialize with other people, share thoughts, and thereby boost their own productivity. For example: with a sofa place; game room or perhaps rest headroom.

Team building activities which are unrelated to work

If you’re working at a big business, then you have to have realized it is difficult to mix up with individuals from different departments. There may be actions planned that get everybody under a single umbrella, which may help in establishing and bridging relationships.

Serve flexibility for work-life balance

A fast-paced working life has become rather common today, this blurs out the line between home and work. Employers begin expecting more from the workers, thereby creating a pressure that in return, pressure the workers. Flexible hours must be allowed for everybody to discover the ideal balance between home and work.

Employees should not consider work for a goading. It’s imperative to take some time out and talk to the individuals to find that which would help them through which there could be necessary alterations made.

Communication is the key!

Everyone carries their weight of private life. If the organization doesn’t focus on their issues and worries, then it may lead to loss of productivity. Will make the employees feel comfortable and undervalued. For successful communication with the staff, there should be a method created where everybody can associate with you.

Giving constructive criticism may help workers to maneuver in the ideal direction. It’s also very important to find out the fantastic things that they do. Inform them separately and be outspoken which you’re mindful of where they began and where they could go.

Provide growth opportunity

A joyful workplace cannot be achieved in case your people feel as they are stagnating. What feeling will the job make whether there’s absolutely no progress? Career growth is a very important part of somebody’s life.

Should they believe they’re stuck and there’s absolutely no expansion, they’ll begin searching for a new job. By communicating every day and setting goals, there may be a’road map’ construct to triumph together.

To trust your employees and designate work without micromanaging it

Trusting your employees will not only boost their confidence but will also build your relationship with them. Assign more projects to them and ask for their input on issues and ideas that might work.

Also read: 10 Business-Critical Digital Marketing Trends For 2023

Breaks down

It is necessary to work hard but also take time to relax. A break from work allows us to recover mentally and physically from our daily work routine. Taking time out is important because it will help focus and be productive when there is a return.

By allowing employees such relief, they will be more productive and return to work with a focused mindset. Encourage everyone to use their annual leave.

Switch up the routine

A change hurts nobody. As firms have a set schedule as to the way to operate and fixed working routine, it may make your employees feel more comfortable and be productive.

New ways of accomplishing the very same tasks ought to be encouraged. This will definitely make them more active and alert. Frequent tasks can be achieved using different strategies.

To observe both private and professional landmark

Also read: Top 10 Job Search Websites of 2023

Be consistent

If you want a smooth functioning of an organization then you should ensure continuity in your efforts. Connecting with employees and acting as friends is philosophical and guiding when it is called for.

But it is also necessary to correct undesirable and unproductive behavior by sending a firm message on time. Employees should see consistency and fairness in a boss.

A successful, long-lasting business requires making your organization a happy place to go to work.

Tips And Tricks For Creating Inclusive Content For Youtube

What do you mean by inclusive content on YouTube

Inclusive content on YouTube refers to videos that are welcoming and respectful to all viewers, regardless of their race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, ability, or other characteristics. This can include content that is produced with a diverse cast and crew, as well as content that actively works to challenge stereotypes and promote understanding of marginalized groups. Inclusive content can also include closed captions and audio descriptions for viewers with disabilities. Overall, the aim of inclusive content is to create a positive and respectful community for all viewers.

Benefits of Inclusive Content

Inclusive content can have a number of benefits, including −

Increased representation and visibility of marginalized groups − Inclusive content can help to amplify the voices and perspectives of marginalized communities, which can help to combat stereotypes and bias.

Improved engagement and loyalty − Diversifying the perspectives and experiences represented in your content can help to attract and retain a wider range of readers or viewers.

Greater cultural understanding − Inclusive content can help to promote understanding and empathy between different groups, which can lead to a more tolerant and inclusive society.

Better business performance − Companies that are seen as inclusive and diverse are often perceived more positively by consumers, which can lead to better business performance.

Compliance with legal and ethical standards − Inclusive content can help to ensure that companies follow laws and regulations around discrimination and equal opportunity, as well as ethical standards of inclusivity and diversity.

Tips for Creating Inclusive Content for YouTube

Understanding the importance of words is key. They can motivate, but also have the capacity to differentiate and remove. When it comes to composing all-inclusive material, you must be mindful of the language you use.

Using gender-neutral terminology should be taken for granted. Instead of terms such as “mankind” and “salesman”, use “humankind” and “salesperson”. In addition, you should avoid any gender-based presumptions. Please note that politicians are not always men, and a parent does not necessarily have to be a woman. It is best to use a gender-neutral pronoun such as “they” in these situations.

Use inclusive language and avoid stereotypes or offensive language.

