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As consumers, we often face various challenges that make making informed decisions about products and services difficult. Whether dealing with information overload, coping with negative experiences, or navigating complex purchasing decisions, consumers need effective coping strategies to manage these challenges. This is where consumer coping research comes in – a field of study that aims to understand how consumers cope with various challenges and to develop strategies to help them make better choices.

State of Consumer Coping Research

In contrast, emotion-focused coping involves managing the emotions that arise from the problem, such as seeking social support or engaging in distraction. Researchers have used this framework to investigate various aspects of consumer coping, such as how consumers cope with product failures, service failures, and negative feedback.

Consumer coping research has been a significant area of study for several decades. Early research focused on how consumers cope with negative experiences, such as product failures or service disruptions. This research identified a range of coping strategies, including seeking social support, taking action to address the problem, and avoiding the situation altogether.

More recent research has expanded the focus of consumer coping research to include a broader range of challenges consumers face. For example, researchers have examined consumer coping strategies to deal with information overload, uncertainty, and complexity. This research has identified coping strategies, such as seeking additional information, relying on heuristics, and simplifying decision-making processes. Despite the progress made in consumer coping research, there still needs to be significant gaps in our understanding of how consumers cope with various challenges. For example, research on information overload has primarily focused on using search engines and other online tools, leaving unanswered questions about how consumers cope with information overload in other contexts.

A Historical Context for Modern Coping Scholarship

One source of coping knowledge is the prominent writings of early psychoanalysts, arguably none more significant than Freud. Freud imagined a more extensive process of adaptation and motivation that included hidden subconscious processes, subsequently called defensive mechanisms. Although many of these subconscious processes mirror modern-day “coping techniques,” Freud did not believe these processes to be volitionally performed. He did not hypothesize an emotional-cognitive evaluation network, the foundation of contemporary coping theories. Despite these modest beginnings, the psychoanalytic method has tremendously impacted the development of coping studies.

An alternative classical perspective on coping emerged from a humanistic psychology approach, best articulated by Maslow. Maslow recognized two types of human behavior: coping and expressing. Coping behaviors include all purposeful, motivated activities that respond to external environmental and cultural factors, whereas expressive behaviors are unmotivated, noninstrumental, and performed to reflect internal moods.

According to Maslow, the same activity might be classified as coping or expressive, depending on the individual’s reasons. For example, a customer may shop for new clothes to meet demand, such as looking great at work or impressing others. Alternatively, if the same customer found such encounters pleasurable, their buying may be considered expressive.

Maslow’s definition of coping contains many conceptual connections with contemporary coping theories that will be discussed shortly. Like the present transactional model, Maslow’s concept of coping behaviors believes that such actions often originate from modifying need states and being effortful, aware, and learned. He defined coping behaviors as attempts to influence the world, automatic reactions humans use to exert control over their surroundings. On the other hand, he thought that expressive actions indicated something more profound about the one expressing them.

Clinical psychology study on adaptation was the source of a second classic method that substantially influenced modern coping research. Adaptive activity in response to environmental stress was observed in all living species, according to this viewpoint. This comprehensive concept of stress included all environmental changes influencing the organism.

These adaptive processes were distinguished by the promotion of two basic stress orientations: one directed at impelling the organism towards a perceived source of stress (a vigilance or approach orientation) and one directed at impelling the organism away from a perceived source of stress (an aversive orientation). This traditional motivational difference can still be seen in current coping theories, and more will be said about it later.

Prospects of Consumer Coping Research

Consumer coping research has the potential to contribute significantly to our understanding of consumer behavior. For example, by identifying the coping strategies that are most effective in particular contexts, researchers can develop interventions that help consumers cope with stress and uncertainty more effectively. Moreover, by investigating the antecedents and consequences of coping, researchers can identify the factors influencing coping and the outcomes resulting from effective and ineffective coping.

One promising area of research in consumer coping is the investigation of coping in the context of online shopping. As e-commerce grows in popularity, consumers are increasingly exposed to various stressors, such as uncertainty about product quality, security concerns, and delivery issues. Researchers have begun investigating how consumers cope with these stressors and have identified various coping strategies, such as seeking information from multiple sources, using third-party payment services, and engaging in online communities.

