Trending December 2023 # Ancient ‘Made In China’ Label Pushes Back The Date Of Shipwreck By 100 Years # Suggested January 2024 # Top 18 Popular

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The inscriptions on the bottom of this ceramic box base mention a city, Jianning Fu. The inscription helps date the shipwreck that carried this artifact to 100 years earlier than previously assumed. (c) The Field Museum, cat. no. 344404. Photographer Gedi Jakovickas

The wooden ship sailing through the waters between the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java held a fortune. Its hold was packed with 200 tons of iron and 30 tons of ceramics from China. Rounding out the cargo were elephant tusks, aromatic resins, and potentially jars of foodstuffs or fabrics—all valuable trade items headed for a distant port. Then, disaster struck. For some reason (potentially a storm) the ship foundered, sinking to the bottom of the Java sea.

It lay on the seafloor for centuries until the late 1980’s, when local fishermen notices a lot of seabirds flying over the site, and figured it would be a great place to fish. “But when they started to do their work, they started bringing up ceramics,” says Lisa Niziolek, an archaeologist at the Field Museum. “Unfortunately for us it’s far more lucrative for them to sell ceramics than fish so there was a lot of looting at the site by local divers prior to 1996 when Pacific Sea Resources came in and did the final salvage work.”

Niziolek is the lead author of a new study published in the Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, which took a closer look at the artifacts from the wreck, and found that the ship sank nearly 100 years before it was previously thought to, thanks in part to the equivalent of a ‘made in China’ inscription on a few of the pottery pieces.

The artifacts from the ship took a circuitous path to Niziolek and colleagues at the Field Museum. Niziolek explains that when the private company Pacific Sea Resources got permission from Indonesia to salvage the wreck site, they were required to give half of the cargo to the Indonesian government. The other half was theirs, to do with as they pleased. An archeologist, Maichel Flecker, was part of the salvage mission, and had meticulously mapped the site and documented the placement of the artifacts on the seafloor during the salvage process, in addition to taking a sample of resin and running it through radiocarbon dating, which put the age of the wreck at about 700 years old.

All those efforts made the wreck not just monetarily valuable, but also scientifically valuable, giving future researchers the information needed to do more research on the site, even after it was excavated from its resting place. In the end, the company donated their half to the Field Museum in Chicago, where Niziolek eventually started looking into the ceramics that had been on board.

Ceramic bowls from the Java sea shipwreck, now dated to about 800 years ago. © The Field Museum, Anthropology, Photographer Pacific Sea Resources

She and he co-workers decided to take a closer look at some of the artifacts and found an inscription on the bases of two ceramic pieces that mentioned a place, Jianning Fu, a prefecture in the Fujian province in China. “Jianning Fu is referring to the place where these pieces were produced. In that sense it is like a ‘made in china’ stamp.” Niziolek says, likening it to the ubiquitous stickers and stamps that demarcate commercial goods produced in China.

“It wasn’t unusual at the time for ceramics to have inscriptions on them—usually though, they would indicate a family name, the family who owned the workshop where the pieces were made,” Niziolek says. But that wasn’t the most unusual thing about the inscription. That particular name shouldn’t have existed on dishes that were only 700 years old. 700 years ago, that location wasn’t called Jianning Fu. The prefecture changed its name in a transition of power in 1278 (a.k.a. Kublai Khan taking over China), becoming Jianning Lu.

The inscriptions were another clue that the date they had wasn’t quite correct. Now it was time to see if a new radiocarbon dating analysis agreed. The researchers took three samples from different artifacts on the ship, including resin and ivory. They used accelerator mass spectrometry, a dating method that could measure the carbon isotopes in the organic samples with more precision and sensitivity than the tests run in 1997 were capable of. The result? The goods on the ship were likely 800 years old, not 700.

In this case, the change in date helps the shipwreck find a better fit in its historical context. Niziolek says that about 40 years before the the earliest time this ship would have sailed there was upheaval in China. “That’s a time when the Song dynasty court was forced from the north to the south by invading Jurchen, who established the Jin dynasty. The overland silk routes would have been cut off to the Song dynasty court, and they came to rely more heavily on the maritime routes. That’s not to say those maritime routes didn’t exist prior to this, they just became more used.” Niziolek says.

The ship routes were also perfect for transporting pottery, which is easier to carry safely over the sea than on land. The researchers think this ship was probably headed for a port on Java, where it would have traded the goods on board for other luxury items, including spices like pepper, which were highly prized.

