Trending December 2023 # Cave Ceiling Dinosaur Footprints Cold Case Solved, Decades Later # Suggested January 2024 # Top 17 Popular

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Cave ceiling dinosaur footprints cold case solved, decades later

New clues were recently uncovered in a decades-old cold case surrounding a set of dinosaur prints in the ceiling of a cave. The prints belonged to what was previously believe to be a four-footed carnivore. This was an astounding discovery at the time – there was just one issue: No other evidence of this creature appeared in several decades after the discovery of these prints in the 1950s. New clues revealed the reason why no other evidence of the existence of these creatures ever appeared…

The in cave in Mount Morgan in central Queensland, Australia is currently closed to all visitors. That includes researchers – and all other human beings that might think it neat to take a visit. That’s largely the reason why this case went cold. Since former government geologist Ross Staines and his associates published research on the cave in the 1950s, the area had been blocked off due to safety concerns by local officials.

Per the Brisbane Times, recent interest was summoned by University of Queensland palaeontologist Dr Anthony Romilio. He’d been trying to gain access to these caves for over a decade, when a chance encounter with one Dr. Roslyn Dick proved exceedingly helpful to Dr. Romilio and his research.

Dr. Roslyn Dick is the daughter of Ross Staines. Mrs. Dick knew that she and her sisters had kept all of their father’s research and materials from work he’d done in the caves (and elsewhere) decades earlier. Included was media (such as photos and casts) stored in much higher resolution than what was included Staines’ public documentation.

“Besides his published account, he had high-resolution photographs and detailed notebooks,” said Dr. Dick, “and my sisters and I had kept it all. We even have his dinosaur footprint plaster cast stored under my sister’s ‘Harry Potter’ cupboard in Sydney.”

The cast was one made of a mystery footprint from the ceiling of the cave in Queensland. Photos included in the materials were far more high quality than those included with the published account, and afforded Dr. Romilio a far better look at the ceiling in question.

“Even though the published photos were very grainy, the actual photos themselves were high-resolution,” said Dr. Romilio, “and I knew straight away that these weren’t handprints we were seeing but a second set of footprints.”

Upon closer inspection, Dr. Romilio was able to match the tracks with those found in the last several decades in the same geological area. It was discovered that the ceiling walker wasn’t a four-legged dinosaur at all, but one of a pair of two-legged dinosaurs.

Unfortunately, though they’ve now got a more extensive record of footprints of this dinosaur – pair of dinosaurs, that is – no skeletal evidence yet exists. It’s still largely a mystery!

This latest research can be found in Historical Biology under title “Archival data provides insights into the ambiguous track-maker gait from the Lower Jurassic (Sinemurian) Razorback beds, Queensland, Australia: evidence of theropod quadrupedalism?” This research paper can be found with code DOI: as authored by Anthony Romilio, Roslyn Dick, Heather Skinner, and Janice Millar.

UPDATE: What about the ceiling? The location of the footprints (in the ceiling of a cave) is rare, but not unheard of. The images you’re seeing here – looking up at the ceiling of a cave – are raised, rather than indented.

It’s more like these prints are hanging from the ceiling than pressed up into the ceiling. When the prints were first made, the area surrounding the foot of the dinosaur hardened, set in hard stone. Underneath the prints, centuries of erosion (inside the cave) pulled away layers of softer material – until what was left was the hard layer (with the pressed-down prints) we see here. Neat!

UPDATE 2: See the print, print the print! Dr. Romilio scanned the plaster cast of the print shared by Dr. Dick (casted by Staines), and shared the scan on SketchFab for all to see, and download, and 3D print!

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New Dinosaur Feathers Discovered On Pterosaurs

New dinosaur feathers discovered on pterosaurs

New evidence was discovered that suggests feathers started appearing on animals around 70 million years earlier than previously suspected. Two anurognathid pterosaurs were studied by a group of paleontologists and research was published this week on their findings. This little monster was previously known to have at least a little bit of fur covering its body – now it would seem that it had four different sorts of feathers, too!

Four individual types of feather were discovered on the anurognathid pterosaur, including simple filaments, filament bunches, filaments with a tuft, and down feathers. These feathers were all relatively small – certainly no eagle wing feathers, by any measure. But they’re feathers, just the same. Above and below: An official reconstruction of the creatures we’re talking about today, by Yuan Zhang.

