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The health benefits of resveratrol, a compound found in the skin of grapes (and thus in red wine), have long been known. Studies have indicated that it serves as an antioxidant, that it has anti-tumor properties, that it can help you live longer, and that it may be responsible for the “French paradox” (the French have a high-fat diet and yet low instances of health disease). A new study examined resveratrol’s effects on melanoma, and found that it has anti-cancer properties. Cool! But, well, ignore.
So, definitely a lack of research here. There’s also the problem of exactly how resveratrol is introduced to the body. Without clinical trials, we can’t really say whether resveratrol as it’s present in red wine would be metabolized in any kind of beneficial way. Let’s take a look at another possible cancer-fighter for an example: mushrooms. Mushrooms, including common varieties like shiitake and maitake, contain lentinan, a substance that inhibits tumor growth and has been linked to fighting cancer. Except, to get the dose of lentinan you need, don’t bother eating a bunch of shiitakes. You have to inject it intravenously on a weekly basis, in quantities far greater than are present in any conquerable pile of mushrooms. Youch. So resveratrol in wine might not actually have the same effect as resveratrol supplements.
Red Wine Bottles
But the biggest problem, by far, with the idea that red wine will help you fight cancer is that no human alive is hardcore enough to get the benefits of resveratrol from drinking wine. To get the amount of resveratrol from wine to equal the amount given to the animals in these studies, you’d be dead from alcohol poisoning a few times over. Red wine has about 160 µg of resveratrol per ounce. Assuming each glass of wine has about five ounces, that’s 800 µg per glass, or 0.0008 grams. (That’s a pretty big glass, by the way.) The amount of resveratrol used in these studies ranges from two to five grams. So if we’re being conservative and assuming you only need two grams of resveratrol, and you’re having a pretty big glass of wine, that means you’d need 2,500 glasses of wine to get the dose used in these trials. That’s 492.9 bottles of wine.
Of course, you can buy resveratrol supplements from most health supplement stores or online. But resveratrol supplements, which are completely unregulated by the FDA and unproven in any clinical trials with humans, usually have between 200 and 500 mg of resveratrol–up to 25 times less than is used in these studies. There’s no indication that these relatively small doses of resveratrol will have the wonderful effects you might be expecting.
That’s not to say that these resveratrol studies aren’t interesting and important, of course. Very possibly this research will end up being important sometime down the road. But studies supposedly proving the magical properties of red wine are sexy and fun, much like red wine itself, which brings them an awful lot of visibility. Resveratrol is promising, but if you’ve been guzzling wine for its medical benefits, you might be getting drunk for no good reason.
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According to statistics, breast cancer is among the most common and second leading cause of deaths among females. Amid this when Google’s research came forward which said that artificial intelligence can read mammograms better than radiologists, it was a sigh of relief for most. Recently, DeepMind and Google Health have developed a new AI system that can detect breast cancer at an early stage. The researchers trained an algorithm on mammogram images from female patients in the US and UK. They trained it to perform better than human radiologists and hence the result has arrived. According to theSignificance
In the United Kingdom, there is a shortage of skilled radiologists and this AI system can assist doctors and specialists when reading mammograms. This move will subsequently improve the overall accuracy of mammography reading and reduce the radiologists’ workload. The real value-added potential from using AI for mammography is “immediate feedback in the screening setting”, claims study author. Providing the result immediately will enhance the standard of care. Also with AI, all mammograms could become “diagnostic” while releasing the results of mammograms on patients’ schedules. As the AI system is efficient enough in the reading film as an accompaniment to radiologists, it could give more time to experts to actually discuss to patients in person about their results. AI systems can be used to streamline the process of a breast cancer diagnosis. It can also help reduce the wait time for a biopsy.Similarity with NYU’s Research
Moreover, last October, NYU researchers published a similar study which demonstrates that the AI system can screen breast cancer similar to the skills of human radiologists. However, the difference between both the studies is that NYU only used mammograms from US patients, and it compared the system’s performance with human expert diagnoses conducted in an artificial lab environment whereas Google and DeepMind compared performance with real-world diagnoses, notes MIT Technology Review. Eventually, both the studies present the same conclusion that AI breast cancer screenings should be used in tandem with human radiologists and the combination of humans and AI can achieve the most accurate diagnostic results and reduce the workload on human radiologists. This could help free up their time to focus more on patient care.Expert’s Opinion
Dr. Mozziyar Etemadi, a research assistant professor of anesthesiology and biomedical engineering at Northwestern University and one of the paper’s co-authors says, “health care is being squeezed with the number of patients increased and the amount of time that doctors have to see patients decreasing. So tools like these are what every physician is hoping for. We just have to better understand when tools like AI help and when it doesn’t and ultimately come up with the combination of technology and human contributions what will ultimately improve care and make it more efficient.”
