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Book Asks: Are Terrorists Cowards? BU assistant professor Chris Walsh breaks ground with Cowardice: A Brief History

Chris Walsh says he’s written the first scholarly book ever on a vast topic: cowardice. Photo by Jackie Ricciardi

What is a coward? Many Americans called the 9/11 hijackers and the Boston Marathon bombers cowards, with no clearer proof than the photo accompanying this story of a labor union’s sign after the Boston attack. Chris Walsh, an assistant professor at Boston University’s College of Arts & Sciences (CAS), disagrees, and he can claim considerable credibility: he’s written what he says is the first scholarly book on pusillanimity. Walsh’s book argues that the misuse of “coward” has caused enormous harm throughout history. But properly understood, Walsh says, the word and the idea behind it are essential to promoting ethical behavior.

Cowardice: A Brief History, published by Princeton University Press, is Walsh’s “first and last” book, he says, referring to his volume’s prolonged gestation (it began as his PhD dissertation at BU). Walsh (GRS’00) now directs the CAS Writing Program and is an assistant professor of English.

With no previous academic foragers in this field, his research plumbed diverse disciplines and sources. These included fiction such as Dante’s Inferno, which consigned to hell those souls too cowardly to live life fully, and Stephen Crane’s Civil War novel, The Red Badge of Courage. Nonfiction informed him, too—in particular The Execution of Private Slovik, a 1954 account of the titular World War II soldier who was the last American executed for desertion.

BU Today spoke with Walsh about his exploration of the use—and misuse—of the problematic word.

BU Today: How did you go about researching as unwieldy a topic as cowardice?

Walsh: I did it in an unwieldy way. It was my dissertation back in the ’90s. I abandoned it for five years and went back to it [in 2005]. The dissertation was what one of my friends called “intellectually diapered,” looking at a selection of American fiction and asking, what does it tell us about cowardice? I decided if it were to be a book, it would have to look into history and become more philosophically informed and informed by psychology.

I focused it [by] concentrating on the military context on the battlefield. I argued that the archetypal home for the coward was the military. I did tons of Google searches, but I started this before Google existed. There were books that were models, especially a book called The Mystery of Courage [by William Ian Miller].

Why does this topic matter?

The fear of cowardice has led to wars and all sorts of violence—the fear of being [cowardly] or the fear of being branded it. LBJ was having dreams about being called a coward and did say, “if I left that [Vietnam] war, I would be considered a coward and my country would be considered cowardly, and nobody would trust anything we do again.”

The American history of cowardice starts in the French and Indian War with a preacher saying, “These French and Indians are killing our countrymen, and you people in Virginia are too cowardly to do anything about it.” His sermon, “The Curse of Cowardice,” got a bunch of people to join a company, and they marched on Fort Duquesne [in modern Pittsburgh] and the French scurried. But the British authorities did not think much of the colonial soldiers and thought them cowardly come the 1770s, when the colonists start to rebel.

You write that people misuse the word “coward.”

You’ve got that hashtag COWARDS from the Boston Marathon bombing, and the word was thrown around after the 9/11 attacks about the perpetrators. It’s understandable; it was used because, without uttering an obscenity, we could lash out as harshly as possible. But I give a definition of cowardice, drawing on Aristotle and the Uniform Code of Military Justice today: the failure of duty because of excessive fear. That means it’s hard to see how the 9/11 perpetrators were cowards. They may have been guilty of what I call the “cowardice of their convictions,” where they wouldn’t recognize things that [might] change their views, because they were afraid of new ideas, of tentativeness, of not acting. But I don’t think that’s the way most people used it. The problem with using it that way is it makes it seem something villainous and spectacular, and therefore cowardice has nothing to do with us, and it’s not something that needs to inform our own ethical decision making.

That military code [definition] offers a clear message. Much of the book is about how the term has become less applicable to war, because we know more about human psychology, and we rightly attribute failures in battle to things like post-traumatic stress disorder. The world would be a better place if some people worried less about being cowardly. If only LBJ was not worried about being cowardly.

A version of this story was originally published in BU Research.

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REVIEW: The Relationship-Based Enterprise: Powering Business Success Through Customer Relationship Management

By Ray McKenzie

How do you define the value of your enterprise? In market capitalization? Quality of products and services? Customer retention? In his new book, Ray McKenzie teaches managers to value the corporation in a new way–through its various relationships. To build and sustain those relationships, and, by the way, company value, McKenzie says managers need to engage their customers in meaningful, ongoing conversations.

