You are reading the article Brain Movies: When Readers Can Picture It, They Understand It updated in December 2023 on the website Daihoichemgio.com. We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested January 2024 Brain Movies: When Readers Can Picture It, They Understand It
The images that form in your mind as you read — we call them “brain movies” — can be more exciting and memorable than a Hollywood film. More to the point for teachers, guiding your students to visualize as they read is an engaging and enjoyable way to boost comprehension and retention.
Learning to create brain movies can help students make sense of complex nonfiction subject matter and “see” the characters, setting, and action in stories. Teachers who use our strategy tell us their students seem to have more fun — and success — as they read. These anecdotes are supported by research showing that students who are taught to develop mental imagery of text do better than control groups on tests of comprehension and recall.
The research basis for the usefulness of transforming text into mental images can be found in Allan Paivio’s dual coding theory, which holds that cognition consists of both a verbal system for language and a nonverbal, visual-spatial one for images. By creating mental images from the words on a page or screen, we tap into both the verbal and visual-spatial representational systems, making abstract concepts more concrete and thus more meaningful and memorable.
From Text to Brain Movies
Visualizing while reading is a strategy that should be explicitly taught. The assumption that children are naturally imaginative may not be true for all students, and even those with vivid imaginations may need guidance in applying the active process of making brain movies to improve their understanding of what they read. Follow these steps to introduce brain movies to your students:
Select a book, poem, or reading passage with vivid, sensory-rich language to read aloud.
Introduce words or concepts that may be new to students before reading, and share photographs, websites, and other images to help set the stage.
Ask students to share examples of movies based on books they’ve read, and lead a discussion about the difference between reading the book and watching the movie. Emphasize that as we read or are read to, our imagination creates its own brain movie.
Recommend that as you read the selected passage, students create their own brain movies based on the text by imagining the characters, setting, and action. Suggest that some students may find it easier to visualize if they watch you as you read, close their eyes, or gaze out the window.
Read with inflection and emphasis on striking language.
When you are done reading, pause to let students finish translating the text into brain movies. Then ask for volunteers to share their favorite imagery or scene.
Discuss how students’ experiences helped them relate to the story and create their brain movies. How are the characters like them or people they know? How are they different? How is the setting of the story similar to and different from their neighborhoods and places they have visited?
Note how many people find that visualizing what they read helps them to understand and remember the subject matter.
Encourage students to continue conjuring movies in their minds as they read. Emphasize that creating brain movies requires reading carefully and attentively. And suggest that if they have a hard time visualizing a passage, they should reread it and look up any unfamiliar words.
Examples of Brain Movies in Action
Teachers who’ve used this strategy in their classrooms share these examples and tips for enhancing its effectiveness:
Share Brain Movies to Extend the Learning
Florida teacher Kelly Rose introduced brain movies to a literature circle of fifth graders, beginning with the powerful language of poetry. After guiding students to picture the images in their minds as they read and reread the poems, Ms. Rose then asked them to share what they visualized. “We found that our brain movies were all different, and by sharing our movies, we were able to remember even more details from the poem,” she says.
Emphasize Vivid Language for Young Writers
Working with elementary students learning English as a second language, Georgia teacher Melissa Smith shares reading passages that demonstrate how writers choose their words carefully to help readers create brain movies. She then guides students to picture their own stories in their minds as they write, which helps identify the details and striking language that will tell their stories most effectively.
Let Students Choose Their Own Material
Giving students a choice in what they read can make it easier to teach how to create mental imagery. They are more likely to be engaged in and derive meaning from reading they enjoy.
For Further Reading
For more details and examples on using brain movies in your classroom, see author Donna Wilson’s 2012 article (doi: 10.1002.TRTR01091) in The Reading Teacher (available by subscription, perhaps through your school or district). Mark Sadosky’s article Mental Imagery in Reading summarizes some of the research supporting this strategy. For more visual strategies to support meaning making and retention, see our book BrainSMART: 60 Strategies for Increasing Student Learning.
How might brain movies support other reading comprehension strategies for your students?
You're reading Brain Movies: When Readers Can Picture It, They Understand It
When It Comes to Communication Skills—Maybe We’re Born with It?