Prescriptions for Consumer Coping Research

Moreover, to ensure that research in this area is relevant and valuable, researchers should aim to collaborate with practitioners and policymakers. Researchers and practitioners can develop interventions that help consumers cope with stress and uncertainty more effectively by working together. Policymakers can use the insights generated by research to develop policies that support consumers in coping with consumption challenges.

There is tremendous potential for future research in the field of consumer coping. As consumer behavior becomes increasingly complex, the need for effective coping strategies will only continue to grow. Researchers can help address this need by developing new strategies to help consumers cope with various challenges. One promising area of research is using technology to help consumers cope with challenges.

For example, researchers have explored using chatbots to provide consumers with real-time support and guidance. This technology has the potential to help consumers navigate complex purchasing decisions, cope with negative experiences, and manage information overload. Another area of research with significant potential is using mindfulness techniques to help consumers cope with stress and anxiety related to consumer decision-making. Mindfulness-based interventions effectively reduce stress and anxiety in various contexts and could be adapted to help consumers cope with decision-making stress.

Prescriptions for Consumer Coping

While there is still much to learn about how consumers cope with various challenges, several strategies have already been shown to be effective. Consumers can use these strategies to improve their coping skills and make better decisions. One effective coping strategy is seeking social support. Consumers with a strong support network can better cope with negative experiences and make informed decisions. This support network can be made up of friends, family members, or online communities. Another effective coping strategy is seeking out additional information.

Consumers who take the time to research products and services before making a decision are more likely to make informed choices. This can involve reading reviews, comparing prices, and talking to experts. Simplifying decision-making processes is also an effective coping strategy. Consumers who break down complex decisions into smaller, more manageable steps can better cope with decision-making stress. This can involve creating a list of pros and cons, prioritizing decision criteria, and setting realistic goals.


Consumer coping research is an important area of study that has the potential to contribute significantly to our understanding of consumer behavior. By investigating the coping strategies that consumers use, the factors that influence their coping, and the outcomes that result from effective and ineffective coping, researchers can develop interventions that help consumers cope with stress and uncertainty more effectively.

To achieve this, researchers need to adopt various approaches, collaborate with practitioners and policymakers, and continue to investigate emerging areas of interest, such as coping in online shopping. Consumer coping research is a critical field of study that can help consumers navigate the challenges of modern consumer behavior.

While there is still much to learn about how consumers cope with various challenges, researchers and consumers alike can use existing strategies to make better decisions and cope with the stress of decision-making by continuing to explore new coping strategies and technologies.

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Liability In Consumer Data Protection

In the current digital era, data protection is of the utmost importance. Customers give their personal information to corporations, social media sites, and government authorities, among others. It is the obligation of the entities that collect, handle, and keep such data to safeguard it from unauthorized access, use, and disclosure. This obligation is referred to as liability in consumer data protection.

Liability Definition in Consumer Data Protection

Liability in consumer data protection refers to the legal obligation of organisations that collect, handle, and retain customer data to safeguard it from unlawful access, use, and disclosure. Data has become one of the most important assets for corporations, governments, and individuals over the past decade. Nonetheless, the growing volume and sensitivity of personal data has made it a prime target for thieves and unwanted third parties. Thus, there is an increasing need to ensure that companies that collect and process consumer data safeguard it and protect customers from data breaches and other data-related occurrences.

Right to Privacy and Consumer Data Protection

It is difficult to comprehend the phrase “Privacy” when considering its definition. It has been understood in various ways. According to Black’s Law Dictionary, “Right to Privacy” encompasses “many Rights acknowledged as intrinsic to the concept of ordered liberty.” These freedoms safeguard the fundamental right of individuals to choose how they wish to spend their lives and engage with their families, other individuals, and interpersonal connections and activities. It has also been claimed that Privacy refers to a person’s legal right to determine how much of himself he wishes to share with others, as well as his control over when, where, and under what conditions he does so.

It alludes to his unlimited ability to join or abstain from participation as he sees fit. It also refers to the individual’s right to determine what information about him or her is made public; the individual is the exclusive proprietor of this information. In contrast, a person’s “Right to be left alone” means that he or she is entitled to Privacy. The phrase “Right to Privacy” encompasses all of the Rights that have been recognised as intrinsic to the concept of ordered liberty. Freedom of assembly and freedom of expression may be viewed as vital components of the Right to Privacy, as they allow individuals to engage in both activities.

