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How does Apron Network act as a Middleware Platform for dApps developers?

While blockchain technology was introduced to the global industry accounted for by Bitcoin’s success and emergence, the application horizon of the technology is much more diverse. Over the past decade, several sectors have dwelled into the blockchain space with the objective of improved transparency, reduction of cost, and traceability of data. 

Its importance has been widely recognized in the business organizations but mass adoption of the technology has yet to prevail. While considered decentralized, there are several individual blockchain networks or siloed blockchains that are largely centralized and they are unable to communicate properly with other network structures. Hence, a series of dissociated blockchains due to a lack of interoperability is currently limiting the true potential of blockchain. 

Middleware and its Importance in blockchain ecosystem

The concept of middleware has been around since the 1980s, and currently, it holds a major significance in solving blockchains’ interoperability issues. In layman terms, middleware facilitates the communication between various networks.

Legacy Systems usually interact via an Application programming interface or APIs to communicate data, but its interacting rules are set by different programmers. Moving towards a WEB 3.0 landscape, such existing discrepancies will lead to further incohesiveness between blockchains. Additionally, it may also restrict the evolution of the DeFi industry, where developers might be restricted to only one network for infrastructure services and application development.

 Middleware currently addresses these aspects of blockchain while also attaining to the following challenges:

Business Security

: Identity management and assurance of regulatory compliance, across various digital operations, that constantly interact on a day to day basis

Transparency and Trustlessness

: Optimizing cross-organization operations while minimizing human error by more automated operations such as smart contracts.


: Amalgamation or interaction between different sectors and industries to derive better solutions at a reduced cost and higher efficiency.

Polkadot Middleware: Breaking down the Interoperability barrier

Over the past few years, several interoperability projects have surfaced in the ecosystem. In 2023, its importance was pushed into the mainstream after the DeFi market started to gain bullish momentum. For the DeFi landscape, interoperability tools are highly essential since they summarize the decentralized aspect of the ecosystem.

Polkadot has been one of the emerging projects in 2023 and their protocol is based on solving the interoperability issue. The objective of the project is to create a unified network, which will have a positive impact on the eventual transition to WEB 3.0. Now, Polkadot is a sharded multi-chain or parachain network, where it is able to process various transactions on parallel blockchains. Scaling is significantly improved, and it promotes the right form of functionality for increased adoption. 

Pure Interoperability

: As a cross-chain mechanism, Polkadot facilitates the transaction of any form of data asset over a wide range of blockchains on the Polkadot network. 


: Other than transactional, Polkadot’s network provides significant economic solidity by enabling a common set of validators to secure parallel blockchains. Transactional efficiency has already been explained as transfers are spread across multiple parachains or parallel blockchains. 

Blockchain infrastructure development

: Organizations are able to manifest a blockchain on the network using the Substrate framework, and the blockchain is able to connect with all the other networks on the Polkadot platform. 

Apron Network: Middleware platform for Decentralized Applications(dApps) and developers

As highlighted earlier, the functionality of a middleware system is extremely convenient for dApps and developers that are trying to branch out their services and implementation across various blockchains. The Apron Network is setting up the perfect platform for dApps and DeFi users as it is built on a parachain on the Polkadot network. It is developed by Substrate and Apron provides API services for the Polkadot system. 

Apron Network consists of 4 major components and the combined functionality of Apron Node, Apron Marketplace and Apron SDK provide the perfect platform for dApps developers and users. 

Apron Node acts as the gateway for infrastructure providers into the network, as they have to synchronize their services on the network through an Apron Node. Once the services are deployed using the Apron node, it is made available for the public to any network connected to the internet.

The infrastructure services can then be used by dApps developers, and they can use the service directly or through the Apron SDK. The Apron SDK provides users with a complete dApp experience, avoiding any other changes to complete migration of the dApp.

The role of Apron Marketplace is also essential as it utilizes a series of contracts to match demand and supply end of the services. dApps users and developers are assisted in finding their desired infrastructure service, facilitating a higher level of convenience within the Apron Network. 

