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An urticarial eruption brought on by pressure or stress to the skin is known as dermatographia, often referred to as dermographism urticaria or urticaria factitia. There are several reasons for urticarial skin responses, which manifest as erythematous wheals in the dermis. The most prevalent form of inducible/physical urticaria, which affects 2% to 5% of the population, is dermatographism.

Dermatographism, which translates to “writing on the skin,” is a condition in which downward pressure on the skin results in linear erythematous wheals in the dermis that are shaped like the external force being applied. A tiny percentage of patients with dermatographism have pruritus, stinging, or prickling symptoms, which can be uncomfortable for the sufferer.

Dermatographia: Causes

There is no known etiology for dermatographia. Although no specific allergen has been identified, it might be an allergic response.

Dermatographia symptoms might be brought on by simple causes. Your skin may get irritated by, for instance, friction from your clothes or bedsheets. In some people, an illness, mental stress, vibration, exposure to the cold, or taking medication comes before the symptoms.

Dermatographism has no final mechanism that explains why it happens.

Vasoactive mediators are activated by mechanical stress as a result of antigen-bound IgE interaction with mast cells. The “triple response of Lewis” is a biological reaction that is considered to be triggered as a result of this.

In the beginning, the capillaries dilate, resulting in an erythematous phase that is only superficial. After arteriolar dilatation, an axon-reflex flare and transmission to sensory nerve fibers result in an extension of erythema. The linear wheal is lastly created by fluid transudation. After receiving an external stimulation like stroking of the skin, this full reaction can take up to 5 minutes on average.

The Lewis triple reaction typically decreases within 10 minutes, although the wheel can last anywhere from 15 to 30 minutes. A part in this process is thought to be played by mediators such histamine, leukotrienes, bradykinin, heparin, kallikrein, and peptides like substance P. Symptomatic dermatographism is often believed to be idiopathic, however, there are other possibilities.

The most widespread agreement centers on bites, scabies, medications like penicillin, and Helicobacter pylori as the more frequent presentations to support this association. Last but not least, the presenting symptom of systemic mastocytosis is congenital symptomatic dermatographism.

Dermatographia: Symptoms

When mechanical injury to the skin, most frequently from stroking, dermatographism lesions develop. In between five and ten minutes, a wheal begins to form and grow. Around 15 to 30 minutes will pass as the wheal continues. The wheal will get bigger further edema extends into the dermis.

The wheal of symptomatic dermatographism is accompanied by itching. The pruritus is worse at night (perhaps because of the friction caused by the sheets and bedding pressing on the skin) and from external stimuli such as heat, stress, emotion, and exercise.

The trunk, extremities, and other body surfaces are those that dermatographism most frequently affects. The scalp and vaginal region are the least often reported locations, however symptomatic dermatographism has been linked in the literature to dyspareunia and vulvodynia.

Dermatographism has various uncommon subtypes, including −

Dermatographism in red (small punctate wheals, predominantly on the trunk)

Dermatographism with follicles (isolated urticarial papules)

Dermatographism involving choline (similar to cholinergic urticaria – large erythematous line marked by punctate wheals)

Dermatographism in delay (tender urticarial lesion reappears 3 to 8 hours after the initial injury that persists up to 48 hours)




Dermatographia: Risk Factors

At any age, dermatographia can develop. Teenagers and young adults seem to experience it more frequently. You might be more vulnerable if you have other skin issues. Atopic dermatitis is one of them (eczema).

Dermatographia: Diagnosis

The diagnosis of dermatographia is mainly done based on history and some of the tests may be required for confirmation and to rule out underlying causes

Your doctor may use a tongue depressor to make lines on the skin of your arm or back to see if you have dermatographia. You most likely have the disease if a raised line or welt develops within a short period.

Dermatographia: Treatment

Controlling dermatographism requires preventing and avoiding triggering causes like physical stimulation and reducing stresses. The majority of people are asymptomatic, thus only those with symptoms should receive treatment. Treatment with H1 antihistamines like cetirizine or loratadine is a form of choice therapy. If H1 blockers are insufficient to manage pruritus, H2 antihistamines can be coupled for a more comprehensive course of treatment. One approach is to take the sedative antihistamine hydroxyzine before bed.