Essentiality of Liability in Consumer Data Protection

The necessity for accountability in consumer data protection is a result of the growing volume of personal data gathered, processed, and stored by a variety of organisations. This data contains sensitive information such as financial records, medical records, and biometric information. Consumers anticipate that their information will be safeguarded against illegal access, use, and disclosure. Responsibility in consumer data protection ensures that those who fail to achieve these standards are held accountable for their conduct.

History of Consumer Data Protection Liability

The history of liability in consumer data protection in the United States can be traced back to the 1970 Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA). The FCRA obliged credit reporting organisations to take reasonable precautions to ensure the accuracy of the information they collect and report.

The Data Protection Directive, approved by the European Union in 1996, established data protection principles and obliged entities that gathered, processed, and stored personal data to conform with these principles. In addition to imposing liability on companies that failed to comply with these principles, the directive-imposed punishment on anyone who violated them.

The Information Technology Act of 2000 in India created legal recognition for electronic documents and digital signatures and safeguarded personal information. Later, in 2008, the legislation was revised to establish further protections for personal data and to impose punishment on businesses that failed to protect such data.

Indian Case Law on Consumer Data Protection Liability

The Information Technology Act of 2000 in India created legal recognition for electronic documents and digital signatures and safeguarded personal information. Later, in 2008, the legislation was revised to establish further protections for personal data and to impose punishment on businesses that failed to protect such data.

Many cases concerning liability in consumer data protection have been decided in India. The Indian Supreme Court ruled in 2023 that privacy is a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution. In addition, the court determined that the government and commercial companies have an obligation to protect personal information and that any violation of this right would be subject to judicial review.

In a separate case, the Delhi High Court determined that a mobile application that collected personal data without user authorization violated the Information Technology (Reasonable Security Policies and Procedures and Sensitive Personal Data or Information) Regulations, 2011. The court also determined that the organisation responsible for data collection was accountable for damages resulting from the data breach.

The 2023 Revision of the Personal Data Protection Act In its decision in the Judge KS Puttaswamy case, the Supreme Court of India underlined Privacy as a constitutional right. The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MEITY) subsequently appointed a 10-member committee led by a retired Supreme Court judge, Mr. B.N. Srikrishna, to ensure the smooth implementation of the PDP BILL for the protection of personal data in India. This committee delivered a report titled “A Free and Fair Digital Economy: Safeguarding Privacy, Empowering Indians” and a PDP BILL for the protection of personal data in less than a year.

Sh. Ravi Shankar Prasad proposed this updated PDP Bill, 2023 in the Lok Sabha in 2023. This bill is still being reviewed by a 30-person committee, which includes a Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC), which is scheduled to complete its revisions shortly.

Recent Advances in Consumer Data Protection Liability

It includes −

Some nations have established or amended their data protection legislation in recent years in an effort to tighten accountability in consumer data protection. In 2023, the European Union, for instance, approved the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which establishes stringent data protection regulations and levies severe penalties for noncompliance.

The 2023 Personal Data Protection Bill is currently being considered by the Indian Parliament. The proposed legislation aims to establish a data protection framework for the processing of personal data and includes consequences for noncompliance.

A three-judge bench led by the Chief Justice of India (CJI) SA Bobde issued the following directive: “People have great concerns regarding the loss of privacy.” Hence In June of 2023, the Supreme Court ordered WhatsApp to give a written affidavit stating that company does not share users’ private information. Regarding the privacy dispute, the court has given notices to the Centre, WhatsApp, and Facebook, and the case is currently pending. Development of DEPA (Data Empowerment And Protection Architecture) In the year 2023, NITI Aayog created a plan titled “Data Empowerment and Protection Architecture” (‘DEPA’) to address data privacy concerns.

With DEPA, NITI Aayog drafted a policy via extensive talks with industry stakeholders. By doing so, NITI Aayog intends to create and establish robust data privacy regulations in India. DEPA aspires to build upon existing legislation by the RBI on “Account Aggregator” models, so that every Indian citizen will benefit from the secure sharing of financial data across banks, insurers, lenders, mutual fund houses, investors, tax collectors, and pension funds.


