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To combine values of two columns separated with hyphen in an R data frame, we can use apply function.

For Example, if we have a data frame called df that contains only two columns say X and Y then we can combine the values in X and Y by using the below command given below −

df\$X_Y<-apply(df,1,paste,collapse="-") Example 1

Consider the data frame given below −

Age<-sample(20:50,20) Height<-sample(130:200,20) df1<-data.frame(Age,Height) df1

The following dataframe is created

Age Height 1  22   147 2  37   138 3  28   184 4  40   154 5  32   193 6  20   135 7  47   185 8  27   198 9  46   156 10 29   170 11 44 140 12 43 167 13 23 182 14 49 171 15 31 150 16 25 148 17 21 180 18 45 169 19 39 179 20 36 133

To combine the values of both columns in df1 separated with hyphen on the above created data frame, add the following code to the above snippet −

Age<-sample(20:50,20) Height<-sample(130:200,20) df1<-data.frame(Age,Height) df1\$Age_Height<-apply(df1,1,paste,collapse="-") df1 Output

If you execute all the above given snippets as a single program, it generates the following Output −

Age Height Age_Height  1   22 147       22-147  2   37 138       37-138  3   28 184       28-184  4   40 154       40-154  5   32 193       32-193  6   20 135       20-135  7   47 185       47-185  8   27 198       27-198  9   46 156       46-156 10   29 170       29-170 11   44 140       44-140 12   43 167       43-167 13   23 182       23-182 14   49 171       49-171 15   31 150       31-150 16   25 148       25-148 17   21 180       21-180 18   45 169       45-169 19   39 179       39-179 20   36 133       36-133 Example 2

Following snippet creates a sample data frame −

Group<-sample(c("First","Second","Third"),20,replace=TRUE) Rate<-sample(1:10,20,replace=TRUE) df2<-data.frame(Group,Rate) df2 Output

If you execute the above given snippet, it generates the following Output −

Group Rate 1 First    8 2 Second   4 3 First    5 4 Second   7 5 Second   4 6 Third    7 7 Second   9 8 Second   7 9 First    7 10 Second  3 11 First  10 12 Second  9 13 First   7 14 First   8 15 Second  1 16 Second  8 17 Second  5 18 Third 10 19 Second 4 20 First 5

To combine the values of both columns in df2 separated with hyphen on the above created data frame, add the following code to the above snippet −

Group<-sample(c("First","Second","Third"),20,replace=TRUE) Rate<-sample(1:10,20,replace=TRUE) df2<-data.frame(Group,Rate) df2\$Group_Rate<-apply(df2,1,paste,collapse="-") df2 Output

If you execute all the above given snippets as a single program, it generates the following Output −

Group Rate Group_Rate 1    First    8   First- 8 2   Second    4  Second- 4 3    First    5   First- 5 4   Second    7  Second- 7 5   Second    4  Second- 4 6    Third    7   Third- 7 7   Second    9  Second- 9 8   Second    7  Second- 7 9    First    7   First- 7 10  Second    3  Second- 3 11   First   10   First-10 12  Second    9  Second- 9 13   First    7   First- 7 14   First    8   First- 8 15  Second    1 Second- 1 16  Second    8 Second- 8 17  Second 5 Second- 5 18   Third 10 Third- 10 19  Second 4 Second- 4 20   First 5 First- 5

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## How To Delete Rows Of An R Data Frame Based On String Match?

Often, we need to subset our data frame and sometimes this subsetting is based on strings. If we have a character column or a factor column then we might be having its values as a string and we can subset the whole data frame by deleting rows that contain a value or part of a value, for example, we can get rid of all rows that contain set or setosa word in Species column.