Based in Seattle, McKenzie is the Director of Management Consulting at DMR Consulting. Building on the concepts of Customer Relationship Management (CRM), his work will help at least some of your consumers become co-creators in your company’s products and services. By engaging customers, suppliers, employees, and others in rich conversations, managers glean information about adding value to products, services, co-branding opportunities, management techniques–anything that promotes a healthier business.

The book is presented in five parts. Part I defines CRM and the Relationship-Based Enterprise, introduces the vocabulary of his approach, and paints the landscape of the new economy the Internet and other technologies have created. The section concludes with a framework for nurturing valuable conversations and sustaining them over a long period of time. According to his framework, managers should place each consumer into one of four basic groups: patrons, customers, clients, or partners. Each group desires a different level of conversation and offers distinct value to the enterprise. For example, patrons want limited conversations and focus on getting their products at the cheapest price possible. They push the enterprise to create a smooth purchasing experience. At the other end, companies have vast amounts of information about their partners and frequently engage them in rich conversations. Partners help the enterprise define and refine its products and services.

Parts II through IV focus on the “three D’s” of the Relationship-Based Enterprise: Discovery, Dialogue, and Discipline. Discovery is customer identification. It includes not only defining your customers, but also determining what information you must collect from them. The Discovery process helps you learn what the customers want from interactions with your company and the value potentials of the four groups of customers. Dialogue helps you determine the type of relationship you want with each customer, ways to absorb information, and how to share control. Traditionally, companies have viewed information as highly proprietary. The Internet changes that; everything is out in the open. This section seeks to answer: How will the modern corporation provide value in the face of such openness?

The Discipline section discusses the managerial considerations of the Relationship-Based Enterprise. In the Information Age, the rules of business have changed and the behaviors of the enterprise’s human resources must change with them. Getting people out from behind their desks and into rich conversations with customers can be a difficult task. Equally difficult is creating an environment that can change quickly and effectively with the capricious needs of its customers. For some, this will require a radical shift in control.

The Relationship-Based Enterprise is a treasure chest displaying many jewels from this new layer in CRM that should be of benefit to senior executives and managers. While highly appropriate for non-technical managers and those lacking successful experience in CRM, the book doesn’t include much for the implementers in the IT community. CRM software, chat programs, VoIP, and other technologies are mentioned, but the author provides no implementation specifics. Let’s hope Ray McKenzie’s next contribution to CRM builds on his enterprise transformation work to provide the IT community with a roadmap detailing how to support the Relationship-Based Enterprise.

Can Copy Ai Write A Book?

Last Updated on June 6, 2023

You may have asked yourself the question: can Copy AI write a book? AI writing assistants are particularly great in the sense that they allow you to write and edit texts more efficiently. These tools have become so popular in recent years that many people now use them for all kinds of purposes such as generating ideas, writing blogs, correcting grammatical errors, and more.

But Can Copy AI Write a Book?

There’s one question many people usually ask, can Copy AI write a book? The truth is that not all AI writing tools can be used for book writing, but some are specially designed for that purpose. One AI tool that can generate all kinds of high-quality content is Copy AI.

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What is Copy AI?

Copy AI is a content writing software that uses machine learning and Open AI’s GPT-3 natural language processing model to produce very human texts from only a couple of keywords. It enables writers to overcome writer’s block and get their creativity flowing. This makes it the ideal tool for anyone looking to produce large amounts of content within a short time and streamline their writing process. 

What Makes Copy AI Different?

Copy AI comes with a very unique set of features that differentiate it from other types of content-writing software.

Supports Multiple Languages

Copy AI is a multi-language writing tool that allows you to generate content in your native language. The tool currently supports over 25 languages, such as English, Spanish, French, Chinese, and more. This allows you to easily generate writing for a global audience.

Over 90 Templates to Choose From

Copy AI has a variety of templates that you can use to generate content. These templates are organized into several categories and are mostly tailored toward commercial content creation like SEO-optimized articles, long-form content, blog posts, HR, marketing, and sales. 