Why is the Apron Network beneficial for dApp developers and users?

In a decentralized ecosystem, dApp developers are the present and future innovators in the technological landscape but they do not have the capital to develop a corresponding structure for their product. 

On the Apron Network, dApp developers are provided with the infrastructure services on the network and they are able to choose over a variety of services that will be synchronized with Apron Node on the network. It reduces massive cost and since the Apron Network is entirely based on a decentralized module, dApps developers can branch out into different blockchain systems.

In comparison to regular legacy systems, Apron Network acts as the perfect middleware to bring together a diverse set of Infrastructure services with a wide range of dApp developers.   

You can find Apron Network via the following links,

Got questions? You can email [email protected]/ [email protected]

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Solar Energy Reaches A New Efficiency Record

Correction: As originally published, this story suggested that researchers had found a way to produce a solar cell that outputted more energy than it took in. Instead, researchers improved the external quantum efficiency of solar cells, which is essentially the rate of electrons flowing out of a solar cell divided by the rate of photons flowing in. It should not be confused with the “actual” efficiency rate–the laws of physics dictate that it can’t output more energy than it takes in. Also, it should be noted that this is “peak” quantum efficiency, as a reader has pointed out, not a sustained quantum efficiency level. We apologize for the confusion and regret the error. The corrected story follows below.

Just this past week, PhysOrg reported that researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) had finally crafted a solar cell with a extetnal quantum efficiency (EQE) value of over 100 percent. Basically, EQE measures the rate of energy flowing out of a solar cell divided by the rate of light flowing into it.

This shouldn’t be confused with a solar cell putting out more energy than it takes in, as this would violate the Law of Conservation of Energy. But for non-phycists, the takeaway is that, with these new developments, solar cells should eventually be able to do their job a lot better.

Researchers achieved this thanks to some inventive applications of zinc oxide, lead selenide, and a touch of gold: This new type of solar cell achieves roughly “114 percent external quantum efficiency”, according to PhysOrg. Here are the bare details from PhysOrg, detailing what it means for green, naturally sustainable energy.

“The newly reported work marks a promising step toward developing Next Generation Solar Cells for both solar electricity and solar fuels that will be competitive with, or perhaps less costly than, energy from fossil or nuclear fuels.

“In a 2006 publication, NREL scientists Mark Hanna and Arthur J. Nozik showed that ideal MEG in solar cells based on quantum dots could increase the theoretical thermodynamic power conversion efficiency of solar cells by about 35 percent relative to today’s conventional solar cells. Furthermore, the fabrication of Quantum Dot Solar Cells is also amenable to inexpensive, high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing.”

Head on over to PhysOrg for more technical details if you want to learn more.

But even if solar energy becomes cheap enough for mass production, MIT’s Technology Review notes that trade tariffs could inflate the cost of the technology. In fact, it has already started, as China-based producers of solar cells and energy-collecting modules are selling their products at “unfairly low prices.” In retaliation, the U.S. Government has started playing political hardball.

“On October 18, the U.S. government was asked to impose tariffs on imports of Chinese solar cells and modules, based on the argument that China-based producers have been heavily subsidized and are selling solar products at unfairly low prices. Perhaps not surprisingly, some Chinese companies have now asked the Chinese government to impose tariffs on imports of American solar products, arguing that U.S.-based producers have been heavily subsidized, too. And just like that, the production of affordable and competitive solar products has become a political liability in the world’s two largest producers and consumers of energy.”

[MIT Technology Review, PhysOrg]

McKinley Noble is a former GamePro staff editor, current technology nerd and eternal mixed martial arts enthusiast. He also likes Japanese sports dramas and soap operas. Follow him on Twitter or just Google his name.

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Social Media: What Is The Right Platform For Your Business?

While choosing a social media that’s right for your business can be overwhelming, you can easily pick the network that’s right for you if you know your goals, audience, and capabilities.