There’s still a lot to learn from the artifacts in the shipwreck. Niziolek and her colleagues are looking into where the goods on board came from, narrowing down the source of the resin (it may be from Gujarat in India, or Japan), or using DNA analysis to try to trace the origin of the elephant tusks. Niziolek is particularly focused on linking the ceramics to specific kiln sites in China, which could build up the picture of trade in the region even more broadly.

“It’s important to realize how many stories and how much information we can get from this single collection. Even if wasn’t procured under ideal circumstances we’re still able to take it and really invest a lot in terms of the research to look at these processes that people are familiar with every day.” Niziolek says. “You think now we live in this globalized economy, but 800 years ago, it was very similar.”

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Blockchain And Crypto Cannot Be Ignored For The Next 100 Years!

In the year 2023, cryptocurrencies took the world by storm. The price of Bitcoin will head up around $20,000. The average ICO returned well over 10x. ICO funding surpassed traditional VC funding. Blockchain and Crypto technology emerged as the new buzzword of choice by investors. 

This technology is expected to uprise and influence every single sector of the industry. Healthcare, Banking & Finance are the initial industrial verticals that have reaped profits till the date. With these positive effects, most of the investors find this to be the right time to invest in blockchain. 

Why Blockchain and Crypto will be dominating the future?

The potential of blockchain and crypto world stretches far beyond, with its decentralized nature. It is intended to eliminate fraudulent activities, automate manual processes, and reduce the issues of scalability. The power of Blockchain can enable humans to redefine legacy architectures and bring in instant transactions.

Here are the major reasons why Blockchain & cryptocurrencies are going to be crucial in the future industry:

Governments would start adopting crypto’s

By the year 2030, most governments around the world will start creating and adopting virtual currencies. Most of the countries which haven’t made cryptocurrencies to be legal are also expected to legalize them in the future. 

Compared to traditional fiat currencies, cryptos are considered to be more effective with a dozen of benefits. Some of them include:

Reducing Settlement times

Increased Traceability

Reduces Scalability

To put it in short words, government-based cryptocurrencies will become an area of experimentation. However, due to the lack of expertise, these governments would turn to external consultancies and start adopting Blockchain Technology.  

This can, in turn, reduce hacks and scam activities by bringing in privacy controls, interoperability, and toolset maturity. If in case the governments fail to create cryptocurrencies, they would move towards Stablecoins as the virtual currency.

You’ll order food with Blockchain

As the social media giants like Facebook, WhatsApp has already started implementing Blockchain Technology to help its users to send money. They can make use of money to put bread, butter, jam for every single day.

In addition to them, JPMorgan Chase is creating a coin named JPM Coin with its own blockchain. Being the largest U.S. bank, they have a plethora of users who want to transfer money. But with Blockchain Technology, everything is made simple.  

Moreover, other than this, by implementing Blockchain Technology, major issues like Food poisoning can be figured out. Food traceability Blockchain and Crypto solutions will allow a food manufacturer to guarantee food authenticity. A Blockchain solution can be used to track food products right from its source through the supply chain. 

Just consider a case where a farmer starts developing a new blockchain once they harvest their crops. Information such as time, date, location, etc will be recorded in the database. Once done they are transported to the company, details such as time of collection, transportation, and the details of the driver will also be recorded.

In this way, it becomes easily traceable to the customers. Popular food industry giants Nestle, Unilever, and Walmart are all the affected food products in a matter of minutes. 

You will own and possess Digital goods

A report from Forbes states that the collectibles industry is over $200 billion and the blockchain will unlock it. One of the major companies Funko has profited more than $600 million for the year 2023 with Blockchain technology. 

Moreover, thousands of people everyday purchase collectibles from the industry. Some of these things are outrageously expensive were comic books made a profit of around $2-3 million.

Just consider, if you don’t have anything but with a collectible implemented with Blockchain technology can bring in benefits. This also opens the door for hobbyists who are involved with a rare piece of digital art, action figures, and other collectibles.  

World Trade on a Blockchain

By the year 2030, most of the world’s trading activity will be conducted adopting Blockchain technology. As Healthcare, Finance, Banking are the prioritized industries, supply chain ranks next with Blockchain.