Example

Consider the below data frame −

Character<-c("Andy","Amy","Carolina","Stone","Sam","Carriph","Selcan","Toni","Andrew","Samuel","Samreen","Erturul","Engjin","Engeline","Andreas","Sofia","Yannis","Salvador","Bahattin","Samsa","Orgopolos","Dragos") ID<-1:22 df<-data.frame(ID,Character) df Output ID Character 1 1 Andy 2 2 Amy 3 3 Carolina 4 4 Stone 5 5 Sam 6 6 Carriph 7 7 Selcan 8 8 Toni 9 9 Andrew 10 10 Samuel 11 11 Samreen 12 12 Erturul 13 13 Engjin 14 14 Engeline 15 15 Andreas 16 16 Sofia 17 17 Yannis 18 18 Salvador 19 19 Bahattin 20 20 Samsa 21 21 Orgopolos 22 22 Dragos Example df[!grepl("An",df\$Character),] Output ID Character 2 2 Amy 3 3 Carolina 4 4 Stone 5 5 Sam 6 6 Carriph 7 7 Selcan 8 8 Toni 10 10 Samuel 11 11 Samreen 12 12 Erturul 13 13 Engjin 14 14 Engeline 16 16 Sofia 17 17 Yannis 18 18 Salvador 19 19 Bahattin 20 20 Samsa 21 21 Orgopolos 22 22 Dragos Example df[!grepl("os",df\$Character),] Output ID Character 1 1 Andy 2 2 Amy 3 3 Carolina 4 4 Stone 5 5 Sam 6 6 Carriph 7 7 Selcan 8 8 Toni 9 9 Andrew 10 10 Samuel 11 11 Samreen 12 12 Erturul 13 13 Engjin 14 14 Engeline 15 15 Andreas 16 16 Sofia 17 17 Yannis 18 18 Salvador 19 19 Bahattin 20 20 Samsa Example df[!grepl("Sam",df\$Character),] Output ID Character 1 1 Andy 2 2 Amy 3 3 Carolina 4 4 Stone 6 6 Carriph 7 7 Selcan 8 8 Toni 9 9 Andrew 12 12 Erturul 13 13 Engjin 14 14 Engeline 15 15 Andreas 16 16 Sofia 17 17 Yannis 18 18 Salvador 19 19 Bahattin 21 21 Orgopolos 22 22 Dragos Example df[!grepl("on",df\$Character),] Output ID Character 1 1 Andy 2 2 Amy 3 3 Carolina 5 5 Sam 6 6 Carriph 7 7 Selcan 9 9 Andrew 10 10 Samuel 11 11 Samreen 12 12 Erturul 13 13 Engjin 14 14 Engeline 15 15 Andreas 16 16 Sofia 17 17 Yannis 18 18 Salvador 19 19 Bahattin 20 20 Samsa 21 21 Orgopolos 22 22 Dragos Example df[!grepl("ra",df\$Character),] Output ID Character 1 1 Andy 2 2 Amy 3 3 Carolina 4 4 Stone 5 5 Sam 6 6 Carriph 7 7 Selcan 8 8 Toni 9 9 Andrew 10 10 Samuel 11 11 Samreen 12 12 Erturul 13 13 Engjin 14 14 Engeline 15 15 Andreas 16 16 Sofia 17 17 Yannis 18 18 Salvador 19 19 Bahattin 20 20 Samsa 21 21 Orgopolos