According to statistics, breast cancer is among the most common and second leading cause of deaths among females. Amid this when Google’s research came forward which said that artificial intelligence can read mammograms better than radiologists, it was a sigh of relief for most. Recently, DeepMind and Google Health have developed a new AI system that can detect breast cancer at an early stage. The researchers trained an algorithm on mammogram images from female patients in the US and UK. They trained it to perform better than human radiologists and hence the result has arrived. According to the MIT Technology Review , “In tests, the AI system decreased both types of error. For US patients, it reduced false negatives and positives by 9.4% and 5.7%, respectively; for UK patients it reduced them by 2.7% and 1.2%. In a separate experiment, the researchers tested the system’s ability to generalize: they trained the model using only mammograms from UK patients, and then evaluated its performance on US patients. The system still outperformed human radiologists, reducing false negatives and positives by 8.1% and 3.5%.”In the United Kingdom, there is a shortage of skilled radiologists and this AI system can assist doctors and specialists when reading mammograms. This move will subsequently improve the overall accuracy of mammography reading and reduce the radiologists’ workload. The real value-added potential from using AI for mammography is “immediate feedback in the screening setting”, claims study author. Providing the result immediately will enhance the standard of care. Also with AI, all mammograms could become “diagnostic” while releasing the results of mammograms on patients’ schedules. As the AI system is efficient enough in the reading film as an accompaniment to radiologists, it could give more time to experts to actually discuss to patients in person about their results. AI systems can be used to streamline the process of a breast cancer diagnosis. It can also help reduce the wait time for a biopsy.Moreover, last October, NYU researchers published a similar study which demonstrates that the AI system can screen breast cancer similar to the skills of human radiologists. However, the difference between both the studies is that NYU only used mammograms from US patients, and it compared the system’s performance with human expert diagnoses conducted in an artificial lab environment whereas Google and DeepMind compared performance with real-world diagnoses, notes MIT Technology Review. Eventually, both the studies present the same conclusion that AI breast cancer screenings should be used in tandem with human radiologists and the combination of humans and AI can achieve the most accurate diagnostic results and reduce the workload on human radiologists. This could help free up their time to focus more on patient chúng tôi Mozziyar Etemadi, a research assistant professor of anesthesiology and biomedical engineering at Northwestern University and one of the paper’s co-authors says, “health care is being squeezed with the number of patients increased and the amount of time that doctors have to see patients decreasing. So tools like these are what every physician is hoping for. We just have to better understand when tools like AI help and when it doesn’t and ultimately come up with the combination of technology and human contributions what will ultimately improve care and make it more efficient.”
After the long shutdown due to the covid pandemic, the US is slowly reopening. After more than 18 months of confinement, vaccines are making it possible for authorities to finally lift the rules we’ve grown accustomed to.
As excited as we all may be to get back to normal, the changing or lifting restrictions come with a certain amount of anxiety.
The first time I walked into a grocery store maskless after Massachusetts stopped requiring people to wear face coverings indoors, I had a pit in my stomach waiting for someone to yell at me. There are also people who have a hard time feeling safe without a mask on, or comfortable sharing a reduced space with others, even if they’re fully vaccinated.