However, the Freestyle tool allows you to input any type of prompt to create any form of text. This mode really lends itself to creative writing and fiction writing as you can generate the outline of a plot at the touch of a button. Just choose a topic and a writing style, and Copy AI will do the rest!

Unique Results

Unlike some artificial intelligence-powered writing tools, Copy AI only generates unique copy results. Each variation produced by the algorithm is different and individualized. 

Plagiarism Checker

One of the many unique features of Copy AI is its inbuilt plagiarism checker with which you can easily check your work for plagiarism. This ensures your work is entirely original, perfect for creating a first draft in the knowledge that all the ideas that it generates are fresh. However, using this feature does require a premium subscription.

FAQs Can Copy AI Write Faster Than Humans?

Yes, it is widely accepted that an AI writing tool can generate content roughly 10x faster than humans.

Big Book Of Marketing Kpi Benchmarks

Big book of marketing KPI benchmarks Create more realistic forecasts, compare marketing performance, and identify optimizations with our KPI benchmarks guide. How will this guide help me and my business?

One of the main benefits of digital marketing is that it enables marketers to measure their activities more closely than ever before. Your marketing can become more data-driven and your analytics more actionable. It’s important to be able to forecast and review your return on investment, and digital media supports this well.

However, understanding which KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) to use for different types of digital media and platforms can be a challenge, particularly for less experienced digital marketers. There is also the challenge of benchmarking compared to others in your industry: ‘What does good look like?’ and ‘How do we compare?’ are common questions we hear.

This is where our Marketing KPI benchmarks reference guide will help you. It’s a single indispensable reference, giving you:

A glossary of terms relevant to measuring digital media and platforms

The most relevant KPIs for improving different types of marketing activity

Which KPIs to use for different parts of the customer lifecycle structured through the RACE Planning Framework

The range of KPIs that are typical for different types of media and in different industry sectors such as B2B, travel, financial services, and retail

The most trusted regularly updated sources for getting the latest benchmarking data

Who is this guide for?

This guide is aimed at marketing managers who are looking to put in place a framework for measuring and improving their digital marketing activities. Depending on their experience of digital marketing, this could include:

Marketing directors and CMOs

Marketing managers and campaign managers

Digital marketing managers

E-commerce managers

How is this guide structured?

This guide is structured around measures used to review marketing activities across the Smart Insights RACE Planning Framework – Reach, Act, Convert, and Engage.

Key benchmarks covered for different sectors include:

Lead generation conversion rates for B2B

Retail add-to-basket and conversion rates

Traffic mix, e.g., referrers for organic, paid search and social media

Website engagement (e.g., bounce rates)

In each section, we will explain:

The best KPIs for you to benchmark against

Benchmark figures and links to the best sources for comparison data and tools

Best practice tips on how to use the KPIs to forecast and improve performance

Resource Details

Authors:  Dr. Dave Chaffey Chaffey and Sarah Lindley

Related recommended resources:

Digital Marketing Goal Setting, Evaluation and Optimization Guide explains how to structure metrics for dashboards

Online Marketing Benchmarks statistics compilation is an alternative Powerpoint format for using in presentations with less narrative and discussion of KPI selection and use

About the authors

Dr Dave Chaffey

Dave is co-founder of Smart Insights and creator of the Smart Insights RACE planning framework. For his full profile, or to connect on LinkedIn or other social networks, see the About Dave Chaffey profile page on Smart Insights. Dave is author of 5 bestselling books on digital marketing including Digital Marketing Excellence and Digital Marketing: Strategy, Implementation and Practice. In 2004 he was recognized by the Chartered Institute of Marketing as one of 50 marketing ‘gurus’ worldwide who have helped shape the future of marketing.

Sarah Lindley

Sarah Lindley, Managing Director at The Yorkshire Marketing Agency, is an award-winning Chartered Marketer. Sarah holds over 10 years’ experience in implementing results-driven marketing and communications strategies, plans and campaigns

Samsung Galaxy Book Review: Unfulfilled Promise


Solid performance

Attractive display

Decent port selection


Underwhelming battery life

Unreliable trackpad

No fingerprint or face unlock

Our Verdict

The Galaxy Book has the potential to be a great laptop, but its key weaknesses have a big effect on day-to-day usage. Considering the strength of the competition, most people are better off looking elsewhere.