Below you’ll see a set of feather illustrations made for the report published this week. Each of these sorts of feather were discovered on the flying dinosaur in the study. This specific illustration was published by Nature with the article cited at the very bottom of this article – also using the same data, from a slightly different perspective.

Next you’ll see some of the locations where each type of feather were identified on dinosaur CAGS–Z070. This is one of two anurognathid pterosaur specimens used in this study, both of which came from the Daohugou Formation in Inner Mongolia.

“We ran some evolutionary analyses and they showed clearly that the pterosaur pycnofibres are feathers, just like those seen in modern birds and across various dinosaur groups,” said Professor Mike Benton from the University of Bristol’s School of Earth Sciences, one of the researchers that took part in this study.

It was previously accepted that feathers were unique to maniraptoran dinosaurs – and forward. The earliest minaraptora found lived in the Jurassic Period, and the latest still live today (as birds). Two possibilities pop up here: One is that feathers and feather-like structures appeared independently in pterosaurs. The other possibility is the more likely of the two – that wings evolved from parts belonging to even older dinosaurs (predecessors to these) – to the tune of ancestral archosaurs.

According to the study, “The presence of feather-like structures suggests that anurognathids, and potentially other pterosaurs, possessed a dense filamentous covering that probably functioned in thermoregulation, tactile sensing, signalling and aerodynamics.” If these findings are indeed feathers, they point toward an evolutionary starting point that popped up well before the otherwise eldest feathers ever found.

“Despite careful searching, we couldn’t find any anatomical evidence that the four pycnofibre types are in any way different from the feathers of birds and dinosaurs,” said Dr. Benton. “Therefore, because they are the same, they must share an evolutionary origin, and that was about 250 million years ago, long before the origin of birds.”

Previous findings had the oldest feathers found in an ichnofossil (Fulicopus lyellii) of the nearly 200-million year old Portland Formation, USA.

For more information, see the paper “Pterosaur integumentary structures with complex feather-like branching.” This paper was authored by Zixiao Yang, Baoyu Jiang, Maria E. McNamara, Stuart L. Kearns, Michael Pittman, Thomas G. Kaye, Patrick J. Orr, Xing Xu, and Michael J. Benton. This paper can be found in the scientific magazine called Nature (Ecology & Evolution) 3, pages24–30 (2023). This paper can be found with code chúng tôi (URL) right this minute.

NOTE: The term “Pterosaur” is sometimes colloquially referred to as “Pterodactyl.” This is sort of like referring to all adhesive strips as Band-Aids or all in-line skates as Roller Blades. In fact all pterodactyls are pterosaurs, but not all pterosaurs are pterodactyls. Pterodactyloidea is a suborder of the group pterosaur.

ALSO NOTE: the same issue of Nature included an alternate look at the same data. In a paper entitled “Pterosaur plumage”, Liliana D’Alba suggested the following: “Imaging of pterosaur skin reveals evidence of coloured feather-like structures, but whether these are homologous with true feathers is open to debate.” As with the paper cited above, this paper is in Nature right now, in Nature Ecology & Evolutionvolume 3, pages12–13 (2023).

Dinosaur Poops Show That Even Herbivores Ate Shellfish

Everyone cheats on their diets—dinosaurs were no exception. What large vegetarian ornithischian could resist the sweet crunch of crustacean shells embedded in dense, soft, decaying wood? It’s a dinosaurian delicacy that paleontologists have just uncovered.

Per usual, fossilized feces came to the rescue. You can learn a lot from poop, fresh or otherwise, but it’s especially helpful in its fossilized form—it can tell scientists what ancient creatures munched on. It’s not like there are old prehistoric lifestyle magazines for us to peruse, so it’s difficult to tell how dinosaurs spent their hours. What they ate, how they bred, where they got their fashion trend alerts; these things are all hard to discern from the fossil record. So ancient poops, known more professionally as coprolites, can be very useful indeed. And to think, you just flush yours down a toilet.

Megaherbivores were thoughtful enough to leave us sizable clues in the form of multi-liter coprolites. They left this pile of research material in what we now call southern Utah, inside the Kaiparowits rock formation in Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. The sediment there dates back to 76.0–74.1 million years ago and is riddled with fossils, of both the poop and non-poop varieties. Paleontologists excavated and analyzed these samples, then published their findings in Scientific Reports.