It’s going to be a process for some of us. Fortunately, we can take steps to help ourselves and our families work through those feelings and get back to the lives that we want to live.Anxiety is natural and valid
Some level of anxiety is a common and expected response to any change in the world around us, says Nicole Beurkens, a licensed child psychologist in Caledonia, Michigan.
“Now we’re making a change again, and it’s a new pattern, unfamiliar, and it raises our stress and anxiety levels,” she says.
[Related: COVID-19 survivors may have higher risk of anxiety, depression, and neurological disorders]
The uncertainty we felt when the pandemic required that we stay home, wear masks and social distance, is peeking its ugly face now that a new reality is upon us. But just as we were able to adjust to those mandates, our brains will settle into new patterns and reacclimate—it just takes a little time.
And while some anxiety is natural, if at any point it becomes overwhelming and it significantly interferes with you or your kids’ daily lives, Holly Schiff, a licensed clinical psychologist in Greenwich, Connecticut, suggests seeking professional help or utilizing community resources such as mental health community centers, outpatient clinics, and social services agencies.Don’t try to do too much
Everyone has their own comfort level with re-entering society. It’s ok if you prefer a slow pace, but keep in mind that avoiding these potentially uncomfortable situations altogether doesn’t help, and only serves to generate more anxiety.
Beurkens adds that taking it slow and incrementally putting yourself out there is particularly important for children. In the fall, a lot of kids will be going back to school fully in-person, in some places likely without masks or other protective measures in place. If being in crowded hallways will be their first exposure to other people after all this time, they may struggle.
It’s crucial to help kids work those coping muscles again. Parents should be gentle, but also persistent about getting the younglings back out into the world.Communication is key
Having clear, direct conversations is also important. Within your family, talk about the things that you are afraid of and the sources of your anxiety. Ask your children questions about how they’re feeling, what types of activities they’re OK with doing, and with whom.
“Don’t just hope that everyone is going to be OK. You need to have the difficult conversations” Ceely says.
He also stresses that these interactions should be about listening. “We are warming them back up to getting back out into the world,” he says. Conversations that validate concerns can help ease some of the anxiety, but too much pressure can increase it.
[Related: What mental health professionals have learned six months into pandemic care]
It’s also important not to bury those anxious feelings, says Claudia Finkelstein, associate professor of family medicine at Michigan State University. Instead, make the effort to identify, name, and own your emotions and concerns. There is nothing wrong with feeling stressed during stressful times.
These conversations can also be lessons in resilience, adds Beurkens. If your kids are concerned, remind them about other challenges they’ve overcome in their lives.
“Kids need to understand that it’s OK to have these feelings,” she says. “Acknowledge and empathize, and express your confidence in their ability to navigate it.”
One way to help them build that confidence is to preview uncomfortable activities with them. Talk through how they may feel and present them strategies they can use to navigate those feelings. Also discuss what to do in case the situation does get overwhelming. Identify locations they can go to get away from people and have some time to themselves, and come up with a plan for how to make an easy exit as a family if the situation is too much.
Conversations aren’t just limited to direct family. It’s also a good idea to touch base with the comfort levels of your kids’ friends’ parents, and other people coming into close contact with your children.
“Go into that conversation without expectations or solutions, and simply share your concerns and ask questions,” Ceely says.
Talk through who is vaccinated or not, whether masks are important to you, and whether you want to prioritize indoor or outdoor activities. Remember that you don’t have to decide anything right away, but simply having the conversation will help to ease everyone’s anxiety.Managing anxiety in the moment
For me, it was playing mini golf with my family on a crowded evening, maskless. Eventually it’ll happen to you too, and you will be in a situation that makes you uncomfortable.
When those inevitable moments happen, Claudia Finkelstein recommends the power of the 4-4-8 breathing technique—breathe in for four seconds, hold it for four seconds, and then breathe out for eight seconds.