Let’s have a look at an example using iris data −

Example head(iris) Output Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width Species 1 5.1 3.5 1.4 0.2 setosa 2 4.9 3.0 1.4 0.2 setosa 3 4.7 3.2 1.3 0.2 setosa 4 4.6 3.1 1.5 0.2 setosa 5 5.0 3.6 1.4 0.2 setosa 6 5.4 3.9 1.7 0.4 setosa Example iris[!grepl("set",iris\$Species),] Output Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width Species 51 7.0 3.2 4.7 1.4 versicolor 52 6.4 3.2 4.5 1.5 versicolor 53 6.9 3.1 4.9 1.5 versicolor 54 5.5 2.3 4.0 1.3 versicolor 55 6.5 2.8 4.6 1.5 versicolor 56 5.7 2.8 4.5 1.3 versicolor 57 6.3 3.3 4.7 1.6 versicolor 58 4.9 2.4 3.3 1.0 versicolor 59 6.6 2.9 4.6 1.3 versicolor 60 5.2 2.7 3.9 1.4 versicolor 61 5.0 2.0 3.5 1.0 versicolor 62 5.9 3.0 4.2 1.5 versicolor 63 6.0 2.2 4.0 1.0 versicolor 64 6.1 2.9 4.7 1.4 versicolor 65 5.6 2.9 3.6 1.3 versicolor 66 6.7 3.1 4.4 1.4 versicolor 67 5.6 3.0 4.5 1.5 versicolor 68 5.8 2.7 4.1 1.0 versicolor 69 6.2 2.2 4.5 1.5 versicolor 70 5.6 2.5 3.9 1.1 versicolor 71 5.9 3.2 4.8 1.8 versicolor 72 6.1 2.8 4.0 1.3 versicolor 73 6.3 2.5 4.9 1.5 versicolor 74 6.1 2.8 4.7 1.2 versicolor 75 6.4 2.9 4.3 1.3 versicolor 76 6.6 3.0 4.4 1.4 versicolor 77 6.8 2.8 4.8 1.4 versicolor 78 6.7 3.0 5.0 1.7 versicolor 79 6.0 2.9 4.5 1.5 versicolor 80 5.7 2.6 3.5 1.0 versicolor 81 5.5 2.4 3.8 1.1 versicolor 82 5.5 2.4 3.7 1.0 versicolor 83 5.8 2.7 3.9 1.2 versicolor 84 6.0 2.7 5.1 1.6 versicolor 85 5.4 3.0 4.5 1.5 versicolor 86 6.0 3.4 4.5 1.6 versicolor 87 6.7 3.1 4.7 1.5 versicolor 88 6.3 2.3 4.4 1.3 versicolor 89 5.6 3.0 4.1 1.3 versicolor 90 5.5 2.5 4.0 1.3 versicolor 91 5.5 2.6 4.4 1.2 versicolor 92 6.1 3.0 4.6 1.4 versicolor 93 5.8 2.6 4.0 1.2 versicolor 94 5.0 2.3 3.3 1.0 versicolor 95 5.6 2.7 4.2 1.3 versicolor 96 5.7 3.0 4.2 1.2 versicolor 97 5.7 2.9 4.2 1.3 versicolor 98 6.2 2.9 4.3 1.3 versicolor 99 5.1 2.5 3.0 1.1 versicolor 100 5.7 2.8 4.1 1.3 versicolor 101 6.3 3.3 6.0 2.5 virginica 102 5.8 2.7 5.1 1.9 virginica 103 7.1 3.0 5.9 2.1 virginica 104 6.3 2.9 5.6 1.8 virginica 105 6.5 3.0 5.8 2.2 virginica 106 7.6 3.0 6.6 2.1 virginica 107 4.9 2.5 4.5 1.7 virginica 108 7.3 2.9 6.3 1.8 virginica 109 6.7 2.5 5.8 1.8 virginica 110 7.2 3.6 6.1 2.5 virginica 111 6.5 3.2 5.1 2.0 virginica 112 6.4 2.7 5.3 1.9 virginica 113 6.8 3.0 5.5 2.1 virginica 114 5.7 2.5 5.0 2.0 virginica 115 5.8 2.8 5.1 2.4 virginica 116 6.4 3.2 5.3 2.3 virginica 117 6.5 3.0 5.5 1.8 virginica 118 7.7 3.8 6.7 2.2 virginica 119 7.7 2.6 6.9 2.3 virginica 120 6.0 2.2 5.0 1.5 virginica 121 6.9 3.2 5.7 2.3 virginica 122 5.6 2.8 4.9 2.0 virginica 123 7.7 2.8 6.7 2.0 virginica 124 6.3 2.7 4.9 1.8 virginica 125 6.7 3.3 5.7 2.1 virginica 126 7.2 3.2 6.0 1.8 virginica 127 6.2 2.8 4.8 1.8 virginica 128 6.1 3.0 4.9 1.8 virginica 129 6.4 2.8 5.6 2.1 virginica 130 7.2 3.0 5.8 1.6 virginica 131 7.4 2.8 6.1 1.9 virginica 132 7.9 3.8 6.4 2.0 virginica 133 6.4 2.8 5.6 2.2 virginica 134 6.3 2.8 5.1 1.5 virginica 135 6.1 2.6 5.6 1.4 virginica 136 7.7 3.0 6.1 2.3 virginica 137 6.3 3.4 5.6 2.4 virginica 138 6.4 3.1 5.5 1.8 virginica 139 6.0 3.0 4.8 1.8 virginica 140 6.9 3.1 5.4 2.1 virginica 141 6.7 3.1 5.6 2.4 virginica 142 6.9 3.1 5.1 2.3 virginica 143 5.8 2.7 5.1 1.9 virginica 144 6.8 3.2 5.9 2.3 virginica 145 6.7 3.3 5.7 2.5 virginica 146 6.7 3.0 5.2 2.3 virginica 147 6.3 2.5 5.0 1.9 virginica 148 6.5 3.0 5.2 2.0 virginica 149 6.2 3.4 5.4 2.3 virginica 150 5.9 3.0 5.1 1.8 virginica