Coprolites at other sites, also made by ornithiscians—one of the two major dinosaurs groups marked by their “bird hips”—have been found to contain large quantities of rotten wood. This is not by accident. They didn’t accidentally chomp some tree mush while going in for grubs. In all likelihood, the fibrous plant matter was an intentional dietary choice. There are enough wood-laden coprolites embedded in various layers of the fossil record to suggest this was a consistent diet, not just the mistake of a few sloppy dinos. Why rotten wood? We’ll get to that in a second. First: the shellfish.

See, it wasn’t just decayed plant matter that these paleontologists found—it was shellfish too. And that seemed a little weird, given that these animals were thought to be strict herbivores. It might also seem odd if you have a mental image of crustaceans as exclusively marine in nature. Were these ornithiscians harvesting mollusks from the sea floor? Were there bird-hipped diving dinos that sold their fishy goods in exchange for rotten wood snacks? Sadly, no. Ancient crustaceans also lived on land, often in or on decaying trees, where land-dwelling creatures were free to munch on them.

It’s possible that these shellfish were only ingested accidentally, when the dinos tried to eat delicious old logs. It’s more likely, though, that it was intentional. These crustaceans weren’t tiny little buggers that could have been swallowed like a pill—each was somewhere between 20 and 60 percent of the width of an ornithiscian mouth. It would be hard to not notice something of that size. That fact, combined with the sheer number of poops found to contain crustacean shells, means that these dinos were probably going after the protein intentionally.

All this means that shellfish may have been a source of protein and calcium for ornithiscians, at least seasonally. If primo vegetation was in short supply (though not so short that they’d need to migrate), rotting wood and crustaceans could have become an appealing food source. The paleontologists also point out that egg-laying animals generally need to take in lots of calcium before breeding time, so they can pop out all those calcium-rich shells. Dinosaurs may have needed to do the same thing.

Now back to the choice of wood as a dietary component. Why eat something that’s been pre-digested by fungus and bugs? Well, all that rotting means that dinosaurs could actually digest the cellulose and fiber inside. Plus, decayed wood often contains a supplemental form of protein: small grubs (the other white meat). Yum.

5 Of The Best Touchscreen Gloves For The Cold Winter

If you’re a phone addict, you’ve probably known the struggle of wanting to use your phone while also keeping your hands warm during the winter months. Unfortunately, phone touchscreens can only detect the electrical signals in your fingers, which gloves are very good at blocking. If you want to use your phone while also keeping your digits toasty-warm, you can try touchscreen gloves instead.

2. Knitted Gloves with Thinsulate Lining by Bruceriver

If you want something a little more heavy-duty and warm, definitely give these gloves a shot. The thick wool makes for a great traditional glove that stops the cold from reaching your digits. They even come in a fetching array of colors! While the gloves come without any additional features by default, there are options for touchscreen-compatible gloves in the color selector.

3. Women’s Touchscreen Leather Gloves by Warmen

For the ladies who want to add a little style to their daily life, these gloves by Warmen fit the job perfectly. With a choice of either a cashmere or fleece inner lining, these are on the higher end of luxury for smartphone touchscreen gloves. Users are reporting the cashmere variants have a better responsiveness to touchscreens, so be sure to grab those if you’re a smartphone addict.

4. Genuine Leather Gloves by Harrms

5. Waterproof Winter Gloves by WindRider

If you’re looking for the ultimate in hand protection, these gloves come with it all, with superior padding and a waterproof exterior. It does sacrifice a little bit of touchscreen functionality as a result; the manufacturer states that you can pick up calls using the gloves, but texting other people may be problematic. This makes for a great choice if you want to only perform simple tasks with your phone instead of playing Candy Crush while out in the cold!

All You Need Is Glove

With the coming of winter comes the additional layers, and gloves can be a real annoyance for a smartphone addict. Thankfully, with touchscreen-compatible gloves, you don’t need to sacrifice warmth to take photos or send a quick text.

Do you find yourself using your smartphone often in public? Will a smartphone-compatible glove help? Let us know below.

Simon Batt

Simon Batt is a Computer Science graduate with a passion for cybersecurity.