Some of the real-world problems on Supply chain include:

Counterfeit Medicines in the pharma industry

Food supply chain 

Counterfeit auto parts in North America

Grey Market or Counterfeit electronic equipment including medical devices

These problems can be easily addressed by the Blockchain and thereby enhancing the industry. It provides functional scope, flexibility, performance, efficiency to the sector. We can expect the whole trade to be on Blockchain.

Also read: 30+ Loan Apps Like MoneyLion and Dave: Boost Your Financial Emergency (#3 Is Popular 🔥 )

How Blockchain and Crypto can make this happen?

Blockchain and crypto technology is set to transform every industry without any doubts. It is believed that around 84% of executives will reach the mainstream eventually. In addition to this, spending on the blockchain has raised around $1.5 billion for the year 2023.

So what could be the actual reason? How Blockchain can bring in these benefits? What is so unique with this technology? 

Here are the major reasons:

Bringing in Transparency

With Blockchain and Crypto Technology, all the transactions are visible to everyone. In addition to this, it also eliminates the need for middlemen like banks, third parties, or other central authorities. This not only makes the transaction secure but also makes it instantly. 

This is one of the positive attributes of why people make use of blockchain. The complete transparencies in the network make it one of the most likable technologies among others. This ledger gets shared among all the users in the network. Therefore, every participant in the ledger can see every transaction happening here. 


Blockchain and Crypto technology are considered to be more secure than traditional methods. The nature of the public ledger is that all the data in the blockchain are encrypted such that no party has the power to manipulate any information. 

If you look at the Gaming industry, there are no such safe environments to perform transactions. As a result of this, consumers are relying on fraudulent forums in this case. One of the popular Blockchain startups, Gameflip has launched its ICO in 2023. 

It has made to scale peer-to-peer level buying, selling, and trading of digital goods in the video gaming industry. Moreover, they provided a secure and standardized token ecosystem for gamers to conduct transactions, which is empowered by Blockchain.

Eliminates Fraudulent Activities

The major motto of Blockchain and crypto technology is to reduce and eliminate online scams. They readily have solutions for the query, “How to prevent payment scams online?”. The buyers and sellers involved in the transactions will make use of smart contracts to perform buy and sell orders. 

Since everything is accounted for and kept under the track, it is difficult for corruption. Another reason is the technology is protected because if a transaction occurs between two parties it individually requires a signature that can prevent scams.

To Close:

Without a doubt, Blockchain and Crypto are going to remain as a sparkling technology which brings in a horizon of new possibilities. One can approach the Blockchain Technology Development Companies which provides top-notch Blockchain development services. As the famous cryptos like Bitcoin, Ethereum, are uprising every day we can expect a good number of traders and investors to enter the world! I hope the regulations turn green in every single country for hassle-free transactions!

Robert Kroos

Hey, this is Robert Kroos, Crypto Enthusiast and Writer. I love to share my ideas on Cryptocurrency & Blockchain and educate people with simple and rich content. You can find me listening to music when I’m doing nothing.

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Celop Celebrates 30 Years Of International Education

CELOP celebrates 30 years of international education Reaccreditation in 2005 and rejuvenation in 2006

Margot Valdivia, center, CELOP director, discusses the program with Sun Young of Korea (left) and Cheng-Ya Chang of Taiwan.

In its 30 years, BU’s Center for English Language and Orientation Programs has faced some challenges standard for any higher education institution, such as increased competition from overseas and a changing student profile. Other trials, however, have been specific to a program designed to help foreign students transition into American university life.

“Our business is very vulnerable to what happens in the world, politically and economically,” says Margot Valdivia, CELOP’s director. “We’re impacted by everything that happens outside the United States.”

Over the past decade, CELOP has experienced both its best and worst years — before and after 9/11, respectively — and the program is still rebounding from a 40 percent enrollment drop in late 2001 and early 2002. But at the end of last year, CELOP’s status as one of the longest-running and highest-rated English-language study programs in the country was confirmed by two events: the 30th anniversary of its founding and reaccreditation by the Commission on English Language Program Accreditation.

“It epitomizes the fact that we are a successful program,” says Valdivia. “It is really a fact that we are one of the top schools in the country.”

CELOP is one of 51 accredited programs nationwide and the only one of the three in Massachusetts affiliated with a college or university. More than 1,200 students, representing 50 countries, have enrolled this year, and next year’s enrollment is expected to top 1,400. Depending on their interests and goals, students might study television news broadcasts to improve general language skills, tour the Boston Stock Exchange to observe the idiosyncrasies of business English, or participate in mock doctor-patient conversations to gain comfort and fluency.