[Related: The best apps for dealing with anxiety]
Breathing exercises like this help you reset your parasympathetic nervous system, which controls the body’s “rest and digest” processes. When these processes are in control, it reduces our physiological stress response, and we calm down and relax.
“Where your body goes, your brain follows,” Finkelstein says. “If you can force your body to calm down, your mind will calm down as well.”
The Playstation 4 has sold over 100 million units and for good reason. It boasts a truly impressive library of games, prompting gamers worldwide to spend hours in their virtual worlds. At least they do when their controllers are charged.
Unfortunately, the DualShock 4 controller has abysmal battery life. For reasons unknown, Sony decided to only include a measly 1,000 mAh battery in PS4 controllers. To put that in perspective, a single AA battery has roughly twice the capacity. The Internet is rife with people lamenting the short battery life of their DualShock 4 controllers. Fortunately, there are a few tips to help you get the most battery life out of your DualShock 4 controller.Change Controller Shutoff Time
When you are using your PS4 console for anything other than playing games, like watching Netflix or YouTube, your DualShock 4 controller remains powered on. By default, the DualShock 4 controllers are set to power off after 60 minutes. To save your controller’s battery, you can tell it to automatically shut itself off earlier.Dim the Light Bar
The DualShock 4 has a forward-facing “light bar” that changes color during certain games. While it certainly looks cool, there is a practical purpose behind it. The light bar works in conjunction with the PS Camera hardware add-on. The camera tracks controller movement via the light bar when playing PSVR games. Other than that, it doesn’t serve much of a purpose. Unfortunately, leaving the light on will contribute to battery drain, and there’s no way to shut it off completely. That being said, it can be dimmed to minimize the amount of power consumed.Reduce Controller Speaker Volume Turn Off Vibration
As it’s name implies, the DualShock 4 controller houses a motor that delivers powerful vibrations. Regrettably, these vibrations sap power from your controller’s battery. Luckily, you can shut off the vibration function of your DualShock 4 completely.Never Worry About Battery Life Again
While you are always going to have to charge your DualShock 4 controller, there are gadgets that will help prevent interruptions in gameplay. First, we recommend buying a DualShock 4 controller charging station. They are very affordable and easy to use. Just pop your controller on the charging station after very session to make sure the battery is always topped up.
If you don’t want to invest in a charging station or don’t trust yourself to actually use it, do yourself a favor and grab an extra-long micro USB cable. This way you can charge your controller while sitting comfortably on the couch, all without interrupting your your game. If you really despise the idea of cords, you could opt for an external battery pack for your DualShock 4. There are a few different ones on the market, but the external batteries by Venom are officially-licensed products.
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PopSci is spending September relearning how to eat. As intuitive as our love of chowing down is, a lot stands between us and optimal eating. This month, we’ll break down diet myths, unlock delicious kitchen hacks, and explore our most common misconceptions about our grub.
How would you describe the flavor of parmesan cheese? What about the aftertaste of a rich beef broth, or the earthy tones of fresh mushrooms? You can almost place it, it’s just at the tip of your tongue … ah, umami. This millennia-old flavor was identified in only the last 120 years, and entered Western lexicon even more recently. The Japanese word translates to “pleasant, savory taste” or “mouthfulness,” and has its place alongside sweet, salty, bitter, and sour as the basic gustations.
The core of the umami flavor comes from two non-essential amino acids: aspartic acids and glutamic acids, or glutamates. Aspartic acid occurs naturally in vegetables like asparagus, while glutamates are found in a myriad of ingredients, including ripe tomatoes, cured meats, aged cheeses, soy sauce, and kelp. The glutamate you’re probably most familiar with is monosodium glutamate (MSG).