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Pov: 20 Years Later, Learning From 9/11

POV: 20 Years Later, Learning from 9/11

Voices & Opinion

POV: 20 Years Later, Learning from 9/11 SPH Dean Sandro Galea on how the lessons we learned that day might help us prepare to mitigate the consequences of other large-scale events, COVID in particular

Twenty years ago, at 8:46 am on September 11, 2001, American Airlines Flight 11 crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center, followed, 17 minutes later, by United Airlines Flight 175, crashing into the South Tower. Two other hijacked planes, American Airlines Flight 77 and United Airlines Flight 93 were hijacked that same day, crashing respectively into the Pentagon and into a field in Pennsylvania. Nearly 3,000 people died on September 11, 2001, and about 6,000 people were physically injured. The immediate aftermath of the attacks cost at least $10 billion in property damage and about $3 trillion in total costs. The long-term global consequences of the attacks continue to be felt to this day—9/11 resulted in the launch of global wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, with about 500,000 people dying in Iraq and likely a comparable number of deaths in Afghanistan.

I was in New York City on 9/11, just starting my career as an epidemiologist. Along with millions of New Yorkers, I watched with horror as the World Trade Center unthinkably collapsed. Stunned by the obvious destruction, our team quickly became concerned with the potential longer-term mental health consequences of the attacks. Working with colleagues around the country, we designed and conducted a series of studies aimed at documenting the mental health aftermath of the attacks in New York City. The first study, conducted a month after the attacks, was one of the earliest to show that large-scale attacks like 9/11 can affect populations far beyond just those groups who were directly exposed to the events themselves. We estimated that about 7.5 percent of Manhattan residents had post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 9.7 percent had depression that month, for a total of approximately 67,000 persons with PTSD and 87,000 with depression. This suggested a prevalence of PTSD and depression two to three times higher than what one might have expected at baseline. 

We subsequently studied residents in the entire New York City metropolitan area, finding a substantial burden of PTSD and depression throughout the region. Other work showed that the burden of mental illness subsided over the first six months among most of those affected, even as it persisted in a small but important subgroup who continued to experience mental illness years after the attacks. This was particularly the case among direct witnesses to the attacks.  

Studies by other research groups have documented the full range of the attacks’ long-term health consequences, evincing strong associations between exposure to the attacks and mental illness—including substance abuse and respiratory illness, particularly among rescue and recovery workers. Ongoing studies continue to monitor many of those who were exposed to 9/11, and this long-term work will undoubtedly document more definitively the physical health consequences of the disaster.

At this point, we probably have more research documenting the health consequences of the 9/11 attacks than we have for any other disaster in human history. Several books have since compiled the state of our knowledge about the consequences of disasters, including one I coedited about a decade after 9/11. Before the attacks, the study of trauma and its consequences focused, with few exceptions, on interpersonal trauma affecting individuals. The 9/11 attacks exposed us to an entirely new world, where large-scale disasters had effects that were experienced by hundreds of thousands of people at the same time, affecting the health of entire populations.

We now face a disaster that is in many ways of even greater magnitude than 9/11, in COVID-19. The pandemic has killed over 600,000 Americans, and millions around the world. At one point, the daily death toll in the United States was so great that it exceeded that of 9/11. In addition to challenging our physical health, the pandemic has also undermined mental health in ways we are just beginning to fully understand. In research conducted during COVID, we found depression prevalence to be threefold higher in the United States than before the pandemic struck. Recent reports suggest as many as 42.4 percent of adults in the United States continue to report symptoms of anxiety or depressive disorder. These outcomes were strongly mediated by socioeconomic context. In another study, for example, our team found that more assets—like income, savings, home ownership, marital status, and education—helped lower the level of probable depression among populations—the more assets someone had, the lower their level of the disease.

Just as the health consequences of 9/11 remain with us, the health consequences of the COVID moment will likely linger for decades, if not generations. As we look back on 9/11 then, a pause to ask: what are the key lessons we learned after the attacks? How might these help us prepare to mitigate the consequences of other large-scale events, COVID in particular? I suggest that three main lessons about health emerged after 9/11, informing my thinking about trauma and its consequences.