Jenny Zuk, neuroscientist and speech pathologist, led a first-of-its-kind study that uncovered how neural networks in infants influence their language learning skills in early childhood. Photo by Kelly Davidson
Baby Brains and LanguageWhen It Comes to Communication Skills—Maybe We’re Born with It? Neuroscientists find brain matter makeup in infancy is linked to children’s degree of language skills at five years old
From inside the womb and as soon as they enter the world, babies absorb information from their environment and the adults around them, quickly learning after birth how to start communicating through cries, sounds, giggles, and other kinds of baby talk. But are a child’s long-term language skills shaped by how their brain develops during infancy, and how much of their language development is influenced by their environment and upbringing?
Following dozens of children over the course of five years, a Boston University researcher has taken the closest look yet at the link between how babies’ brains are structured in infancy and their ability to learn a language at a young age, and to what degree their environment plays a role in brain and language development.
The new research, described in a paper published in Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, finds that the brain’s organizational pathways might set a foundation for a child’s language learning abilities within the first year of life. These pathways are known as white matter, and they act as the connectors between the billions of neurons—called gray matter—that comprise the brain tissue. This allows for the exchange of signals and for all of the different tasks and functions we need to perform, as well as all of the biological processes that sustain us.
“A helpful metaphor often used is: white matter pathways are the ‘highways,’ and gray matter areas are the ‘destinations’,” says BU neuroscientist and licensed speech pathologist Jennifer Zuk, who led the study. Zuk, a College of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences: Sargent College assistant professor of speech, language, and hearing sciences, says the more someone does a certain task, like learning a new language, the stronger and more refined the pathways become in the areas of the brain responsible for that task, allowing information to flow more efficiently through the white matter highways. Recent evidence suggests that white matter most rapidly develops within the first two years of life, according to Zuk.
In addition to white matter development, scientists have long known that the environment also plays an important role in shaping a person’s language abilities, Zuk says. But many uncertainties remain about whether nature or nurture is more dominant in determining the makeup of white matter and how well a baby learns to communicate.
In their study, Zuk says, she and her colleagues sought answers to several specific questions: from very early on, to what extent does predisposed brain structure play a role in development? Does the brain develop in tandem with language, and is the environment ultimately driving the progress of both? And to what extent does brain structure in early infancy set children up for success with language?
To investigate this, Zuk and Boston Children’s Hospital researcher and study senior author Nadine Gaab met with 40 families with babies to take images of the infants’ brains using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and gather first-of-its-kind data on white matter development. No small feat, considering the babies needed to be sound asleep to allow for crisp capture of their brain activity and structure using MRI.
“It was such a fun process, and also one that calls for a lot of patience and perseverance,” says Zuk, who had to master the challenge of getting 4-to-18-month-old babies comfortable enough to snooze through the MRI process—the loud sounds of an MRI could be very disruptive to a sleeping baby. “There are very few researchers in the world using this approach,” she says, “because the MRI itself involves a rather noisy background…and having infants in a naturally deep sleep is very helpful in accomplishing this pretty crazy feat.”
It’s also the first time that scientists have used MRI to look at the relationship between brain structure and language development in full-term, typically developing children from infancy to school age.
One important white matter pathway the researchers looked at using MRI is called the arcuate fasciculus, which connects two regions of the brain responsible for language production and comprehension. Using MRI, the researchers measured the organization of white matter by looking at how easily water diffuses through the tissue, indicating the pathway’s density.
Five years after first rocking babies to sleep and gently tucking them inside an MRI machine, Zuk and her collaborators met up with the children and their families again to assess each child’s emerging language abilities. Their assessments tested each one’s vocabulary knowledge, their ability to identify sounds within individual words, and their ability to blend individual sounds together to understand the word it makes.
According to their findings, children born with higher indications of white matter organization had better language skills five years later, suggesting that communication skills could be strongly linked to predisposed brain structure. But, Zuk says, this is only the first piece of a very complicated puzzle.
“Perhaps the individual differences in white matter we observed in infancy might be shaped by some combination of a child’s genetics and their environment,” she says. “But it is intriguing to think about what specific factors might set children up with more effective white matter organization early on.”