In fact, the story of MSG’s mass production dates back to the century-old knowledge of umami. As legend has it, Japanese chemist Kikunae Ikeda was dining with his family when he noticed that the dashi broth that his wife Tei made had a striking flavor. This flavor reminded him of the unique taste in tomatoes, meat, and cheese. Tei had used kelp in the broth, so Kikunae embarked on understanding the plant’s composition. A year later, he isolated glutamate in kelp as the source of the savoriness. A year after that, he developed and patented the process to extract MSG as a salt. These days, about three million tons of MSG get cranked out by food manufacturers each year.How our bodies understand umami
But how does the brain even know when umami, or any flavor, is in a dish? On the tongue, bundles of taste receptor cells form taste buds. While all different receptors are spread over the tongue, the particular family of receptors that clock umami flavors are called G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Within the GPCR family are a group of siblings, so to speak, called T1R1, T1T2, and T1R3. All the T1R siblings have similar large structures to collect information from their environment. When the glutamates in umami-rich foods bind to these receptors, the cells kick into action.
The T1R receptors are also present all throughout the digestive tract, where they play another crucial role: They train your brain to crave protein-rich foods. “The glutamate receptors signal to the brain that what you just ate had protein in it,” says Linda Bartoshuk, a University of Florida professor who studies the psychophysics of taste. “And the brain is wired to make you like protein. So the brain produces what’s called a ‘condition preference’ for the sensory characteristics of the food that came with the glutamate.” That means when you eat cheese or meat, the glutamate receptors in your gut tell your brain to associate those tastes with protein and make you want to crave those foods more.
Flavor scientists still have plenty of questions on how and why the glutamate receptors function. A study out of China from January 2023 used a simulation to examine the compound effects of MSG, umami peptides, and the T1R1/T1R3 receptors to look at their chemical interactions. Meanwhile, this past July, researchers in Italy created the first 3D models of these taste receptors. These tools will be a great help to researchers who want to get a deeper understanding of what sets off the flood of umami flavors on the tongue—and in the brain.
“If we want to think about virtual taste experiences, or taste prosthetics, we actually need to understand the molecules that produce this experience for us to simulate that,” says Joost Maier, a neurobiologist at Wake Forest School of Medicine.
There’s also evidence that other animals sense umami. Hummingbirds, for example, love sweet nectar, but they lack the T1R2 receptor that’s typically connected to the flavor. Instead, they use T1R1 and T1R3 to detect sugary sensations, along with some savory ones.The umami mystery continues
As delicious as umami-rich foods may be, there’s no consensus on whether it’s actually a core taste like sweet, salty, and so on. That’s not to say that umami isn’t a real flavor—there’s just contention over how prominent its sensory role is.
“Basic taste has no real definition,” Bartoshuk says, pointing to less-used descriptors like metallic and acidic. She believes the idea of umami being a core taste arose in the 1940s from companies that produce MSG-rich foods. “They thought they could call it something like a basic taste it would sell better,” she notes.
Maier has a different perspective; he says basic taste is a common experience that we can agree upon. “Salty has a certain experience that we can communicate to other people that makes sense to everybody,” he explains.
[Related: Learn the science to food pairing here]
One potential reason umami hasn’t been wholly welcomed into the taste family could be because glutamate receptors were discovered only recently, Maier says. US biologist Nirupa Chaudhari published the first paper on them in 1996.
“I don’t think [glutamates] play as big a role in the flavor of things like tomato and cheese as people claim,” Bartoshuk says. “I think that’s exaggerated, but it doesn’t matter. It’s a natural component of foods, and that’s fine.”
It’s also important to mention that glutamates work best in bringing out other tastes. MSG dissolved in water, for example, isn’t so appetizing—but in a broth or paired with other flavorings, you can have a Ratatouille moment.
In a nutshell, umami is the sophisticated sibling among its taste posse. While it might be tough to explain at first, it becomes one of those sensations where you know it when you taste it. After that, you won’t be able to get enough.
Correction September 23, 2023: Joost Maier’s last name was previously misspelled throughout the story. It has now been corrected.