## C++ Permutation Of An Array That Has Smaller Values From Another Array

B = [1, 20, 10, 12] Output: 12, 22, 41, 13

Input: A = [2, 5, 9, 7], B = [1, 12, 4, 54] Output: 2 7 5 9

using namespace std; int main(){     int A[] = { 2, 5, 9, 7 };     int B[] = { 1, 12, 4, 54 };     int n = sizeof(A) / sizeof(int);     /***********************We are linking element to its position***********/     for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)         A_pair.push_back({A[i], i});     for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)         B_pair.push_back({B[i], i});     /***********************************************************************/     /*****Sorting our pair vectors********************/     sort(A_pair.begin(), A_pair.end());     sort(B_pair.begin(), B_pair.end());     int i = 0, j = 0, ans[n];     memset(ans, -1, sizeof(ans));     while (i < n && j < n) {                                             ans[B_pair[j].second] = A_pair[i].first;             i++;             j++;         }         else {             remaining.push_back(i);             i++;         }     }     j = 0;     for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i){                         if (ans[i] == -1){             ans[i] = A_pair[remaining[j]].first;             j++;         }     }     for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)         cout << ans[i] << ” “;     return 0; }

Output 2 7 5 9 Explanation of the Above Code

In this approach, we first link all the elements to their indices to still have their old index in it when we sort it. We sort both of the vectors of pairs now we greedily search for our answers as we move through both the arrays if we get an index of A_pair which has more excellent value than of B_pair, so we store that in our an array(and in the position of B_pair) else as we have sorted both the vectors, so we know that we won’t be able to use this value of A_pair, so we push that elements index in our remaining vector now we fill the array by the help of remaining vector, and then we print the answer.

Conclusion

In this tutorial, we solve a problem to find the Permutation of an array with smaller values from another array. We also learned the C++ program for this problem and the complete approach we solved. We can write the same program in other languages such as C, java, python, and other languages. We hope you find this tutorial helpful.

## Get Multiple Lookup Values In A Single Cell (With & Without Repetition)

Can we look-up and return multiple values in one cell in Excel (separated by comma or space)?

I have been asked this question multiple times by many of my colleagues and readers.

Excel has some amazing lookup formulas, such as VLOOKUP, INDEX/MATCH (and now XLOOKUP), but none of these offer a way to return multiple matching values. All of these work by identifying the first match and return that.

So I did a bit of VBA coding to come up with a custom function (also called a User Defined Function) in Excel.

Update: After Excel released dynamic arrays and awesome functions such as UNIQUE and TEXTJOIN, it’s now possible to use a simple formula and return all the matching values in one cell (covered in this tutorial).

In this tutorial, I will show you how to do this (if you’re using the latest version of Excel – Microsoft 365 with all the new functions), as well as a way to do this in case you’re using older versions (using VBA).

So let’s get started!

If you’re using Excel 2023 or prior versions, go to the next section where I show how to do this using VBA.

With Microsoft 365 subscription, your Excel now has a lot more powerful functions and features that are not there in prior versions (such as XLOOKUP, Dynamic Arrays, UNIQUE/FILTER functions, etc.)

So if you’re using Microsoft 365 (earlier known as Office 365), you can use the methods covered in this section could look up and return multiple values in one single cell in Excel.

And as you will see, it’s a really simple formula.

Below I have a data set where I have the names of the people in column A and the training that they have taken in column B.

For each person, I want to find out what training they have completed. In column D, I have the list of unique names (from column A), and I want to quickly lookup and extract all the training that every person has done and get these in a single set (separated by a comma).

Below is the formula that will do this:

=TEXTJOIN(", ",TRUE,IF(D2=\$A\$2:\$A\$20,\$B\$2:\$B\$20,""))

After entering the formula in cell E2, copy it for all the cells where you want the results.

How does this formula work?

Let me deconstruct this formula and explain each part in how it comes together gives us the result.

The logical test in the IF formula (D2=\$A\$2:\$A\$20) checks whether the name cell D2 is the same as that in range A2:A20.

It goes through each cell in the range A2:A20, and checks whether the name is the same in cell D2 or not. if it’s the same name, it returns TRUE, else it returns FALSE.