In the current era of globalisation, storing and transferring Data is considerably simpler than in the past. Unfortunately, this has not only had positive effects, but also severe repercussions, such as the infamous WhatsApp data breach case. It is now simpler to exploit Data and invade the Privacy of the general populace. Since it is a relatively recent issue, there are no specific laws pertaining to it.

The Personal Data Protection Bill of 2023 was introduced in the House of Representatives as an attempt to enact a comprehensive federal law on the subject, although it has not yet become law. Data privacy is vitally important in all aspects of life, but especially in the business world. India must take this matter seriously, as it lags behind other top nations when it comes to Data Privacy concerns.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q1. What is the definition of liability in consumer data protection?

Ans. Responsibility in consumer data protection refers to the legal obligation of companies that

Q2. Why is liability crucial in consumer data protection?

Ans. Responsibility in consumer data protection is crucial because it ensures that companies that collect and process consumer data take the necessary precautions to preserve it and protect consumers from data breaches and other data-related incidents. It also assists consumers in seeking compensation for losses resulting from data breaches or other data-related occurrences.

Q3. Who is responsibility for protecting consumer data?

Ans. In consumer data protection, entities that collect, handle, and keep customer data are accountable. This covers corporations, government institutions, and other organisations that deal with personal information.

Q4. What are the repercussions of violating consumer data privacy laws?

Ans. Noncompliance with consumer data protection rules can result in monetary penalties, legal action, reputational harm, and a loss of consumer confidence.

Q5. What are some instances of laws protecting consumer data?

Ans. The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in Europe, the Personal Data Protection Bill in India, and the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) in the United States are examples of consumer data protection regulations.

Q6. How can consumers safeguard their personal information?

Ans. Consumers can protect their personal data by sharing it with caution, employing strong passwords and two-factor authentication, maintaining up-to-date software, and monitoring their accounts for unwanted activity.

Q7. What actions must organisations take to comply with consumer data privacy laws?

Ans. Entities must comply with consumer data protection laws by implementing appropriate security measures to protect personal data, providing clear and transparent privacy policies, obtaining consent for the collection and processing of personal data, and promptly responding to data breaches and other data-related incidents.

The Neuroscience Of Consumer Choice

Choosing the optimal course of action entails weighing the costs and benefits of many possibilities, which is at the heart of decision-making. Discovering the neurological mechanisms that allow humans to do this, from the first perception of stimuli through the ultimate execution of a decision, is the goal of The Neuroscience of Choice. How do humans evaluate various options? This is one of the main topics the Neuroscience of Choice aims to address. How can we put a value on different results? How do we strike a balance between short-term gains and long-term repercussions? How do feelings and social context affect our choices? How do we change our decision-making processes over time as we gain experience?

These issues are looked at by researchers in this area using various methods, including computer modelling, electrophysiology, and neuroimaging. They research both healthy people and those who have neurological or mental conditions like addiction, depression, or anxiety that impair decision-making. By shedding light on the neural basis of decision-making, the Neuroscience of Choice has the potential to inform a wide range of fields, from public policy and economics to medicine and psychology. It may also have practical applications, such as improving our ability to make informed decisions about our health, finances, and relationships.

The Neuroscience of Choice

Understanding utility should be sufficient to explain decision behavior from an economic standpoint. This would imply a relatively simple brain model of consumer decisions. As identified by utility evaluation, things that generate higher activity levels in the limbic regions should be chosen in a decision. Other researchers discovered that activation of the nucleus accumbens linked favorably with participants’ desire to spend money on a purchase, but activation of the insula correlated negatively.

These activity patterns predicted purchases irrespective of self-report characteristics. The nucleus accumbens is often active in expectation of rewards, whereas the insula is typically active in anticipation of pain. While making purchase decisions, the two separate hedonic valuation systems compete against each other. Nevertheless, the brain networks involved in decision-making go beyond assessing a transaction’s pain and pleasure. Consider the simple customer option between several drinks.

A customer will likely pick the drink that elicits the most activity related to utility in the limbic system regions. To put this theory to the test, a group of consumers took part in a blind tasting of decarbonated Pepsi and Coke while being scanned with fMRI. The desire for a particular drink was related to increased activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This is one region linked with determining the probability of an outcome but not evaluating the quantity of a reward, which appears to be connected with activity in the ventral striatum.