In the modern world, right to life and personal liberty is one of the most fundamental rights that almost every constitution of this world ensures to the citizen of respective country. It is a natural right that every citizen must have by default.Right to Life
The creator of India’s constitution drafted Article 21 and included the phrase “right to life,” which signifies that everyone has the right to live their lives freely. By incorporating non-enforceable DPSP into enforceable basic rights, the Supreme Court has recognized and enforced several socioeconomic rights, such as the right to food, health, education, and a means of livelihood, among others.Articles 21 of the Constitution
Article 21 is at the heart of the Constitution. It is the most natural and forward-thinking clause in our evolving Constitution. Article 21 can only be invoked when the “State,” as defined in Article 12, deprives a person of his “life or personal liberty.” Therefore, a private individual’s infringement of a right is not covered by Article 21.
Article 21 secures two rights:
Right to life and
Right to personal liberty
The Government of India Act of 1935 established Article 21 of the Indian Constitution. It states that no one shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty unless in accordance with the legal procedure. Article 21 is one of the essential rights given to all Indian citizens and is included in Part III of the Indian Constitution. This article will go through the many rights and liberties guaranteed by Article 21.Right to Personal Liberty
Person liberty is one of the earliest ideals that humanity has recognized throughout its history. It is included in the Magna Carta.
The notion of ‘liberty’ has been given a very broad meaning in India. The Supreme Court of India has rejected the concept that liberty refers only to freedom from bodily restriction, holding that it also encompasses those rights and benefits recognized as essential to free men’s orderly pursuit of happiness.Important Cases Related to Article 21 of the Indian Constitution
A.K. Gopalan vs. Madras State, 1951 − In this instance, the Supreme Court used a restrictive reading of Article 21. It was decided that only arbitrary executive activity is covered by Article 21’s protection, not arbitrary legislative action. This indicates that a law may be used by the state to deny a person the rights guaranteed by Article 21.
Maneka Gandhi vs. UOI, 1978 − In this case, the Supreme Court reversed its Gopalan Case decision by using a broader reading of Article 21. It was decided that a person’s right to life and personal liberty can be taken away by a law as long as the process set forth by that legislation is reasonable, fair, and just. It also made clear that the right to life does not just refer to the existence of animals. It was stated that this would cover all elements of life that contribute to a man’s life being meaningful, full, and deserving of living.Recent Trends to Article 21
In addition to the conventional approach, the Supreme Court recognised Article 21 in the context of social justice when reading it at a specific time and gave Article 21 a new meaning following the Maneka Gandhi era. Some of the seminal judgments are listed below.Article 21 includes Right to Education
The right to education is seen as man’s third eye, without which no one can live a good, decent, or dignified existence. Previously, one of the guiding principles of state policy was the right to an education.
However, in response to changing societal needs, the Supreme Court ruled in Mohini Jain v. State of Karnataka and Unni Krishna v. State of Andhra Pradesh that the right to education, as a guaranteed fundamental right, is thus included under the right to life because it directly influences mental and physical capacity and is also responsible for individual growth in society.
Furthermore, it was determined in another judgment that the Right to Education encompasses the Right to a Safe Education.
Earlier, the courts interpreted Article 21’s unambiguous declaration of the right to education as Article 21-A’s provisions, making the right to education accessible to all citizens as a basic right.Article 21 includes Right to Livelihood
The right to livelihood follows from the right to life since no one can exist without food. If the right to livelihood is not regarded as an important part or parcel of the right to life, it will become the simplest method to deprive the person of exercising his right to life and, as a result, he will lose his livelihood. In addition to rejecting their valuable value and purpose, dismissing livelihoods also makes existence difficult.