Although their findings indicate a foundation for language is established in infancy, “ongoing experience and exposure [to language] then builds upon this foundation to support a child’s ultimate outcomes,” Zuk says.
She says this means that during the first year of a child’s life “there’s a real opportunity for more environmental exposure [to language] and to set children up for success in the long term.”
Zuk and her research partners plan to continue investigating the relationship between environmental and genetic components of language learning. Their goal is to help parents and caretakers identify early risk factors in language development in young children and determine strategies for strengthening babies’ communicative skills early on in life.
This work was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
Explore Related Topics:
We all know that artificial intelligence has been the hot topic of recent times and that it has been adopted by companies covering virtually every sector. So these days, when you’re dealing with an automated answering service, it’s highly likely that there is no human intervention at all. This trend is set to continue and reach into many new areas. But there are even more exciting prospects ahead that suggest that the algorithms used in AI may soon start to enable increasingly accurate predictions of future events. Indeed, this is something that has also started to occur – and in some quite surprising ways. The theory behind it is quite simple: by combining the processing of big datasets and using the algorithms that drive AI, an ever-more accurate model of future events can be created. One of the leading exponents in this reasonably new field is
We all know that artificial intelligence has been the hot topic of recent times and that it has been adopted by companies covering virtually every sector. So these days, when you’re dealing with an automated answering service, it’s highly likely that there is no human intervention at all. This trend is set to continue and reach into many new areas. But there are even more exciting prospects ahead that suggest that the algorithms used in AI may soon start to enable increasingly accurate predictions of future events. Indeed, this is something that has also started to occur – and in some quite surprising ways. The theory behind it is quite simple: by combining the processing of big datasets and using the algorithms that drive AI, an ever-more accurate model of future events can be created. One of the leading exponents in this reasonably new field is Black Swan Technologies whose clients include Disney. Among the work they have carried out for the entertainment giant was predicting the likely popularity of Frozen before release. By looking at the data around similar animated titles as well as examining popular genres and types of film on YouTube it enabled them to accurately gauge even how many copies would be sold once the movie was released on DVD. Retailers have also been quick to start experimenting with Black Swan’s technology with supermarkets using it to project just when and how many of their customers will be choosing to barbecue on any given weekend. Western Canada Fashion Week 2023 Spring ” ( CC BY-SA 2.0 ) by IQRemix The fashion industry is also one that is always looking towards what are going to be the trends for future seasons. Again, AI is being used to help these predictions to become more accurate. This is facilitated by a system that scours social media and e-commerce sites to analyze colors, sizes and patterns that appear most frequently and which may be pointing towards the direction that styles may be headed. On a less frivolous note, healthcare is another sector in which the ability to predict future situations is being trialed. One of the best-known exponents is Diagnostic Robotics , a business founded and headed up by Kira Radinsky Ph.D. with offices in Tel Aviv and New York. The fact that much of medicine is already so heavily statistics-based is obviously useful, but it needs AI to add that extra dimension. Trading in stocks, shares and currencies is another area in which being able to accurately predict the future can also mean the difference between success and failure. More and more trading platforms appearing and being listed on sites like Stockapps UK . There is already plenty of choice and most offer extensive support. The above site rates the platforms according to a vast array of key features, such as commission or products offered, such as CFD trading. It’s therefore logical to imagine that one day AI support could number among those factors. This would obviously give an edge over the competition – it could well take many providers to the next level. So we can confidently predict that AI will become increasingly effective in defining what the future holds in a wide variety of ways. And, when it does reach its full potential, it will create a very different world indeed.
There are now a lot of AI image generators which will produce images based on text descriptions. This means you can dream up anything at all, type it in and mere seconds later see a selection of images matching that description.
For example, the image at the top was generated using the description “steam train going across a curved viaduct on rolling green hills with a river running below, cloudy blue skies.”
But you can go into as much detail as you like. For example, the following produced these variations “A beach on a cloudy day. In the distance, people are walking towards cliffs in the background”.
Or even “1970s Porsche racing car on track leading a pack of period cars with crowds of spectators in stands in the background”.