Define Your Goals

Before deciding what social network to use, you have to decide on what you want to achieve first. You have to define your social media marketing goals, and make sure that it is specific, actionable, and reasonable. From here, you can choose which social network can deliver most of your needs, as well as help you meet your goals.

Know Your Traffic Handling Capabilities

It’s also important that you can determine how you can handle the traffic that social media may deliver to your business—most especially on your website. That’s because a website that can’t handle too much traffic can be shut down. In addition, more traffic could tantamount to more incoming messages that need your response. So, choose the social media website that can bring the traffic that you can handle.

Determine Your Audience’s Online Habits

Your audience’s online habit is also important in choosing which social media platform to use. That’s because it will determine where most of your traffic will come from. Since a user’s online habit will depend on his or her interests, it will also influence the type of content that they’ll read or sharing. Thus, pick the social network that majority of your audience use, and where you can deliver your content to garner the most traffic.

Find Your Resources

Finding your resources is actually the difficult part of social media marketing. Since the platform you’re trying to use requires interaction, you need to create and find the right resources that you can share online. That way, they will be compelled to read it, which could boost your website’s traffic.

Establish Time of Interaction

As mentioned earlier, social media can bring much traffic to your business. With a lot of people possibly reaching out to you for inquiries other reason, it can be daunting for you to respond to each of them. That’s why you need to establish a time wherein you won’t do anything but interact with your fans or followers, as well as draft press releases or official statement regarding a frequently discussed topic.

Do Developers Need To Brown

“You are SUCH a brown-noser!”


That was probably the least flattering thing I had been called. Maybe even worse than being called an idiot.

I’m sure any developer would have done the same thing. Actually, maybe not. But they should! I’ll let you be the judge.

Here’s what happened. I had just returned from a meeting with the CIO. Yep, a little ‘ol developer like me had requested a face-to-face with the big dog. I found over the years that it is so true that the squeaky wheel gets the grease. Therefore, I went out of my way to be squeaky.

I had a few years of coding under my belt and was just starting to take some graduate classes. One of the hot topics in class was telecommuting – especially for technology workers.

I thought “Gee, why shouldn’t every developer be able to telecommute?”

So I emailed the CIO directly and just like that I had my meeting scheduled – just that simple. You’d think the CIO gets tons of emails from employees with suggestions. I have found that is not the case. And that doesn’t just apply to the CIO, but also to others in management.

Yay! I was excited. So when I came back to my cubicle, I couldn’t wait to tell everyone. I mean, they could be no less than thrilled that I was pushing forward such a great perk that would benefit us all.

That’s when I learned that while it is true that speaking out and coming up with ideas are typically welcomed by managers, it is also true that these actions can be perceived by co-workers as being overly obsequious (i.e. too much sucking up to the boss).

(I must admit the definition of this term is quite humorous, but I digress…)

Sorry, but I don’t see it that way at all. If you have a great idea, why keep it to yourself? Some developers have told me that it’s their job to write code, not to propose methods for fixing the organization.


To me that line of thinking belittles developers. If an organization is going to improve, ideas need to come from chúng tôi course you can’t spend all your time idea mongering, but as long as your development work is being performed well, why not use your brain to noodle on different and new ideas? And then share those ideas!

Ah, but then you may open yourself to the same accusations of having ulterior, self-serving motives. But guess what?

Who cares!

Because even if speaking up with fresh approaches is self-serving and helps you climb the career ladder faster, what does it matter if you are improving the organization?

True, if you’re truly sucking up just to get your name and face in front of management, then your scheming will be smelled a mile away. Your ideas must have value or you’re just making a fool of yourself and wasting everyone’s time.

The “Fool” Aspect

Let me delve into the “don’t make a fool of yourself” caveat a bit deeper.

Next Page: Be real….