The student population has varied significantly over the past 30 years, says Valdivia, who has been with CELOP since 1975. In the 1970s, the program had many Iranian students and many Venezuelan students, who received scholarships from the government institution Fundación Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho. In 1985, the Hariri Foundation, led by the late prime minister of Lebanon and former Boston University trustee Rafik B. Hariri (Hon.’86), sponsored hundreds of Lebanese students who came to CELOP to study English. In the 1990s, the booming economy brought students from all over Asia.

Now, as CELOP climbs out of a decline, the program is faced with increasing competition from other English-speaking countries such as Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom. To remain competitive, CELOP now offers nine full-time programs catering to different types of students, from health-care professionals to those pursuing MBA degrees.

The reaccreditation, which stands until 2023, is particularly meaningful now, says Valdivia. For the first time since 2001, foreign families are beginning to feel comfortable sending their children to the United States again, and she hopes that CELOP can continue to play a role in fostering international communication.

“We feel that we really prepare students for success in professional and academic life,” she says, “but also that we really help students open their minds globally.”

Explore Related Topics:

How 100% Capri Is Pioneering Fashion Sustainability By Focusing On Designer Quality Linen

Today, the most innovative companies, regardless of industry, are resonating with consumers by delivering quality products and services via sustainable business practices. An increasing number of consumers are focusing their spending power on companies committed to environmentally friendly initiatives. One McKinsey Survey, highlighted by the World Economic Forum, noted that 66% of all respondents consider sustainability when making a purchase. This trend is only growing as the same survey, noted that 75% of millennial respondents consider sustainability when making a purchase. Additionally, this is a global phenomenon as The Economist and WWF found a 71% increase in international online searches for sustainable goods, deeming it an Eco-Awakening.

While the sustainability movement intersects with all industries, the technical challenges and consumer hurdles to achieving mass adoption of eco-friendly products vary depending on the business. While the fashion industry’s impact on the environment does not garner massive public outcry, there is a growing cohort of people worried about eco-friendly farming, color dying, production, and shipping practices. To this point, 50% of fashion executives admit that consumers are driving the increased focus on sustainability in the industry according to The Economist.

100% Capri is an Italian clothing brand disrupting the fashion industry by exclusively focusing on high-quality, sustainable linen. 

Since its inception, the 100% Capri modus operandi has been aimed at popularizing linen as the perfect fabric for comfortable high-end clothing precisely because of its sustainability, natural materials, and comfortability. With a focus on ecological materials and a unique melange of traditional Italian tailoring & modern manufacturing practices, 100% Capri has played a major role in the recent acceptance of linen as a designer material. 

While designer brands have introduced linen options over the last few years, linen has historically been frowned upon as it has been perceived as cheap and not sexy. The 100% Capri team has been intent on disrupting this perception in high fashion. Aiello understands that despite this out-of-date mentality, linen is the perfect material for the same high-net-worth individual who purchases designer brands and goes on vacation to the world’s top vacation destinations. Linen-based clothing is ide for these locations as it is light, breathable, cool in the summer, doesn’t cause heat or sun rashes, can be worn casually or formally, and naturally suits any body type. Simply put, linen is the perfect material to relax in; to this point, hospitals even wrap newborn babies in linen blankets upon being born. 

Aiello knows this from experience as he personally styled and dressed Bill Gates and Paul Allen of Microsoft as well as Jean Claude of Netscape in 100% Capri clothing — helping the newly minted internet rockstars find their confidence through their style sense. Aeillo also worked with Jay-Z and Beyonce to help them embrace their vacation styles. Now everyone from the establishment families of the fashion industry to Kim Kardashian dresses in 100% Capri linen on vacation.

With stores in some of the most desirable luxury vacation spots around the world from Saint Barthélemy, Mykonos, Saint-Tropez, Ibiza, Miami, Dubai, Qatar, South Africa, Rome, Florence, Portofino, and – of course – Capri, the 100% Capri brand is resonating with its target audience when and where they need it most. These brick-and-mortar stores are intentionally located as Aiello understands that vacationers want to relax in style and comfort at their 5-star resort, dinner, and throughout their vacation. The entire 100% Capri team is passionate about contributing to this experience.