Nevertheless, no striatum activity was reported in this investigation when participants did not know which soda was being tasted, nor was there any striatum activity connected to preferences given before the scanning session. Theoretically, one might link activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex with hemodynamic data in the ventral striatum to see if striatal activity fluctuation was associated with prefrontal activity even if the striatal activity did not surpass the threshold.

The Anatomy of Decision Making

Although the brain is a complex organ, a few critical regions are involved in decision-making. Reasoning, planning, and decision-making are examples of organizational processes controlled by the prefrontal cortex. Processing rewards and penalties, crucial for decision-making, is done in the striatum. The amygdala processes emotions, which can have an impact on decisions. These three factors interact to aid decision-making, but they can also operate against one another to cause hesitancy and ambiguity.

The Role of Emotions in Decision Making

timing. Emotions are essential factors in decision-making and have a significant influence on the decisions we make. Our emotions are processed in the limbic system, which includes the amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. The amygdala is essential in processing emotions and might affect our decisions based on our emotional state. Emotions can influence our decision-making in either a good or negative way.

For instance, when we are concerned or stressed out, we may act impulsively or decide not to make any decisions. On the other hand, positive feelings, such as enthusiasm or enjoyment, make us more open to taking chances and making bold choices.

Our decision-making capacity can be influenced by how we interpret our feelings. For instance, if we perceive fear or worry as a warning indication of danger, we might entirely refrain from making judgments. However, we could be more likely to make wise choices if we view fear or worry as a warning to exercise caution and prepare for potential risks. It is critical to recognize and control our emotions when making decisions.

We can make better decisions by identifying our emotional state and assessing how emotions affect our decision-making processes. It is also essential to consider our decisions and how our emotions may have affected the results. By doing this, we can learn from our mistakes and improve our decision-making in the future.

The Impact of Choice Overload

Although having options might seem optimistic, there is a risk of decision overload. Too many possibilities can overload our brains, resulting in decision fatigue and even paralysis. While buying a product at a store or online, this can be seen from the consumer’s point of view. The number of choices can cause indecision and even complete buy abandonment. When making a choice, reducing the number of options available can be beneficial to avoid choice overload.

The Power of Habit

Habits are a powerful force that can influence decision-making. When we engage in habitual behaviors, our brains do not have to work as hard to make decisions. This is why breaking bad habits or forming new ones can be challenging. For example, if you habitually reach for a sugary snack when stressed, choosing a healthier option can be challenging. However, by understanding habit’s power, we can create new habits that align with our goals and values.

The Influence of Social Context

The social milieu can significantly influence decision-making. Whether we are aware of it or not, the people around us have an impact on us. For instance, when choosing what to dress for a gathering, we can think about what our friends or co-workers would be wearing. While a consumer is debating a purchase, this can also be observed from their perspective. Favorable reviews and recommendations from friends or other influential people may influence our product purchasing. Making more independent and deliberate decisions is possible when we know how social context affects our choices.

The Importance of Timing

Timing can also play a role in decision-making. When we are tired or stressed, our decision-making abilities can be compromised. This can lead to poor decision-making or indecision. Taking breaks and making decisions when in a clear and focused state of mind is essential. Additionally, timing can influence the choices we make. For example, we may be more likely to choose a high-calorie meal over a healthy option if we are hungry. Being aware of the impact of timing on decision


In conclusion, the neuroscience of choice is a complicated subject with several variables and effects affecting our decision-making ability. Making better decisions and living happier lives can be made possible by being aware of how the brain makes decisions. In order to make thoughtful decisions, it is critical to recognize and control emotions, which play a significant influence in decision-making. Choice paralysis and indecision can result from having too many options, but by establishing criteria and priorities, we can reduce our options and make better decisions.

By comprehending how habits and social context affect our decision-making, we can develop new habits that support our objectives and make more independent choices. The significance of timing cannot be emphasized, and understanding how timing affects our decision-making can help us make wiser decisions. In essence, we may take control of our decision-making processes and get better results by knowing the neurology of choice.