The right to life has been proclaimed to include the right to one’s means of support. In the case of Olga Tellis v. Bombay Municipal Corporation, the Supreme Court ruled that the idea of the “right to life and personal liberty” protected by Article 21 of the Constitution encompasses the “right to live with dignity,” which includes the right to a livelihood.Article 21 includes Right to Speedy Justice and Speedy Trial
In regards to the denial of swift justice, the court highlighted its worry over case disposition delays. The concerned authorities have been ordered to act quickly before the situation spirals out of control. If procedural legislation fails to allow for a fast trial, it is ruled null and invalid. A petition for a writ of habeas corpus was submitted by a number of under-trial detainees who had been held in Bihar jails for years awaiting trial. The right to a speedy trial was viewed as an inherent guarantee in the tightrope of life, as was the right to personal liberty.
In Hussainara Khatoon (I) v. Home Secretary, State of Bihar, which was followed by Kadra Pahadia v. State of Bihar, the Supreme Court held that speedy trial is a fundamental right implicit in the guarantee of life and personal liberty enshrined in Art. 21 of the Constitution and that any accused who is denied this right of speedy trial is entitled to approach the Supreme Court under Art. 32 for the purpose of enforcing such a right.Imposing Capital Punishment is not a violation of Article 21
In the case of Mithu v. State of Punjab, it was determined that the mandatory death penalty for murder committed by a life criminal serving a life sentence under Section 303 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, is unconstitutional.
The constitutionality of the death penalty has been challenged in a number of instances before the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court ruled in Jagmohan Singh v. State of Uttar Pradesh that a statute cannot deny freedom of movement unless it is reasonable and in the public interest.
However, in Bachan Singh v. State of Punjab, it was determined that the death sentence is an alternative punishment for murder under Section 302 of the Indian Penal Code. As a result, it is not irrational and serves the public interest. It should only be applied in the “rarest of rare cases.”
Furthermore, it was determined in the instance of Solitary Confinement that solitary confinement breaches the basic right granted by Article 21.Article 21 includes Right to Health and Medical Care
The right to health is included in the right to life. Art. 21 and the Directive Principles of State Policy compel the state to protect a person’s life. The Supreme Court held in a landmark decision in Parmanand Katara v. Union of India that in medico legal cases, the preservation of life is of paramount importance, so it is the primary duty of the doctor to give immediate aid to the victims, whether they are criminals or innocent people, and shall not wait for the completion of legal formalities.
In a case similar to this one,Paschim Banga Khet Mazdoor Samiti v. State of West Bengal, the Supreme Court granted compensation to the victims who had been wronged by the government hospitals’ servicesArticle 21 includes Right to Privacy
The Supreme Court said in R. Rajgopal v. State of Tamil Nadu that the right to privacy is nothing more than the “right to be alone,” and that it is implicit in the right to life and personal liberty given by Art. 21 of the Indian Constitution.
Similarly, the issue of privacy was addressed in relation to the validity of Aadhaar. The Supreme Court’s decision on Justice K.S. Puttaswamy petition on August 24, 2023, holding that the right to privacy is protected as a fundamental constitutional right under Articles 14, 19, and 21 of the Indian Constitution, proved crucial to the rights of Indian citizens in the twenty-first century. This ruling not only overturned certain previous decisions, but it also paved the door for a more progressive and meaningful interpretation of civil and political rights.Conclusion
Article 21 is the most important right enshrined in our constitution. It is the foundation upon which the entire structure of fundamental rights is built. By giving progressive interpretation, the Supreme Court has consistently broadened the horizon and evolution of this article. We can confidently predict that more features will be added to this unbreakable article.Frequently Asked Questions
Q1. What is Article 21 A?
Ans. Article 21 A specifies that the state shall offer free and compulsory education to all children aged 6 to 14 in a manner determined by law. More information about the Right to Education Act may be found here.
Q2. Is Article 21 an absolute right
Ans. No, it is not an absolute right. The state may put constraints on the right to life and liberty, but they must be fair, reasonable, and just, and they must follow the legal system.
Q3. Can Article 21 be suspended during an emergency?
Ans. During an emergency, Article 21 cannot be suspended. The 44th Amendment to the United States Constitution states that this article cannot be suspended, even in an emergency.
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