After a five-year hiatus, Samsung returned to laptops with a bang in 2023. Alongside Qualcomm and Intel versions of the Galaxy Book S, we also saw a new convertible in the Galaxy Book Flex and regular clamshell Galaxy Book Ion.

The range has been significantly expanded in 2023, with the new Galaxy Book Pro and Flex 2. However, there’s also evidence that Samsung is catering more to affordable price points than ever before.

The ARM-based Galaxy Book Go has been joined this year by an Intel-powered device known simply as the Samsung Galaxy Book. It offers a lot of what most people are looking for on paper, with the latest Intel chips, a full-size keyboard and a large display.

But how well does it stack up to real-world usage? I spent a few weeks with the device to find out.

Design & Build

Premium, attractive design

Terrible trackpad

No fingerprint scanner or face unlock

When it comes to design, Samsung has played it fairly safe with the Galaxy Book. Its curved edges and sleek aluminium finish have been seen on countless other laptops, including the company’s own Flex 2. In fact, aside from the variation in sizing, it’s hard to tell these two Samsung laptops apart from the outside.

It’s very much a minimalist aesthetic, especially as there’s no alternative to the ‘Mystic Silver’ colourway – a little odd considering Samsung normally likes a splash of colour on Galaxy products. If you want your laptop to stand out or be a conversation starter, you’ll need to look elsewhere.

The Galaxy Book certainly has a more distinctive design once you flip open the lid, something that’s possible with just one finger. The first thing you’ll probably notice is the large 15.6in LCD display – more on how it performs later.

It’s housed within some slim bezels, although there’s still room for a 720p webcam. The quality of this sensor is in line with most you’ll find built into modern laptops; it’s fine for video calls, but streamers or YouTubers will need a separate accessory.

Unfortunately, it’s not compatible with Windows Hello face unlock. Given the absence of a fingerprint sensor, it means you’ll still have to type a PIN or password every time you unlock the device. I can’t understand why Samsung didn’t add support for at least one of these other than to save money.

It’s not like there’s no room on the keyboard, either. That large display means the Galaxy Book has space for both a full-size keyboard and a separate number pad. The keys themselves offer very little travel, but they’re impressively tactile and responsive – I was satisfied with how they performed.

However, the same can’t be said for the trackpad. Samsung has included a huge one the Galaxy Book, but it’d have been better off focusing on its performance. I found it to be very erratic and unreliable, with the cursor frequently moving around the screen at random or not registering my command.

This remained the case even after a software update mid-testing, so I think it’s hardware related. I’d highly recommend connecting a Bluetooth mouse, but it limits the device’s portability somewhat.

That’s a shame because at 1.55kg it’s one of the more lightweight 15in laptops you can buy. Samsung hasn’t tried to make the Galaxy Book ultra-thin for the sake of it, though – at 15.4mm thick, there’s plenty of room for ports.

The device makes the most of it, too, with a selection that you won’t find on many modern laptops. I’m talking 2x USB-C (either of which can be used for charging), 2x USB-A, full-size HDMI and 3.5mm headphone jack.

There’s even a lesser-spotted microSD card slot, so you probably won’t need to carry an adapter around with you.

Screen & Speakers

Decent LCD display

No touchscreen or convertible functionality

Above-average speakers

Let’s talk about that display, then. It’s a 15.6in LCD panel, at a resolution of 1920×1080. Despite not being OLED, I was satisfied with its performance. Colours are rich and vibrant, offering an impressive level of detail for the price. While surfing the web, word processing and watching videos, I can have no complaints.

However, that’s not reflected in the SpyderX display analysis I performed. That suggests it only hits 63% of sRGB color gamut, 47% AdobeRGB and 46% of DCI-P3. This isn’t a big issue for everyday usage, but graphic designers or photo editors will want something much more accurate.

I recorded a maximum brightness of 325 nits using the same tool, so outdoor usage will be a struggle. Unlike the Flex 2 and other Samsung laptops, there’s no option for the ‘Outdoor+’ brightness booster here.

Viewing angles are good though with Samsung’s PLS technology, essentially its own version of IPS.

One feature I really miss here is touch support. Samsung will likely say it’s not needed on a non-convertible device, but I wish it’d introduced both features instead. Considering the navigation problems mentioned above, a touchscreen would have been a useful alternative.

Like the lack of biometrics, it’s a cost-cutting choice to keep the final price as low as possible.