First, the consequences of traumatic events are pervasive. September 11 was perhaps the first disaster experienced in real time by millions, as an increasingly interconnected world allowed people all over New York City to know that they were under threat—and to experience the consequences of that fear—in real time. Billions around the globe were able to watch what was happening and see the world change literally in front of their eyes. The scientific work after the attacks showed us, perhaps not surprisingly, that the scope of the consequences of 9/11 did not stop with those who were in or near the twin towers, but affected whole populations. Subsequent research about other large-scale events—including, perhaps most notably, Hurricane Katrina in the southern United States and bombings in the United Kingdom—have confirmed and extended what we learned after 9/11: that large-scale terrorist attacks or disasters have consequences that shape the health of whole populations, changing the trajectory of health for decades after the attacks. This unfortunately teaches us that the challenges to population health are very real and potentially devastating for thousands after an attack, and that a responsive system needs to be prepared to deal with these consequences both in the short term and in the long term.

Second, the consequences of traumatic events extend well beyond physical injury. Standard accounts of the 9/11 attacks suggest that 6,000 people were injured that day. But that is only the tip of the iceberg. Behavioral illness—including PTSD, depression, and use of substances—will affect far more people than just those who were physically injured by these events. Behavioral illness is also tightly interlinked with the expression of a broad range of other illnesses, including, for example, asthma and respiratory disorders. The full story of the health consequences of 9/11, particularly among direct survivors and rescue workers, remains to be written, and it is likely that the full range of consequences of the attacks extends across generations, as several studies have now documented the intergenerational transmission of the health consequences of PTSD and other psychiatric disorders. This suggests the need for health system sensitivity to the potential consequences of these events, with the long-term surge capacity to effectively tackle a fundamentally different picture of population health.

Third, while the consequences of large-scale traumatic events are driven very much by the sentinel traumatic experience itself, these events are but one driver of population health. As we have seen during COVID, the effects of traumatic events are part of a complex set of factors, including underlying socioeconomic context and ongoing traumas and stressors, all of which contribute to the health of populations in the medium term and long term. Simply put: the consequences of traumatic events do not occur in a vacuum, and it is often marginalized groups already experiencing a range of other traumas and stressors who suffer the greatest burden of the long-term consequences. Unfortunately, these groups are also the groups that frequently have least access to the resources that may mitigate the consequences of traumatic events, suggesting that it is only through careful attention to the foundational drivers of population health that we can effectively ease the consequences of terrorist attacks and disasters.

While many of us have moved on from the experiences of 9/11, thousands of others continue to live with the consequences of that day, every day. It seems to me that perhaps the best way, maybe the only way, to honor the victims of 9/11, and the millions who have been killed or harmed in its wake, is to make sure we do not forget what we learned after the attacks, and to apply these lessons as we address disasters going forward. In particular, it would be fitting indeed if the lessons learned as a consequence of the sorrow of 9/11 could be used to reduce suffering in this COVID moment, the legacy of one tragedy helping to ease the burden of another.

Author’s note: I refer to work I conducted, but that is a simplification for the sake of writing efficiency. I had the privilege of being a part of large teams of investigators across the world who conducted this research. I acknowledge in particular epidemiologist David Vlahov, a Yale School of Nursing professor, and Dean Kilpatrick, a University of South Carolina professor of medicine, both of whom I worked with at Columbia University and without whose mentorship I would never have had the opportunity to conduct any of this work.

Sandro Galea, Robert A. Knox Professor and dean of BU’s School of Public Health, can be reached at [email protected]. Follow him on Twitter @sandrogalea.

Find a list of all those with ties to the BU community killed on 9/11 here.

Fake Seo Case Studies On Facebook

There is an increasing trend of publishing SEO case studies on Facebook to show how a tool or service can help increase search rankings and traffic.

At least one Facebook Group admin is taking action to challenge and remove them because they are designed with an agenda at best and are outright fakes at worst.

SEO Case Studies Tell Only One Story

A common problem with SEO case studies published on Facebook is that they are expressly designed to tell you a story of success in defeating Google’s algorithm.

If there is one constant in search marketing it may be the understanding that there is no sure thing or guarantees in SEO.

No SEO tool or person can guarantee specific results that are based on a third party.

Yet some SEO case studies published in Facebook groups are designed to create the impression that the tool can outwit Google.

Flaws in SEO Case Studies Published on Facebook

I don’t mean to say that all SEO case studies have issues.

One of the most consistent flaws I see in many case studies is that they are based on local geographic based keyword terms.