Market Research For International Ppc Success

Before setting up your campaigns, or even beginning your keyword research, there are some key pieces of market research you must carry out first. These can really make or break your international campaigns and keep you from wasting resources on marketing efforts that don’t pan out. Here are a few specific areas of investigation that will help you localize your campaigns for success.

Search Behavior

Search behavior differs by country, region, and culture with differences in device choice, search engine choice, and keywords length used to search. For example, did you realize that according to mobiThinking, 30 percent of the world’s mobile users live in India and China? This is a huge percentage of mobile users, so a mobile strategy may be vital to your expansion strategy into these markets.

Online Buying Behavior

Online buying behavior is easy in the US, we love eCommerce. Sure, there are still some people who don’t trust their financial info on the web. I’m altogether too trusting when it comes to this I’m sure, but for the most part we’re all about buying online in this country.

What about other countries? Not every culture is as comfortable with this as American’s are and in some countries there are additional barriers to consider. One good example of this I had to learn the hard way while running a campaign in Brazil. The Brazilian economy doesn’t support large credit backed transactions. Brazilians are open to purchasing online, but in order to make most purchases they have to use more than one credit card. Use of multiple credit cards with small balances is a regular and accepted part of the Brazilian economy and payment terms are often referred to as x2 or x3.

Cultural Differences

The same phenomenon is seen with tennis shoes in the US vs. trainers in the UK. We’re speaking English in both markets and we’re talking about the same item, but cultural differences cause us to refer to them in different ways.

Socioeconomic Market Segmentation

Different brands have holds in different markets; a 28 yr. old woman in Mexico will have different interests, responsibilities, and societal expectations than a 28 yr. old woman in Japan. Thus these two women will respond differently to different messaging and will search differently.

These four areas are very important to research and account for in your international search campaigns. Of course, there are additional items to consider like rules and regulations specific to the country you are targeting, language and location settings within your tools, international competitors, barriers to market, and others. But if you start with a good foundation of research in these areas you are better equipped for a successful international PPC campaign.

How To Play Cribbage: Basic Rules, Gameplay, And Strategy

Article Summary


To play Cribbage, you’ll need a Cribbage board, pegs, and a deck of cards. The goal of Cribbage is to score 121 points before your opponent by creating different card combinations. To start the game, shuffle the deck and have each player take half of it. Whoever has the lowest card on the bottom of their half deals first. Deal 6 cards to each player. Then, each player looks at their hand and chooses 2 cards to remove from the game. Place these cards off to the side face-down. These cards are called the “crib.” Next, cut the deck and reveal the top card on the bottom half. This card is the starter card. The starter card is used to help calculate points at the end of play. If the starter card is a Jack, the dealer starts the game with 2 points automatically. After the starter card is revealed, the non-dealing player reveals a card from their hand. Then, the dealer reveals a card on their side of the table. Each card’s numeric value is added to the previous card’s numeric value to track the score up to a total of 31, with kings, queens, and jacks counting for 10, and aces counting as 1. Each player announces the running total as they play their card. For example, the non-dealing player may put a 6 down and say, “6.” The dealer then may play an 8 and say, “14.” The running total can never exceed 31. If a player cannot play a card from their hand without exceeding 31, they say, “Go,” and the other player scores 1 point. The scoring player may then play another card without exceeding 31. If a player reaches exactly 31, they get 2 points. After reaching 31 or “Go,” the running total resets to 0 and the player that failed to score plays their next card. Keep track of the score by moving your peg into the corresponding slot on the board. Move it every time you score and add your points together. You can also score points by creating combinations of cards while playing your hand out, which is called “pegging.” These points are calculated at the end of the round after all of the cards have been played. When both players have played all of the cards in their hands, the cards are counted for points in the following order: non-dealer’s hand, dealer’s hand, then the crib. The starter card is assumed to be a part of both player’s hands while they’re scoring points. If you have any 2 cards that add up to 15, you score 2 points. If you played 2 cards of the same rank, you get 2 points. You get 6 points for playing 3 of the same card in a row, and 12 points for playing 4 of the same cards in a row. You also score 1 point for every card played in an ascending or descending order. For example, if the dealing player plays a 3, followed by another 3 and a 4, they’ve earned 3 points. The dealer counts their hand first, followed by the non-dealing player. Then, the crib is counted by the dealing player. Any combinations in the crib are scored for the dealer. Scoring for the crib is counted the same way as regular play, with one adjustment. If the face-up card on top of the deck shares a suit with a jack in the crib, the dealing player is awarded an additional point. When you’re finished scoring a round, the non-dealing player from the previous round shuffles the cards and deals out a new hand. Keep playing until one player reaches 121 points and wins! For more tips, including how to score each hand and end the round, read on!