Consider the diversity of your audience and represent a wide range of perspectives. If you are looking to promote an inclusive and diverse environment, stock images featuring white, middle-class Americans or Europeans will not be enough. People prefer to be represented in images, which is why learning how to use diverse stock photos is essential. This will make them feel empowered, included, and increase their connection to your company and product.

Use closed captions or subtitles to make your content accessible to viewers with hearing impairments. Add descriptive text to your videos to make them accessible to viewers with visual impairments.

Be mindful of cultural references and avoid appropriating or misrepresenting cultures.

Consider the background and setting of your videos, and make sure they are not discriminatory or offensive.

Avoid using flashing lights or strobe effects, which can trigger seizures or migraines.

Be mindful of your tone and the words you use in your videos, and consider the impact they may have on different viewers.

Avoid industry jargon, abbreviations, and other specialized terms that the average consumer will not understand.

Wrapping Up

To ensure you have all the tools needed to create inclusive content going forward, make sure to commit the steps in this article to memory and add them to your style guide. Take some time to explore the stock photo libraries I mentioned, and keep learning about using inclusive language.

Leishmania Parasite: Deadly For Humans, But Good For Flies?

No human would be inclined to think favorably of leishmaniasis, caused by a parasite spread by sand flies, which infects about 12 million people worldwide and kills 20,000 to 30,000 per year.

Leishmaniasis comes in two basic forms, cutaneous and visceral. The second is more serious, attacking the internal organs, and can lead to death if it’s not treated. But cutaneous leishmaniasis is more visible, causing large (and egregious, unsightly) skin sores and lesion that can leave behind nasty scars. The cutaneous variety can also spread to the body’s mucous membranes, creating sores in the sinuses and mouth–which can end up destroying them. Leishmaniasis is found in 90 countries, mostly in the tropics, from Latin America to Africa, the Middle East and South Asia. “Collectively the leishmaniases present a major global health problem, and are the second biggest parasitic killers worldwide after Malaria,” Owens said.

But it turns out that this “parasite” may actually be beneficial for the flies that carry it, by helping them to fight off infection from a different type of pathogen, new research shows.

It was previously known that various species of the Leishmania protozoa can shorten the lifespan of sand flies, especially if they are stressed (hey, flies get stressed too)–but according to the new study, published in the journal Parasites and Vectors, nobody had looked to see if the microbe might have beneficial effects for the insect. But that’s just what a team of Brazilian and British researchers has done. When they exposed sand flies to a form of Leishmania protozoa found throughout Latin America, then exposed the insects to pathogenic bacteria, many more of the protozoa-carrying flies survived. In fact, at least five times more of the Leishmania-carrying flies lived after exposure to the bacterium (known as Serratia marcescens), compared to flies free of the protozoa.

The Leishmania parasite “works as a kind of probiotic and reduces the mortality of the fly,” said study co-author Rod Dillon, a researcher at Lancaster University in the United Kingdom.

“This is very interesting, as it is suggestive that similar mechanisms are operating here in the sandfly, as occurs in humans–i.e. that the [‘good’] bacteria that inhabit your gut can protect you from pathogenic bacteria,” said Ben Owens, an immunologist at the University of Oxford, who wasn’t involved in the study. But in this case the Leishmania “is acting as a ‘good’ bug.’”

There are other instances of “parasites” having some beneficial effects for their hosts. For example, some helminths, or worms, can help regulate the immune system of animals that carry them, Owens told Popular Science. In fact, various helminths have potential to treat human autoimmune and gastrointestinal disorders like ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

But not everybody is convinced. “I think it is really a stretch to say that the parasite has evolved to provide this protection,” George Dimopoulos, a professor of molecular microbiology and immunology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore told The Scientist. “It’s more likely that Leishmania, as with all parasites that are transmitted by vectors, will turn on the sand fly’s immune system, which in turn is going to provide some level of protection against any other type of microorganism.” He added: “It’s not something that is necessarily specific to [Leishmania].”

The team had originally been looking to see whether they might be able to halt the spread of leishmaniasis by exposing sand flies to bacteria (to kill the flies, but perhaps also make the flies less likely to carry the protozoa). But exposing the flies to this bacterium, could ironically do quite the opposite. “Sand flies not carrying Leishmania may succumb more rapidly to the biological control agent and this would lead to the development of a wild sand fly population containing an increased proportion of the surviving flies carrying the human disease”, the authors wrote. A scary thought.

There is no vaccine for leishmaniasis, and it can be difficult to treat–the standard therapy to date usually involves injecting patients with an antimony-containing compound that can have bad side effects. But for sand flies, Leishmania is not the horror it is for humans.

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