AI is good at generating images of people. For example “a 35 year old IT officer working at his desk, wearing glasses and a blue blazer” led to this:
These generators vary in quality and usually allow you to generate only a few images before you have to pay to use their services.
But it’s fun to do, and well worth trying out as there’s every chance you’ll be blown away by the results.
Regardless of which generator you decide to use, the process is the same: type a detailed description of what you want. The longer that description, the better.
Shorter descriptions can still generate incredible images, as demonstrated by the birds above, but they may not be quite what you wanted. Plus, AI isn’t human – duh! – so although some of the images appear flawless, others have clear errors, and AI struggles with text in particular.
Really, you also need to specify the style of image you want. That’s because the AI needs to understand whether you want a photorealistic images, a cartoon, a sketch or something else. If you don’t specify, it may choose at random.
Since the images are created by powerful servers, you can use these generators on whatever device you have: a phone, laptop, tablet or PC.
Some generators are available only as mobile apps, but others work in a web browser. Here are some to try out now.
Midjourney – Runs on Discord
Fotor – works in a browser
Photoleap – Android and iPhone
DALL-E – works in a browser
DALL-E is one of the best known, and is from the same people – OpenAI – that made ChatGPT. Unfortunately, its popularity means it’s all but impossible to use: we could barely create an account without the website falling over, presumably due to being overloaded.
However, Midjourney stands out from the crowd, partly because of the sheer quality of the images it creates, but also because you’re given 25 minutes of GPU time for free: you’re not restricted to a specific number of images.
The only snag is that it uses Discord, which can be a little bewildering to use if you’re not familiar with it. You’ll also need to create a Discord account if you don’t have one.How to use Midjourney
1.Create a Discord account
2.Join the server
3.Find a Newbie room
4.Generate an image
In the message box at the bottom type /imagine and press Enter. A prompt box will appear. Type into this any description you like and press Enter. Here we’ve typed ‘photorealistic close-up of a stained glass bird’
5.Wait for your image
6.Specify aspect ratio
If you don’t want a square image, you need to tell Midjourney the aspect ratio you want. Do this by adding -—ar 16:9 if you want a TV-sized image. You can specify any ratio, including the common ones such as 3:2, 4:3 and 3:4.
7.Find your images
Laptop is Overheating When Charging: 8 Ways to Fix It Simple yet effective solutions to this frustrating problem
The laptop is overheating when charging issue can be caused by a faulty or outdated graphics card.
One quick and effective way to fix this issue is to run the built-in power troubleshooter.
You can also solve this overheating problem by updating your BIOS and changing your power settings.
INSTALL BY CLICKING THE DOWNLOAD FILE
To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool
Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:
Download Fortect and install it on your PC.
Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem
Fortect has been downloaded by
readers this month.
Users of laptops know all too well the stress they face when their Windows 10/11 laptop is overheating either when charging or on battery. This can cause problems not just for themselves, but also for any laptop.
In general, when the temperatures within the laptop case rise to excessively high amounts, the risk of damaging important internal components of the machine also increases.
One of the top common causes of overheating is an accumulation of dust within the laptop or inadequate cooling. Some signs of overheating, include games stopping during gameplay and Windows not responding while using it.
In extreme cases, you may experience frequent fatal exceptions or General Protection Fault error messages depending on which Windows OS you’re using. When your laptop is overheating when charging, it may not be an issue of dust, but it shouldn’t be ruled out.
Sometimes you could have added an extra hard drive which causes the power supply to work harder and generate extra heat. This article looks at the causes and solutions when your laptop is overheating when charging.Why does my laptop overheat when charging?
This isn’t a brand-specific issue, and both Dell and HP devices reportedly overheat while charging. If your laptop adapter gets hot you need to disconnect it and check if it’s working properly.
It’s normal for your laptop to get hot, especially when charging, but if the laptop overheats when playing games, it’s possible that it needs cleaning.
Another cause can be damage to your battery, and if your laptop battery isn’t charging at all, you should look into replacing it.Is it OK to use a laptop while charging?
There is nothing wrong with using your laptop while charging. Your laptop has power options for usage when it is plugged in and on battery.