So this part of the formula will give you an array as shown below:

{TRUE;FALSE;FALSE;TRUE;FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;FALSE}

Since we only want to get the training for Bob (the value in cell D2), we need to get all the corresponding training for the cells that are returning TRUE in the above array.

This is easily done by specifying [value_if_true] part of the IF formula as the range that has the training. This makes sure that if the name in cell D2 matches the name in the range A2:A20, the IF formula would return all the training that person has taken.

And wherever the array returns a FALSE, we have specified the [value_if_false] value as “” (blank), so it returns a blank.

The IF part of the formula returns the array as shown below:

{“Excel”;””;””;”PowerPoint”;””;””;””;””;””;””;””;””;””;””;””;””;””;””;””}

Where it has the names of the training Bob has taken and blanks wherever the name was not Bob.

Now, all we need to do is combine these training name (separated by a comma) and return it in one cell.

And that can easily be done using the new TEXTJOIN formula (available in Excel 2023 and Excel in Microsoft 365)

The TEXTJOIN formula takes three arguments:

the Delimiter – which is “, ” in our example, as I want the training to separated by a comma and a space character

TRUE – which tells the TEXTJOIN formula to ignore empty cells and only combine ones that are not empty

The If formula that returns the text that needs to be combined

If you’re using Excel in Microsoft 365 that already has dynamic arrays, you can just enter the above formula and hit enter. And if you’re using Excel 2023, you need to enter the formula, and hold the Control and the Shift key and then press Enter

Since the UNIQUE formula is only available fro Excel in Microsoft 365, you won’t be able to use this method in Excel 2023

In case there are repetitions in your data set, as shown below, you need to change the formula a little bit so that you only get a list of unique values in a single cell.

In the above data set, some people have taken training multiple times. For example, Bob and Stan have taken the Excel training twice, and  Betty has taken MS Word training twice. But in our result, we do not want to have a training name repeat.

You can use the below formula to do this:

=TEXTJOIN(", ",TRUE,UNIQUE(IF(D2=\$A\$2:\$A\$20,\$B\$2:\$B\$20,"")))

The above formula works the same way, with a minor change. we have used the IF formula within the UNIQUE function so that in case there are repetitions in the if formula result, the UNIQUE function would remove it.

If you’re using Excel 2023 or prior versions, then you will not have access to the TEXTJOIN formula. So the best way to then look up and get multiple matching values in a single cell is by using a custom formula that you can create using VBA.

To get multiple lookup values in a single cell, we need to create a function in VBA (similar to the VLOOKUP function) that checks each cell in a column and if the lookup value is found, adds it to the result.

Here is the VBA code that can do this:

Function SingleCellExtract(Lookupvalue As String, LookupRange As Range, ColumnNumber As Integer) Dim i As Long Dim Result As String For i = 1 To LookupRange.Columns(1).Cells.Count If LookupRange.Cells(i, 1) = Lookupvalue Then Result = Result & ” ” & LookupRange.Cells(i, ColumnNumber) & “,” End If Next i SingleCellExtract = Left(Result, Len(Result) – 1) End Function

Where to Put this Code?

In the module window (that will appear on the right), copy and paste the above code.

Now you are all set. Go to any cell in the workbook and type =SingleCellExtract and plug in the required input arguments (i.e., LookupValue, LookupRange, ColumnNumber).

How does this formula work?

This function works similarly to the VLOOKUP function.

It takes 3 arguments as inputs:

3. ColumnNumber – It is the column number of the table/array from which the matching value is to be returned (2 in this case).

When you use this formula, it checks each cell in the leftmost column in the lookup range and when it finds a match, it adds to the result in the cell in which you have used the formula.

Remember: Save the workbook as a macro-enabled workbook (.xlsm or .xls) to reuse this formula again. Also, this function would be available only in this workbook and not in all workbooks.

There is a possibility that you may have repetitions in the data.

If you use the code used above, it will give you repetitions in the result as well.

If you want to get the result where there are no repetitions, you need to modify the code a bit.

Here is the VBA code that will give you multiple lookup values in a single cell without any repetitions.