Except for highly competitive areas like injury attorneys, local search keyword phrases are relatively non-competitive, especially in small towns.

It’s easier to rank a page for the name of a small town and keywords than it is to rank for more competitive phrases in larger metro areas like Los Angeles or New York City.

One literally does not need a tool or that many backlinks to rank well for the name of a small town and local-search related keywords.

This lack of competition is why so many case studies are based on local geographic based keywords, particularly with city names that relate to smaller towns.

Rather than pick on an actual SEO case study (which I don’t want to do) I will use an SEO competition as an illustration of the ease of ranking local search keyword phrases.

The competition a while back was to see who could rank and hold on for the search phrase, Rhinoplasty Plano Texas.

The winner of that competition was a website constructed almost entirely of Lorem Ipsum Roman Latin words.

Only the heading tags were written in English.

The winners of that competition demonstrate a weakness in Google’s algorithm within low volume search queries that are tied to a low population geographic area.

That weakness tied to a local search queries in a low population area can be exploited to create an SEO case study that appears to show positive results in terms of how many search queries a site begins to rank for.

There are two kinds of successes that are variously claimed in SEO case studies published on Facebook:

Amount of keywords a site is ranking for

Increase in traffic

How Did a Latin Language Site Rank for English Keywords?

There were a lot of things going on to power that ranking.

But the chief reason is the low search volume for that search phrase.

Google is very much about showing users what they want to see.

But Google tends to do less well determining what users want when users are not searching with a particular set of keywords, like Rhinoplasty Plano Texas.

There was close to zero search query volume and trivial competition.

The fact that a webpage composed almost entirely of Latin could rank for the phrase Rhinoplasty Plano Texas is as much a reflection of the low competition for that phrase as it is an exposure of a weakness in Google’s algorithm that allows a non-English website to rank number one for a low competition keyword phrase.

Next time someone shoves a case study in your face, check to see if it’s based on local search keywords, most times it is.

Choosing a trivial search phrase is one way to help tilt an SEO case study so that it produces seemingly positive results.

100% Fake Case Studies

Another way hustlers generate business is by using fake case studies.

These unethical people don’t even bother to rank a site in an easy niche.

They just copy a Google Analytics graph from someone else’s case study and claim it as evidence that their link building service produces results.

They publish screenshots of web traffic analytics graphs with marks indicating the date links were added after which the analytics report shows the search traffic growing exponentially.

They usually don’t show you the keywords so you can check if the site is ranking, they rarely show the site or the actual amount of traffic.

There are a lot of specifics missing.

But more importantly, some of those web analytics screenshots are fake.

This is a big problem on Facebook Groups because the most unscrupulous and ambitious will show up to deceive people.

Fake SEO Case Studies on Facebook

I asked Steven Kang (@SEOSignalsLab), the administrator of the private SEO Signals Lab Facebook group about these fake case studies.

This is what the Steven Kang said:

Engaging screenshot posts in large SEO groups mean more people in their funnel for link building vendors and tool makers.

Translated, there is a huge commercial-driven motive standing behind each forgery. Some are calling this justifiable marketing and I completely disagree.

To discourage dishonest posts, I am requiring each poster to allow on-demand inspection and provide proof of the screenshot data to trusted moderators.”

There was a guy in that Facebook group earlier this year who was posting screenshots of his client work and Steven kicked him out of the group and deleted every post he had ever made in that group.”

Generating Traffic is Trivial

It’s easy to create a case study using a brand new domain to create the illusion that several hundred visitors per month are a direct result of their efforts.

Creating a website and taking it from zero to several hundred visitors per month is also relatively easy to do.

It’ll look great on an analytics graph yet it’s not always particularly meaningful.

Case Studies Disappear When Challenged

I don’t mean to say that all SEO case studies published on Facebook are fake.

But the problem of fake SEO case studies published on Facebook has become so problematic that Facebook Administrators like Kang require that anyone posting a case study allow inspection of things like Google Analytics data.

That requirement has dramatically cut down on the number of people sharing case studies in that Facebook Group.

When confronted with an SEO case study, be skeptical.

It’s OK to ask to demand to see specifics like keyword phrases and domain names in order to judge the truthfulness of their claims.

As Kang noted, SEO case studies are done for lead generation, these people want your money.

It’s not unreasonable to demand more information about the case study before handing over your money.

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