Also, you don’t have anything to worry about in terms of overcharging, thanks to the battery’s mechanism. This is especially true if your battery is made of lithium-ion.How do I fix the laptop if it’s overheating when charging? 1. Preliminary checks
Before trying any other solutions for the laptop overheating when charging issue, check that the air vents are clean and clear. Sometimes, electrical components in the laptop generate heat as it runs, which can easily damage the same components.
Laptops have vents in the bottom and sides to remove heat, allowing air to flow through the case. If these are blocked, the fan cannot cool the components properly hence they spin much faster.
To remove dust, first shut down the laptop, remove the battery, unplug the power strip, and use a can of compressed air to blow dust out of the area inside the vents.
When the computer is turned on, place it on a hard, level surface keeping the vent areas unobstructed. Using your notebook computer on a cloth surface can block the airflow and cause overheating.
If you have a lot of software open on your computer, your computer works harder and generates more heat. Reduce the amount of heat by increasing the efficiency of your computer.2. Get a laptop cooler/cooling pad
If you are facing the laptop overheating when charging on HP, ASUS, Lenovo, Surface or other laptop types, you should consider getting cooler. A laptop cooler is supposed to provide additional cooling assistance.
Before you buy a laptop cooler or a cooling pad, understand how air flows in and out of your laptop. This is because many laptops take in cool air from underneath. So it won’t make sense to get a cooler that sits at the bottom of the laptop, as it will accelerate overheating.
If your machine has intake grills underneath it, get a cooler or cooling pad that will blow the cool air upwards and into the machine. Another option is to get a passive cooler that won’t use up much power but just absorbs heat.3. Run the power troubleshooter
This setting also determines how long the machine waits before it turns off the monitor display or goes into sleep mode.4. Reinstall graphics driver
Some users have noted that when the laptop is overheating when charging, the problem turned out to be the GPU or graphics card, which gets too hot (not because of dirt or dust, or blocked vents).
Ensure your system performs smoothly and avoids all GPU driver errors by using a complete driver update assistant, namely Outbyte Driver Updater, that will do the job for you. Here’s how to safely update your drivers:
Download and install the Outbyte Driver Updater app.
Launch the software and wait for the app to detect all incompatible drivers.
Now, it will show you a list of all faulty drivers to select the ones to Update or Ignore.
Restart your PC to ensure the applied changes.
Keep your GPU in a flawless state without worrying about possible driver issues.
Free trial Download now
Disclaimer: You may need to upgrade the app from the free version to perform specific actions.5. Change the power plan of your laptop
If your laptop overheats when plugged in but runs fine on battery, you might need to look at your power settings.
For example, if you leave your laptop on when not using it, you can change the power setting to turn off your monitor when it is not being used. This can help keep your computer running at a cooler temperature and solve the laptop overheating when charging problem.6. Update your laptop BIOS
One of the main functions of the BIOS is to monitor the temperature and adjust the operating conditions. While the sound of the fan running always can be annoying, it may be the first clue that your computer is running as efficiently as possible.
To help your computer run as cool and efficiently as possible, update your laptop’s BIOS.
To know if there’s the latest BIOS update check the website of the manufacturer for a newer version.7. Check if BIOS is set to Hybrid
This function lets the laptop draw power from the battery when the machine needs more power than the AC can provide. This can be a design flaw, or your laptop just has cheap parts.
But the hybrid charge will seriously reduce your battery life. You can try disabling the hybrid battery behaviour in the system BIOS and see if it solves the laptop overheating when charging issue. If it does help, replace your AC with a larger capacity AC.8. Identify corrupt processes using Task Manager
Consistent CPU load can lead to your laptop overheating when charging, as it causes heat buildup. This forces the fans to run continuously to maintain operating temperatures.
This heat can be caused by corrupt software or malware, which consumes CPU time between 1 and 100 percent of the CPU.Should I unplug my laptop when fully charged?
You should always unplug your charger from your laptop when it is fully charged. In fact, it is recommended to do so before it gets to 100 percent.
The recommended level to unplug your laptop is 80 percent and you can plug it again when it is down to 40 percent. This is to elongate the battery life and get the best out of your PC.
The laptop overheating when charging issue is dangerous, as it can lead to bigger problems. Fortunately, it is a problem that is pretty easy to fix, as shown in this detailed guide.