Function MultipleLookupNoRept(Lookupvalue As String, LookupRange As Range, ColumnNumber As Integer) Dim i As Long Dim Result As String For i = 1 To LookupRange.Columns(1).Cells.Count If LookupRange.Cells(i, 1) = Lookupvalue Then For J = 1 To i – 1 If LookupRange.Cells(J, 1) = Lookupvalue Then If LookupRange.Cells(J, ColumnNumber) = LookupRange.Cells(i, ColumnNumber) Then GoTo Skip End If End If Next J Result = Result & ” ” & LookupRange.Cells(i, ColumnNumber) & “,” Skip: End If Next i MultipleLookupNoRept = Left(Result, Len(Result) – 1) End Function

Once you have placed this code in the VB Editor (as shown above in the tutorial), you will be able to use the MultipleLookupNoRept function.

Here is a snapshot of the result you will get with this MultipleLookupNoRept function.

In this tutorial, I covered how to use formulas and VBA in Excel to find and return multiple lookup values in one cell in Excel.

While it can easily be done with a simple formula if you’re using Excel in Microsoft 365 subscription, if you’re using prior versions and don’t have access to functions such as TEXTJOIN, you can still do this using VBA by creating your own custom function.

You May Also Like the Following Excel Tutorials:

## How To Find The Power Of T Test In R?

To find the power of t test, we can use chúng tôi function of pwr package where we can pass the arguments for type of the test such as one sample or two sample, alternative hypothesis such as one-sided or two-sided, significance level, difference for two samples, and the sample size.

Check out the below examples to understand how it works.

Example 1

To find the power of t test in R, use the code given below −

library("pwr") pwr.t.test(n=100,d=1,sig.level=0.05,type="two.sample",alternative="two.sided")

If you execute the above given code, it generates the following output for the two-sample t test power calculation −

n = 100    d = 1 sig.level = 0.05    power = 0.9999998 alternative = two.sided

Note − n is number in *each* group.

Example 2

To find the power of t test in R, use the code given below −

library("pwr") pwr.t.test(n=50,d=1,sig.level=0.05,type="two.sample",alternative="two.sided")

If you execute the above given code, it generates the following output for the two-sample t test power calculation −

n = 50    d = 1 sig.level = 0.05    power = 0.9986074 alternative = two.sided

Note − n is number in *each* group.

Example 3

To find the power of t test in R, use the code given below −

library("pwr") pwr.t.test(n=50,d=1.24,sig.level=0.05,type="two.sample",alternative="two.sided")

If you execute the above given code, it generates the following output for the two-sample t test power calculation −

n = 50    d = 1.24 sig.level = 0.05    power = 0.9999853 alternative = two.sided

Note − n is number in *each* group.

Example 4

To find the power of t test in R, use the code given below −

library("pwr") pwr.t.test(n=50,d=1.24,sig.level=0.01,type="two.sample",alternative="two.sided")

If you execute the above given code, it generates the following output for the two-sample t test power calculation −

n = 50    d = 1.24 sig.level = 0.01    power = 0.9997823 alternative = two.sided

Note − n is number in *each* group.

Example 5

To find the power of t test in R, use the code given below −

library("pwr") pwr.t.test(n=50,d=1.24,sig.level=0.10,type="two.sample",alternative="two.sided")

If you execute the above given code, it generates the following output for the two-sample t test power calculation −

n = 50    d = 1.24 sig.level = 0.1    power = 0.9999968 alternative = two.sided

Note − n is number in *each* group.

Example 6

To find the power of t test in R, use the code given below −

library("pwr") pwr.t.test(n=500,d=1.24,sig.level=0.10,type="two.sample",alternative="two.sided")

If you execute the above given code, it generates the following output for the two-sample t test power calculation −

n = 500    d = 1.24 sig.level = 0.1    power = 1 alternative = two.sided

Note − n is number in *each* group.

Example 7

To find the power of t test in R, use the code given below −

library("pwr") pwr.t.test(n=500,d=12,sig.level=0.10,type="two.sample",alternative="two.sided")

If you execute the above given code, it generates the following output for the two-sample t test power calculation −

n = 500    d = 12 sig.level = 0.1    power = 1 alternative = two.sided

Note − n is number in *each* group.

Example 8

To find the power of t test in R, use the code given below −

library("pwr") pwr.t.test(n=25,d=12,sig.level=0.10,type="two.sample",alternative="two.sided")

If you execute the above given code, it generates the following output for the two-sample t test power calculation −

n = 25    d = 12 sig.level = 0.1    power = 1 alternative = two.sided

Note − n is number in *each* group.