University Unveils New Crowdfunding Platform

University Unveils New Crowdfunding Platform Learn about guidelines for raising money at workshop tomorrow

BU’s new crowdfunding platform helped the BU Dance Team raise more than $18,000 for this year’s National Dance Alliance Collegiate Dance Championship, and more than $19,700 for the same competition last year. Photo courtesy of the BU Dance Team

This weekend, the BU Dance Team traveled to Daytona Beach, Fla., for the National Dance Alliance Collegiate Dance Championship. Flights, competition fees, and choreography were largely covered, thanks to more than $18,000 the team raised on BU’s new crowdfunding platform.

“The hardest thing for us is that on top of school, we practice all the time and we perform at the men’s and women’s basketball games, so it’s hard to find time to fund-raise,” says coach and former member Kaitlyn Busconi (Questrom’09), whose team won the Division I team performance. “The best thing about crowdfunding is that it’s easy to fit in with other commitments, because a lot of it is sending emails and pushing out our fundraising page on social media.”

The University has instituted a new policy and website to help academic departments, student groups, and other members of the BU community raise money for research, service trips, projects, events, and other BU-specific ventures. The platform is not meant for students who seek to raise tuition dollars or money for nonacademic travel; student clubs, organizations, and the Athletics teams and groups are not required to use the platform.

Tomorrow, Wednesday, April 13, faculty and students are invited to a workshop that will provide an overview of the new policy and information about how to launch a campaign.

Nicole Hawkes, associate provost for strategic initiatives, says that the growing popularity of programs like third-party crowdfunding websites such as Indiegogo, Kickstarter, and GoFundMe suggested that there was an opportunity for the University to set up its own crowdfunding platform to help individual students, student groups, and faculty raise funds for their projects and ideas.

Unlike those fundraising giants—which raised an estimated $34 billion last year alone, according to—BU’s new platform delivers the money to the fundraisers whether or not they reach their goal. And unlike those other platforms, BU’s doesn’t charge fees for projects looking to raise less than $50,000 (indirect costs will be charged on research above that amount, and donors’ gifts are tax-deductible). Other benefits, Hawkes says, include the ability to tap into BU’s 300,000-plus alumni network for donations, as well as to use the University for technical, administration, communication, and marketing support.

“Crowdfunding takes a tremendous amount of effort; it’s not just putting your project out on the platform and leaving it alone for six weeks,” says Hawkes, whose team has been working on the new policy for about a year and a half. “A successful campaign really relies on having a good network in place. We want to help the BU community navigate these ins and outs and raise as much money as possible for their projects.”

A few groups volunteered as guinea pigs for the new crowdfunding site. As well as the $18,000 raised for this year’s National Dance Alliance Collegiate Dance Championship, the Dance Team raised more than $19,700 for the same competition last year. The FIRST Robotics team raised $5,433 for the FIRST Robotics competition, while Cara Stepp, a Sargent College assistant professor of speech, language, and hearing sciences, raised $9,010 to fund an open-source video game designed to help children born with a cleft lip or cleft palate learn to speak more clearly.

Researchers especially stand to benefit from crowdfunding, says Gloria Waters, vice president and associate provost for research, who notes that crowdfunding is already being used by faculty and students at many universities to raise money for things like gap funding.

“Crowdfunding could be used to obtain pilot funding for a project that might then allow the faculty member or student to apply for larger sums from more traditional sources,” Waters says. “Alternatively, for students, they may be able to raise all the funds needed to carry out a project for a course or a thesis in this way.”

A growing number of schools, such as the University of Virginia, the University of Colorado Boulder, and Cornell, have launched crowdfunding platforms similar to BU’s.

In a nutshell, here’s how the BU platform works: once a group’s or individual’s application has been chosen to be featured on the BU website, the group or individual is paired with a mentor from Development & Alumni Relations (DAR) to develop project descriptions, email blasts, and marketing materials. Campaigns will typically run 10 to 12 weeks—the first 4 weeks for preparing the campaign and thinking about strategy and the rest for reaching out to contacts and pushing the campaign to potential donors.