If you want to know how to fix overheating problems in Windows 11, check our detailed guide to do it effectively.
Still experiencing issues?
Was this page helpful?
File-level backup is essential for taking a backup of your device and restoring it at a later stage. File-level backup can backup single or multiple files. In this case, you take a backup of individual files, folders, and application data, and it is the most common type of backup, which is fast and easy to carry out. You can schedule file-level backups using different software and restore them whenever required.What is File Level Backup? Why and When to use it?
File-level backup is much faster than image backup. While the latter creates a copy of the whole storage device or a partition, the file-level backup lets you backup files at an individual level. To help you know more, here are some explanations:1] What is File Level Backup?
File-level backup is one of the common types of backup methods out there. It helps you to upload files and folders to the backup storage and then recover them whenever required.
With file-level backup, you cannot only backup your desktop files such as documents, photos, videos, and others. But you can also backup databases and drive images. So to recover your files, you will need to download them from the backup drive and manually restore them on your computer.
However, with a file-level backup, you won’t be able to create a bootable image, which is only possible with an image-level backup.2] Why is File Level Backup Necessary?
File-level backup is essential when you want to take regular backup of files and folders. With an image-level backup, you create a bootable image that cannot be changed. So whatever changes happen on your computer will not get added to the image backup. Instead, the file-level backup will regularly take a backup of your files and folders. So in case of a system crash, you will have the data to recover.
Many backup tools let you schedule backups on the file level. Windows offers built-in tools such as File History and Backup & Restore tools. You can set up a background backup process every day, week, or month, and all your files will get saved to your backup disk or storage.3] When Do You Need to Use File Level Backup
Hard-disk crashes are common, which could lead to heavy data lasses. But by setting up the scheduled file-level backup, you can take a backup of your files regularly and restore them when needed.
Another reason could be recovering accidentally deleted data if you have accidentally deleted your important files or lost them due to a malware attack. Then you can recover your files from the backup.File Level Backup vs Block Level Backup or Image Backup What is Block Level or Image Level Backup?
Image-based backup creates a copy of your whole system and allows you to upload it to the backup storage. You can create a block-level backup for your whole system with all the drives or just a specific partition.
Image level backup comes in handy when you want to create a master image of your PC or server and keep it in an actual state that allows you to recover your computer or service in an emergency.File Level Backup VS Block Level Backup/Image Backup: A Quick Comparison
File-Level Backup Image-Level Backup
Backup Items It can backup files and folders. Ideal for backing up system, disk, partition, and files.
Backup Frequency You can take a file-level backup several times a day. Image-level backup is usually taken once a week or month.
It can backup data at a lower level. Hence, the backup size is relatively low. Since it is used to backup your whole system, the image file size is relatively big.
Recovery Options You can restore files or folders. You can restore the entire system, disk, or partition.
In short, you must use file-level backup for your day-to-day file backup. On the other side, block-level backup is suitable when you want to backup your whole system with Files, folders, application data, settings, and more.
Still not sure about file-level backup. How and when should you use it? Here are some frequently asked questions that will help you know more:How do I backup large amounts of files?
It would help if you used backup software to backup large amounts of files at a file level. You should backup your disk/partition, system, file, and cloud and set up scheduled backups. Many of these backup applications also support multi-path backup storage, disk, partition close, secure password-protected backups, and more.What is the difference between a file backup and a system backup?
File backup will backup your files and folders available on your computer. However, it will not take a backup of your Application data, system files, or settings. On the other side, a system backup will backup your whole computer, including files, application data, settings, and more. So you can restore your computer to the same state as before taking a system backup.What are the three types of backups?
Backups can be broadly categorized into three types—Full, Incremental, and Differential. While the incremental backup only copies data that has changed since the last backup process, the differential backup starts with copying data changed from the previous backup and then works as an incremental backup going forward. The only drawback is that it takes more storage compared to incremental backup.
Update the detailed information about Brain Movies: When Readers Can Picture It, They Understand It on the Daihoichemgio.com website. We hope the article's content will meet your needs, and we will regularly update the information to provide you with the fastest and most accurate information. Have a great day!