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16 Best Keyword Research Tools For Seo

Ask any SEO pro and they will tell you that trying to do keyword research without a keyword research tool is a thankless task – and it’s pretty much impossible to build a comprehensive list of keywords with monthly search volumes.

As keyword research is one the most important parts of any search engine optimization strategy, the right keyword research tools are an essential part of your SEO tool stack.

If you’re new to SEO or just looking for new tools to try, we have the list for you.

We’re going to take a look at 16 of the best keyword research tools used by SEO professionals and help you choose the right one for your needs.

[Recommended Read] → A Guide to Essential SEO Tools for Agencies

The Best Tools For Keyword Research 1. Semrush

One of the most popular keyword research tools on the market, Semrush offers a comprehensive suite of SEO tools.

Specifically for keyword research, it includes:

Keyword Overview: Just like its name suggests, this provides an overview of keywords, including search volume, difficulty, CPC, and variations.

Keyword Magic Tool: This tool gives you keywords by broad match, exact match, phrase match, and related words, alongside relevant metrics about search volume, intent, and competitiveness.

Keyword Manager: Only available to paid Semrush users, this tool supports deep analysis and data export.

Position Tracking: This feature allows you to monitor how your site is ranking alongside the competition on a daily basis.

Organic Traffic Insights: Combining Google Analytics and Search Console with its own data, this helps you identify the keywords that are actually driving organic traffic to your site.

Price: $99.95-449.95/month

2. Ahrefs Keywords Explorer

Another all-in-one SEO toolkit, Ahrefs includes a Keyword Explorer that provides incredibly in-depth information on keywords.

Using data from 10 different search engines, it provides more than keyword suggestions; it also provides information about search volume, ranking difficulty, and keyword movement.

Particularly useful is the insight it provides into your competition, helping you identify which keywords they’re ranking for that you’re not.

This information can then be used to create new content to target and capture that traffic.

Price: $83-999/month

3. Google Keyword Planner

It’s only logical that the world’s most dominant search engine would provide a tool to help you identify useful keywords.

Google Keyword Planner doesn’t offer as much functionality as some of the other tools out there, but it does have something they don’t: direct data from Google.

Using it is simple – just type in a keyword and it will give you data on approximate monthly searches, related keywords, and bidding information.

Price: Free with a Google Ads account.

4. Serpstat

Another full-service SEO suite, Serpstat includes tools for link building, PPC campaign management, and local search optimization, as well as keyword research.

Claiming to use the biggest database, it can help you identify keywords, analyze volume, popularity, and competition, and track your competition.

What’s really cool about Serpstat is that its results include the site in the featured snipped as the first result, to help you claim that spot for your own.

It also includes tools for monitoring trending keywords, including searches by region, rank tracking, and content analysis.

Price: $59-499/month


The most useful part of chúng tôi is the sheer volume of keyword suggestions it provides.

A search for [pharmacy], for example, returned 669 total keywords.

These words are provided with all the relevant data an SEO professional could want, including competition (both average and by specific keyword), search volume, and trend information. also allows you to filter results based on your needs. You can specify region, language, platform, and even type.

Like most of the other keyword research tools listed here, it allows you to analyze your competitors and identify words and phrases that they’re ranking for, but you are not.

Price: $69-129/month

6. Moz Keyword Explorer

In the world of SEO tools, Moz is one of the biggest players. It’s no surprise, therefore, that it includes a keyword research tool.

Offering both a paid and free version (limited to 10 queries per month), Moz Keyword Explorer has comprehensive analysis tools, robust keyword suggestions, and predictive metrics.

It also gives you detailed information on SERPs, tools for identifying long-tail keywords and search questions, and suggestions to help you rank internationally.

Price: $79-599/month

7. Google Trends

Another tool from the biggest name in search, Google Trends is a free-to-use keyword research tool that lets you search by specific words and phrases, or related queries.