DAR new media producer Caitlin Cushman, who worked on the crowdfunding launch team, points to the Dance Team as a good example of a successful crowdfunder. This year, the members snail-mailed letters to family and friends asking for donations for their nationals trip and at the same time were pushing out the campaign to the broader public on social media channels.

Cushman says another benefit of crowdfunding is that it gives students, faculty, and alumni a way to connect. “It’s an opportunity for donors to find something that speaks to them when they’re making a gift,” she says. “Instead of donating to a general fund, they can choose one project and see where their money is going.”

The Crowdfunding at BU workshop will be held tomorrow, Wednesday, April 13, at 4 p.m. at the Questrom School of Business, Room 426-428, Rafik B. Hariri Building, 595 Commonwealth Ave. The event is open to faculty, staff, and students; register here.

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5 Best Network Cards For Gaming To Buy

5 Best Network Cards For Gaming To Buy [2023 Guide]




Nowadays, the Internet connection speed on your gaming rig is very important, especially if you want to play online games.

The experience will mainly depend on your Internet speed and your ISP, but another critical aspect is the network card that you’re using.

Investing in one that was built for gaming is a must for a full gaming experience, so this article will provide you with all the details needed to make an informed decision.

Check out the best deals on network cards for gaming and choose the one that best fits your budget and needs.

Note: Deals are subject to change. Keep in mind that the price tag often varies. We recommend going on the vendor’s website to check the price. Some of the products may be out of stock by the time you’ve made your purchasing decision. So, hurry up and hit the buy button.

IEEE 802.11ac standards compliant

Features an antenna to allow WLAN 2Tx2R transmission

Speeds of up to 867 Mbps

A USB port is needed to work

Check price

The GC-WB867D-I network card from Gigabyte is a compelling and yet affordable network card option for gaming that will surely cover all your needs.

This Bluetooth 4.2-enabled network card uses a Dual-Band frequency of 2.4 Ghz/5.8Ghz, to enable you to experience gaming without any lag.

Affordable price

Relatively good speeds offered

Can be easily set up

Users have reported that the card can overheat after a long usage

Check price

The TP-Link N150 network card is very affordable but a good network card for your gaming experience.

This card features a PCI Express connector that allows 150 Mbps connections and is compatible with a wide range of PCI Express slots.

1300Mbps Wi-Fi speeds

Built for high-performance online gaming and video streaming with 4K quality

Detachable antennas

No cons found for the price it has

Check price

The TP-Link WiFi 6 AX3000 offers an affordable device that allows you to play games online at a decent speed and features 2 antennas with dual-band wireless 2.4Gb/5Gb speed.

This long-range network card uses the patented TP-Link Heat Sink Technology to disperse the built-up heat efficiently.

PCIe network interface that is fully compatible with desktop PCs

Perfect for online gaming, and also capable of HD streaming and downloading large files

Low-profile bracket included

Compatibility issues with Windows 10

Check price

The TP-Link Archer T9E AC1900 network card is another very good option that gives you all the speed required in order to play games without any interruptions.

This powerful device uses a dual-band connection, is wireless-enabled with a PCI express adapter that uses 3 antennas for incredibly smooth connections.

External antenna base that uses a magnetic system for easily fixing it anywhere

Supports MU-MIMO technology

The individual antennas can be attached directly to your PCIe Card

Has a custom heatsink that keeps the temperature in check even after a long usage

Doesn’t offer support for Linux systems

Check price

The Asus PCE-AC88 AC3100 network card offers incredibly fast speeds for online gaming without any lag, 4K-quality video streaming, and speeds of up to 2100Mbps.

Owning a fast PC to play your favorite games online is very important, but the speed of your connection is paramount as well.

For this reason, we gathered the best deals on network cards for gaming that will surely offer you the best chúng tôi covered all price-ranges to make sure that you will find the perfect fit for your circumstances.

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