Aiello loves to see customers come into 100% Capri stores wearing other designer brands since this is a symbol that linen is finally getting the attention it deserves. Aiello states, “When I see my client, I see my client with a Rolex watch, Hermes bag, Chanel shoes, and a 100% Capri Shirt.” With an authentic mission, long-term mindset, and an emphasis on quality, 100% Capri is one of the only ‘newer’ brands cracking the establishment chokehold on the industry. 

In fact, due to Aiello’s and the company’s expertise, many designer brands have asked the 100% Capri team to consult on their new linen-based lines or products. As the industry expert in linen, hyper-focused on his niche, Aiello is not worried about the competition. Aiello knows his best strategy is to cultivate meaningful long-term relationships and double down on what he does best – linen. 

Going an inch wide and a mile deep, 100% Capri is resonating with the consumer as a pioneer in fashion sustainability and designer quality linen. With entrepreneurial savvy, quality products, and unparalleled brand positioning, we expect 100% Capri to continue to grow and innovate in the market. To learn more about how 100% Capri aims to educate consumers on linen, climate change, and the health effects of clothing, visit the website and Instagram.

This article is a paid partnership with 100% Capri.

5,000 Tons Of Ancient ‘Extraterrestrial Dust’ Fall On Earth Each Year

Shooting stars are a neat freak’s nightmare. Although a breathtaking sight, every year heaps of their dying ashes—tiny dust grains known as micrometeorites—litter our planet. But until recently, researchers couldn’t exactly quantify how messy things were.

Now, a team of cosmochemists finally have an answer, after digging up thousands of micrometeorites in the middle of Antarctica.

Where does all this space dust come from, anyway? Our solar system is home to what’s called the zodiacal cloud—a shroud of cosmic dust suffused between the inner planets. As the Earth ploughs through this dusty curtain, it catches (literally) tons of tiny particles, which gravity pulls to our planet’s surface. Some of them catch fire as they hurtle through our atmosphere, creating those lucky wish-makers.

But all the activity on Earth generates plenty of dust, too, making the measurement of just space dust pretty difficult. That’s why researchers went to Antarctica. 

“Central Antarctica is a desert. So it’s totally isolated,” says Jean Duprat, a cosmochemist at the Sorbonne University in France. This means there’s very little normal or “terrestrial” dust to cause confusion. The frozen wasteland is flat and white, with no color and no smells, he says. A strange place, but excellent for looking for ancient extraterrestrial dust, which could reveal clues about the early formation of the solar system.

Left: Location of the CONCORDIA station (Dome C, Antarctica). Right: View of a trench where micrometeorites were harvested. Via Science Direct. J.Rojasa, J.Duprat, et. al.

Duprat and Cecile Engrand, another cosmochemist from the Paris-Saclay University, first went to Antarctica almost two decades ago to search for this cosmic detritus. Together, they recently published a new study which estimates that over 5,000 metric tons of micrometeorites make it to Earth each year. 

That’s the equivalent of about 25 to 30 blue whales, the largest animals to ever have lived. The amount isn’t too surprising, but until now scientists have had a hard time getting a precise measurement.

[Related: Baked meteorite dust can simulate alien atmospheres]

In most parts of the world, dirt, rain, and other factors make it hard to find micrometeorites, and next to impossible to figure out how many fell in a specific amount of time. Thankfully, the pristinely barren, icy stretches of inland Antarctica are the perfect place to look. 

The temperature never gets above freezing, so micrometeorites get trapped in progressive layers of snowfall. When researchers dig beneath the surface, then, they’re looking back in time—like examining the rings of a tree. By scooping out successive layers of frozen micrometeorites, they can figure out how many fell in a given amount of time.

“This is a very nice systematic piece of science, and it’s an important result. It’s really helping us better understand what’s hitting us,” says Larry Nittler, a cosmochemist who studies meteorites and space dust at the Carnegie Science Institute, who was not involved in the study.

On the expeditions, researchers dug several meters down in snow and ice near the French and Italian CONCORDIA station in Antarctica. They put the snow in big plastic barrels which they hauled back to base, then melted the snow and strained out the cosmic dust, making sure to remove any occasional contaminants. Finally, they brought the filtered space dustbins back to a lab to analyze their catch.

They found more than 2,000 individual micrometeorites of different varieties. The two broad types they found were unmelted meteorites, which are wonky shaped and kind of fuzzy looking, and “cosmic spherules” which get hot enough to melt while blazing through the Earth’s atmosphere at high speed.