Dermatographism research studies are looking at omalizumab, which has a 72% efficacy on 150 mg and a 58% efficacy on 300 mg. Interestingly, there was a statistically significant improvement in the patients’ Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score of at least 4 points. Dermatographism has been somewhat successfully treated with light therapy, although most patients return within 2 to 3 months of finishing treatment.

Supplemental therapy with 1000 mg of over-the-counter vitamin C per day is suggested to lessen Lewis’ triple reaction by assisting in histamine degradation and increasing elimination.

Dermatographia: Prevention

Some of the measures that can help to prevent dermatographia include −

Be gentle with the skin. Use a non-soap cleanser or light soap, then pat the skin dry. Wear items made of scratch-free fabric. While taking a shower or bath, use warm water.

Keep your skin hydrated. Employ ointments, creams, or lotions every day. Lotions don’t often work as well as creams and ointments do since they are thinner. When your skin is still moist after showering, apply your skin care product. When required, use it once more during the day.


Dermographism’s painstaking progression without resolve can be disconcerting. Nonetheless, patients need to be informed that the disease is benign. It is important to warn the patient not to take the medicine before driving a vehicle because the therapy, antihistamines, might cause drowsiness.

The majority of patients and their parents find dermatologic lesions to be benign yet surprising. To prevent these stresses, it is crucial to appropriately inform the patient and their parents about the risk factors linked to the development of dermatographism. When unsure about the diagnosis, consult a dermatologist.

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Diabetes Causes Symptoms Diagnosis And Treatment

Diabetes mellitus (DM), is the most common chronic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels. It has become a public burden. The number of people getting diabetes is increasing year by year due to lifestyle modifications. Diabetes occurs due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.

There are three main types of diabetes mellitus, Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, and Gestational Diabetes.

Type 1 DM results from the failure of the pancreas to produce enough insulin.

Type 2 DM occurs due to insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.

Gestational Diabetes occurs in pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes.

Diagnosis of the diagnosis is very important as it can affect other systems and can become life-threatening. Diagnosis is mainly by measuring the blood sugar levels fasting and post-prandial blood sugars. When diabetes is diagnosed at borderline stages can be prevented by following a proper diet and lifestyle modifications. In patients with diabetes treatment includes medications like anti glycaemic drugs and insulin depending on the requirement.

Diabetes: Causes

The following are the essential causes of developing diabetes −

Insulin is the principal hormone that regulates the uptake of glucose from the blood into cells of the body, especially the liver, adipose tissue, and muscle, except smooth muscle. Insulin plays a critical role in balancing glucose levels in the body. It helps in the utilization, storage, and breakdown of glucose.

Insulin is released into the blood by beta cells (β-cells), found in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, in response to rising levels of blood glucose, typically after eating and is low when the glucose levels are low

Type 1 diabetes is partly inherited, with multiple genes, including certain HLA genotypes, known to influence the risk of diabetes.

In genetically susceptible people, the onset of diabetes can be triggered by one or more environmental factors, such as a viral infection or diet.

Type 2 DM is characterized by insulin resistance that occurs due to lifestyle factors and genetics.

Lifestyle factors such as obesity, lack of physical activity, poor diet, stress, and dietary factors influence the risk of developing type 2 DM

Gestational diabetes mellitus involves a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness. It occurs in about 2–10% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery.

Diabetes: Symptoms

Symptoms of diabetes may develop rapidly over weeks to months in type 1 DM, while they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2 DM.

The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes include −

Loss of weight

Polyuria is increased urination

Polydipsia is increased thirst

Polyphagia is increased hunger

Other symptoms include −

Blurring of vision

Frequent Headache


Slow healing of cuts and minor wounds

Itchy skin.

Several skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic dermadrome

Symptoms occurring due to complications of diabetes include −

Diabetes doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke.

Damage in small blood vessels includes damage to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Causing diabetic retinopathy, presenting with gradual vision loss and blindness.

Damage to the kidneys, known as diabetic nephropathy, can lead to tissue scarring, urine protein loss, and eventually chronic kidney disease, sometimes requiring dialysis or kidney transplant.