On the audio side, it’s a more impressive story. The Galaxy Book feature features dual 2W speakers, alongside Dolby Atmos support. These specs aren’t revolutionary by any means, but both music and voices are warm and rich, picking out details you won’t hear on some other laptops.

It’s slightly lacking in bass and can distort at higher volumes, but audiophiles can easily connect external speakers or headphones.

Specs & Performance

11th-gen Intel processors

Iris Xe graphics

Optional 4G support

The Galaxy Book might be one of Samsung’s more affordable laptops, but it hasn’t made big sacrifices under the hood. Like so many 2023 computers, it’s powered by Intel’s latest Tiger Lake chips – the model I tested uses the Core i7-1165G7, but it’s also available with the Core i5-1135G7.

Both use Iris Xe integrated graphics, and feature 8GB of RAM.

Judging from the sample I tested, performance is one of the Galaxy Book’s key strengths. I noticed almost no slowdown across a variety of everyday tasks, including web browsing, word processing and some photo editing. The large display also makes it great for multitasking – using a web browser, Slack and a word processor at the same time is easily achieved.

This great performance doesn’t quite extend to graphically-demanding AAA gaming – a discrete GPU is recommended for that. But casual games are well within reach.

As you can see from the benchmarks below, the Galaxy Book compares favourably with many similarly-priced laptops. These figures will inevitably take a hit if you’re using the i5 model, but everyday performance should still be solid.

The Galaxy Book has both Wi-Fi 6 and Bluetooth 5.1 on board, but there’s also the option to add 4G LTE connectivity. That wasn’t available on the model I tested, but it’s a great solution for on-the-go productivity.

Software & Features

Windows 10 Home out of the box

Some Samsung-specific tweaks

Eligible for free Windows 11 upgrade

There’s usually very little to talk about when it comes to the software on Windows laptops – it’s usually the same regardless of which device you go for. While that’s still the case, it’s worth mentioning Windows 11 here. Microsoft’s new OS is set to arrive in late 2023, which might make you uneasy about buying a new Windows 10 laptop right now.

However, there’s no need to worry. The Samsung Galaxy Book meets all the new hardware requirements, so it’ll be eligible for a free upgrade to Windows 11 Home at some point. You may have to wait until 2023, though.

The version of Windows 10 you get right now is very familiar to anyone who’s used a Windows PC recently. Unlike with its smartphones, Samsung has kept the software tweaks to a minimum. There are a handful of pre-installed apps, such as Samsung Notes and Gallery, but these can be uninstalled if you like.

You also get a relatively basic Samsung settings menu in addition to the regular one, which offers extra functionality you won’t normally find on Windows 10. These include a range of different performance modes and the option to limit the maximum charge to 85%, which is said to extend the lifespan of the built-in battery.

Battery Life & Charging

Decent battery capacity

Poor performance in benchmarks

Relatively fast charging

Talking of battery, the Galaxy Book’s cell comes in at 69.7Wh. That’s a solid capacity, so it’s no surprise to see Samsung claim you can get up to 10.9 hours from a single charge.

Unfortunately, my experience with the device wasn’t as impressive. Despite having the brightness set to a relatively dim 120 nits and looping a 720p video offline while muted, the Galaxy Book only lasted 7 hours and 24 minutes.

Many of the laptops we’ve tested recorded more than double that, so it’s an underwhelming performance.

What’s more, real-world usage depletes the battery significantly more quickly. Bumping up the brightness and having multiple open windows and apps means you’ll struggle to make it through a full workday. Indeed, I found myself reaching for the charger by mid-afternoon.

Price & Availability

Lots of choice

Doesn’t compare favourably to the competition

There are four variants to choose from when it comes to the Samsung Galaxy Book. These start at £699 for the i5 model with a 256GB SSD, or £799 for the same configuration with 4G support.

Stepping up to i7 and doubling the storage to 512GB will set you back £899, although you’ll have to pay £1,099 for 4G support. We can’t find anywhere to buy the device in mainland Europe or North America right now, so you’ll probably need to import it.

While you can pay four figures here, that doesn’t quite put the Samsung Galaxy Book in flagship territory, and many people will be happy with one of the cheaper models. Unfortunately, many of the entries in our best laptop chart are available for a similar price, including our current top pick – Huawei’s MateBook 14.