Cosmic spherules and unmelted micrometeorites from CONCORDIA collection. From left to right: glassy cosmic spherule, stony cosmic spherule, partially melted (scoriaceous) micrometeorite, unmelted fine-grained micrometeorite. Via Science Direct. J.Rojasa, J.Duprat, et. al.

“The ones that are going faster get completely melted,” Nittler says. Researchers still can’t fully predict why some particles melt while others are barely heated at all by their passage through the atmosphere, Engrand says, though larger particles tend to go faster.

The authors think that most of the micrometeorites came from icy comets originating in the Kuiper belt, not rocky asteroids—which seems to support the idea that the zodiacal cloud is continually restocked from passing comets. Unless, Nittler says, new weird data from the Juno space probe pans out, suggesting that zodiacal dust may be from Mars’ direction instead, which, he says, “makes no sense.”

See 24,000 Years Of Climate History At A Glance

It shouldn’t come as a surprise that Earth hasn’t been this hot in a very long time, and, unfortunately, is on track to get hotter. Now, a map of global climate going back 24,000 years recently published in Nature allows us to see those changes over this time period, mapped out across the planet.

“This is the first time that you can really go through and get a very personal view of climate evolution at a spot that’s meaningful to you,” says Matthew Osman, a climatologist at the University of Arizona, and the study’s lead author. “I hope what this does is help ingrain a sense of just how severe climate change is today.”

24,000 years of climate history in New York City, Los Angeles, and Houston. Courtesy Matthew Osman

The map is built by comparing sediment cores, which contain a record of temperatures over thousands of years, with historical climate models. Think of it like trying to reconstruct a game of pool, if all you can see are which balls landed in which pockets, and in what order. Each core only shows how the weather changed at a certain location. But researchers can use them to tweak a global model—essentially a time-lapse of the planet’s climate—until it shows a picture that matches the real-world temperature records.

Courtesy Matthew Osman

“[The finding] represents a fundamental reassessment of our understanding of climate change over the past 20,000 years,” writes Zeke Hausfather, a climate scientist with the Breakthrough Institute, on Twitter. “It now seems much clearer [that] current warming is unprecedented since at least before the last ice age.”

This new picture of how the planet has changed also gives climatologists a better view of how regional climate systems interact. “Everything is intimately coupled,” says Osman. “If you change the winds over, for example, China, that’s gonna have rippling effects on precipitation over North America. And so what a model does is it allows us to start to pick apart that coupling in a way that makes physical sense.”

The research also mirrors results from a paper published earlier this year that solved a longstanding problem in climate modeling. Although carbon levels rose consistently after the glaciers retreated, sediment cores appeared to show a cooling planet, a fact that climate skeptics latched onto. The previous research found that the apparent cooling was actually an illusion caused by too many sediment cores from the Northern Hemisphere and not enough from other pockets of the world, leading to an inaccurate picture. The work also found that if anything, the planet was much colder during the glaciation than previously thought.

[Related: Not convinced that humans are causing climate change? Here are the facts.]

The new map is built with an entirely different technique but finds the same story—when glaciers covered the Northern Hemisphere, the climate was 10 degrees Fahrenheit colder than it is now. It’s been warming ever since, with two rapid bursts about 18,000 years ago and 12,000 years ago.

Warming of 2 to 3 degrees would mean “essentially a large fraction of these interglacial changes occurring in a really, really short amount of time,” says Osman. “And that should be something that I think concerns everybody,” from individuals to entire countries.

Policies outlined in the Paris Climate Accord would limit warming to 2.7 degrees above pre-industrial levels, although most countries haven’t followed through on those commitments. According to the new research, that would be comparable to the warming that took place between roughly 12,000 and 200 years ago. The planetary change that accompanied that warming is mind-boggling: 12,000 years ago, most of North America was 36 degrees colder than it is today, largely because of the retreating ice sheets.

The planet warmed more than 2 degrees between 12,000 years ago and about 1900, and carbon emissions are on track to warm it the same amount in a matter of decades. Courtesy Matthew Osman

“These are huge, huge, natural changes that are occurring,” Osman says of this period, “where we’re fundamentally shifting the state of the climate system from an ice age into the world that each of us knows today.” We don’t want to find out what would accompany another 2.7 degrees.

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