Example 9

To find the power of t test in R, use the code given below −

library("pwr") pwr.t.test(n=25,d=2,sig.level=0.05,type="two.sample",alternative="two.sided")

If you execute the above given code, it generates the following output for the two-sample t test power calculation −

n = 25    d = 2 sig.level = 0.05    power = 0.9999997 alternative = two.sided

Note − n is number in *each* group.

Example 10

To find the power of t test in R, use the code given below −

library("pwr") pwr.t.test(n=20,d=0,sig.level=0.05,type="one.sample",alternative="two.sided")

If you execute the above given code, it generates the following output for the one-sample t test power calculation −

n = 20    d = 0 sig.level = 0.05    power = 0.05 alternative = two.sided Example 11

To find the power of t test in R, use the code given below −

library("pwr") pwr.t.test(n=20,d=0.78,sig.level=0.05,type="one.sample",alternative="two.sided")

If you execute the above given code, it generates the following output for the two-sample t test power calculation −

n = 20    d = 0.78 sig.level = 0.05    power = 0.9110511 alternative = two.sided Example 12

To find the power of t test in R, use the code given below −

library("pwr") pwr.t.test(n=20,d=1.5,sig.level=0.05,type="one.sample",alternative="two.sided")

If you execute the above given code, it generates the following output for the one-sample t test power calculation −

n = 20    d = 1.5 sig.level = 0.05    power = 0.9999941 alternative = two.sided

## Types Of Data Scientists: An Array To Choose From

Data scientists come in numerous flavors with various qualities that may suit various kinds of companies relying upon the sorts of issues or projects

Data Scientists have consistently been around – it is only that nobody realized that the work that these individuals are doing is called data science. Data Science as a field has emerged distinctly over the recent few years yet individuals have been working in the data science field as analysts, mathematicians,learning and actuarial scientists, business analytic practitioners, digital analytic consultants, quality analysts and spatial data scientists. Individuals working under these jobs are well furnished with data scientist skills and they are most demanded in the business. Data science has quickly developed as a challenging, lucrative and highly rewarding career. While developed nations got comfortable with it part of the way through the last decade, data science has received consideration on a worldwide scale after the exponential development of e-commerce in developing economies, particularly India and China. In the previous decade, there has been a significant change in perspective in the way the world shops, books holidays, makes transactions and basically everything else. Not all data scientists are made equal, particularly now that few “generations” of data scientists have entered and left organizations. Today, data scientists come in numerous flavors with various qualities that may suit various kinds of companies relying upon the sorts of issues or projects they are taking a shot at. Not to state that one sort is better or worse over another kind of data scientist — everything relies upon what a business is looking for.

Management Consultant

This classification traverses the junior business analyst and the ex McKinsey consultant. They share a common enthusiasm for Excel and their capacity to flaunt v-lookups and fancy formulas even to plan their house move. They are additionally the ones who have more passion for the business issue. For them, business comes first, data after. They needed to learn Python or R by need, not on the grounds that they enjoyed programming. They actually try to abstain from coding as much as possible and their code is by and large as re-usable as a single-use napkin. They have great instincts for the nuts and bolts of statistics however, they needed to learn concepts like p-worth or t-test the most difficult way possible. They are good at data science projects that bolster decision making, business-oriented processes, one-off projects.

Statisticians

This is data analysis in the conventional sense. The field of statistics has consistently been about number crunching. A solid statistical base qualifies you to extrapolate your enthusiasm for various data scientist areas. Hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), data visualization and quantitative research are some of the important skills possessed by statisticians which can be extrapolated to pick up expertise in explicit data scientist fields. Statistics knowledge, when clubbed with domain knowledge, (for example, marketing, risk, actuarial science) is the ideal blend to land a statistician’s work profile. They can create statistical models from big data analysis, complete experimental design and apply theories of sampling, clustering and predictive modelling to information to decide future corporate activities.

Data Science for People

The consumers of the yield are leaders like chiefs, product managers, designers, or clinicians. They need to reach inferences from data so as to settle on decisions, for example, which content to license, which sales lead to follow, which medication is less inclined to cause a hypersensitive response, which site page design will prompt greater engagement or more buys, which email will yield higher income, or which explicit aspect of a product user experience is suboptimal and needs attention. These data scientists design, define, and implement metrics, run and interpret experiments, create dashboards, draw causal inferences, and generate recommendations from modeling and measurement.