When you compare these devices side-by-side, the Galaxy Book doesn’t represent great value for money. Some slightly more affordable would have been much more tempting.


Samsung has proven it can make great smartphones that don’t break the bank, but it still has work to do when it comes to laptops.

The regular Galaxy Book gets a lot of things right, with a premium build, excellent performance and decent display. Audio is also very impressive, and there’s a decent port selection.

Unfortunately, Samsung has cut too many corners to get there. Battery life is underwhelming, trackpad navigation is very poor and there’s no fingerprint scanner or face unlock. I also miss the touch support and convertible functionality you get on so many laptops these days.

If you can find the Galaxy Book with a significant discount, it’s probably worth taking the plunge. Otherwise, it’s hard to justify in the ultra-competitive world of modern laptops.

Check out how we test laptops for more information on what goes into one of our reviews.

Specs Samsung Galaxy Book: Specs

11th-gen Intel Core i5/i7 processor

Intel Iris Xe graphics

15.6in FHD LCD Display (1920 x 1080)


256/512GB SSD

69.7Wh battery with 65W USB-C fast charging

2x USB-C ports (1x Thunderbolt 4), 2x USB-A, 1x HDMI, 3.5mm headphone jack, microSD

Fingerprint sensor

720p webcam

Wi-Fi 6

Bluetooth 5.1


15.4 x 356.6 x 229.1 mm


Facebook, Google, Twitter Lax On Terrorists’ Misuse Of Their Sites, Say Uk Mps

A panel of U.K. lawmakers has described as “alarming” that social networking companies like Facebook, Twitter and Google’s YouTube have teams of only a few hundred employees to monitor billions of accounts for extremist content.

If these companies do not tackle the issue and allow their services to become the ‘Wild West’ of the internet, their reputation as responsible operators will be eroded, it added.

The report, which said the use of the internet to promote radicalization and terror was one of the biggest threats faced by countries including the U.K., singled out Twitter for mention for not proactively reporting extremist content to law enforcement agencies.

The committee described as a “drop in the ocean” the suspension by Twitter of 125,000 accounts worldwide linked to terrorists between mid-2024 and February 2024, and Google’s removal in 2014 of over 14 million videos worldwide that related to all kinds of abuse.

In evidence to the panel, the companies said that they had staff who manually search for potentially extremist content online and decide on whether to take the content down and suspend accounts. Twitter said it had “more than a hundred” staff working on this job, while Facebook and Google did not provide a number.

The report reflects growing concern about the use of social networks by terror groups like the Islamic State group, also referred to as ISIS, for propaganda, communications and recruitment. “We are engaged in a war for hearts and minds in the fight against terrorism. The modern front line is the internet,” said Keith Vaz, member of Parliament and chairman of the committee in a statement. “Its forums, message boards and social media platforms are the lifeblood of Daesh and other terrorist groups for their recruitment and financing and the spread of ideology.”

“The UK Government should now enforce its own measures to ensure that the large technology companies operating in this country are required to cooperate with CTIRU promptly and fully, by investigating sites and accounts propagating hate speech, and then either shutting them down immediately, or providing an explanation to CTIRU of why this has not been done,” according to the report.

“As I made clear in my evidence session, terrorists and the support of terrorist activity are not allowed on Facebook and we deal swiftly and robustly with reports of terrorism-related content,” said Simon Milner, director of policy at Facebook UK, in an emailed statement. “In the rare instances that we identify accounts or material as terrorist, we’ll also look for and remove relevant associated accounts and content.”

A Twitter spokesman referred to a company blog post this month that said it had suspended 360,000 accounts for violating its policies related to promotion of terrorism since the middle of 2024. The company said in February that as other companies and experts have also noted, there isn’t a “magic algorithm” for identifying terrorist content on the Internet.

Facebook, Google, Microsoft and Twitter agreed in May to a process for receiving and reviewing notifications about online hate speech from European Union users on their platforms, which could see most “valid notifications” reviewed within 24 hours, and the content even brought down or access to it disabled.

Social networking companies are also facing lawsuits in the U.S for the terrorist content found on their sites. One such lawsuit filed in a federal court in California by the father of a victim of the Paris terror attack in November charges that Twitter, Facebook and Google knowingly permitted ISIS to use their social networks “as a tool for spreading extremist propaganda, raising funds and attracting new recruits.”

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