It breaks down results in a variety of useful ways, including interest by region, interest over time, and related topics and queries.

You can also compare two keywords to determine if one is trending more than another.

Price: Free

8. AnswerThePublic

Billing itself as a “search listening tool,” AnswerThePublic taps into autocomplete data from search engines and uses this to determine useful search questions and phrases.

This information is then presented in a visual format that makes it easy to identify search volume divided by questions, prepositions, comparisons, and related searches.

It also provides an alphabetical list of keywords.

It has a free version, which is useful if you’re only doing a small amount of research.

The Pro plan is better if you’re regularly performing SEO, as it gives you unlimited daily searches, priority customer support, and customization options.

Price: $9-199/month

9. QuestionDB

QuestionDB is a great way to discover relevant keywords that other keyword research tools may not suggest.

You enter a broad keyword, and it returns a list of highly specific questions related to it.

With this in mind, you can create content to target low-competition, high-potential words, and phrases, as well as establish authority within your niche.

It has both a free and paid version, with free accounts being limited to a maximum of 50 results per search.

Price: $0-50/month

10. Jaaxy

Developed for affiliate marketers, it provides a huge list of related words and phrases, as well as useful data on search volume, traffic, and competitor performance.

It also includes information about how your website is ranking under tracked keywords.

Price: Free (limited to 30 keyword searches per month)-$99/month

11. Long Tail Pro

Designed specifically to help SEO professionals identify long-tail keywords, Long Tail Pro includes five tools to cover all things SEO:




SERP Analysis.

Site Audit.

Its keyword research tool offers a lot of functionality marketers may find useful, including keyword grouping, campaign metrics, and competition analysis.

But its true strength lies in its ability to uncover long-tail keywords from a broad seed, returning as many as 400 highly specific words and phrases in seconds.

Price: $24.75-

13. Majestic

Majestic has three keyword tools included in its suite of SEO tools:

Keyword Checker, which provides an extensive index that tracks words and phrases.

Search Explore, which explores competition for keywords and provides a more granular view of ranking difficulty. This is only available in Pro-level plans.

Price: $41.67-399.99/month

14. Soovle

Combing sites like Google, Amazon, Bing, Wikipedia, and YouTube, Soovle suggests keywords that you may otherwise have overlooked.

Results are displayed by website, allowing you to optimize your content for each one specifically.

It lets you save suggestions for future reference, or download them in a .CSV file.

It also provides an alphabetical list of the top internet keywords, with the platform each one ranks highly on indicated by an icon.

Price: Free

15. Keyword Surfer

This tool is a bit different from the others listed here, in that it’s not a standalone platform, but rather a Chrome plugin.

Keyword Surfer gives you an intuitive way to collect and analyze search data, as well as separate your keywords into collections.

This plugin makes it easy to monitor search intent, uncover topic clusters and evaluate search volume at a glance.

Price: Starting at $49/month

16. Google Search Console

No list of keyword research tools would be complete without a mention of Google Search Console – even though it’s not technically one.

It’s included on this list for one primary reason: the performance report.

By breaking down your website’s performance, it tells you where your traffic is coming from, which queries are driving people to your site, and which pages are your best-performing.

This data can then be mined for new keyword opportunities and to optimize your existing content.

Even better, it lets you custom configure your reports, so you can include the data that’s most important to you.

Price: Free

Choosing The Right Keyword Research Tool

The tools listed here are just a few of your many options.

So, how do you choose the right platform for your needs, especially when many of them have the same, or similar functionality?

To help you decide, you should consider:

Your budget – Obviously, you need something that will give you the functionality you need at an affordable price. Free options can be useful, but they tend to be less robust than paid tools.

Your overall SEO strategy – What is the primary focus of your search engine optimization efforts? Are you seeking to establish yourself as an authority? Or do you want to attract new customers? Are you targeting people locally or internationally? Each keyword research platform has different strengths and weaknesses. Select one that’s well-matched to your goals.

Be sure to carefully evaluate your options. If you work as part of a team, invite everyone’s opinions.

They may have platforms they have used in the past that did or did not work. Understanding why can help you pick the best one for your needs.

And once you find the perfect one for you, you can start going after and landing traffic from more queries and generating more conversions.

More Resources:

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