Damage to the nerves of the body, known as diabetic neuropathy, presents with numbness, tingling, pain, and altered pain sensation, which can lead to damage to the skin. Diabetic neuropathy causes painful muscle wasting and weakness in Diabetic Amyotrophy.

Diabetes-related foot problems such as diabetic foot ulcers) may occur and can be difficult to treat, occasionally requiring amputation.

Diabetes: Risk Factors

Several factors play an essential role in the development of diabetes which include −

An individual with a family history of diabetes

Type 1 DM affects younger age groups and type 2 DM affects adults and older people.

An improper diet containing oily items, junk foods, sweets, and fried items

Lack of physical activity


Diabetes: Diagnosis

The diagnosis of the diagnosis is done as follows −

Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) ≥ 6.5 DCCT %

The oral Glucose Tolerance Test measures the body’s ability to metabolize glucose. The patient is asked to take a glucose drink and their blood glucose level is measured before and at intervals after the sugary drink is taken.

People with impaired glucose tolerance show fasting values of 6.0 to 7.0 mmol/L and at 2 hours 7.9 to 11.0 mmol/L. In diabetes fasting values over 7.0 mmol/L and at 2 hours over 11.0 mmol/L

Diabetes: Treatment Conservative Treatment

Conservative treatment includes −

Lifestyle modifications such as diet modifications, regular exercise, and maintaining a healthy weight

Medications include anti glycaemic drugs

Surgical Treatment

Surgical treatment may be required in severe cases where the diet and medications don’t help the individual with the condition. Depending on the condition the surgeries required may be −

Transplantation of the pancreas

Transplantation of kidneys

Bariatric surgeries in obesity patients

Diabetes: Prevention

Some of the measures that can help to prevent diabetes include −

A healthy well balanced diet including a lot of dietary fiber, fruits, and vegetables

Avoid junk foods

Avoid smoking and alcohol consumption

Regular physical activity such as regular walking and exercises

Maintain a healthy body weight


Diabetes is a chronic health condition that occurs due to increased levels of glucose in the body. It occurs due to the less or absent production of insulin by the pancreas either due to an autoimmune attack or due to idiopathic causes or developed resistance to the insulin secondary to lifestyle factors and genetics.

The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes include Loss of weight, increased urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. Additional symptoms are present depending on the organ affected and the complication present.

The criteria to diagnose diabetes include fasting blood sugar of more than 126mg/dl, Postprandial blood sugar of more than 200mg/dl, and HbA1c of more than 6.5. Diabetes can be controlled by following a properly balanced diet, regular activity, and by taking medications regularly. Surgery may be required in some cases. Prevention by lifestyle modifications is very important in diabetes.

Gas And Gas Pain: Causes, Symptoms, Management And Prevention

Experiencing gas and getting rid of it is quite common. It occurs because of the excess air swallowed in the stomach. Certain food habits or lifestyle changes can lead to gas. Gas pain occurs when gas accumulates in the intestines and puts pressure on the abdominal wall, causing discomfort and pain.

The pain can be relieved by passing gas, using over-the-counter remedies, or engaging in physical activities to help move gas through the digestive tract. If gas pain is persistent or accompanied by other symptoms, such as bloating, diarrhea, or constipation, it is best to consult a doctor for further evaluation and treatment.

Read this article to learn the causes and symptoms of gas and gas pain and how one can manage and prevent its occurrence.

Causes of Gas

Gas is formed in the body when we take up more air by mouth while drinking or eating. Later, it can be released when burping.

The food that we eat has certain components that when reacting with the digestive system form gas. For instance, cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, lentils, cauliflower, etc., are high in raffinose, a sugar that is only digested by gut microbiota. When the bacteria ferment it, gas is produced which causes bloating too. Other foods like dairy products have lactose sugar that is intolerant to some people who lack the enzyme lactase. Since sugar cannot be digested, the body releases gas.

Fried or packaged foods and drinks make things worse since they have high levels of preservatives and carbon dioxide gas used in carbonated beverages highly contribute to gastric problems. Hence, less absorption of carbohydrates in many cases may lead to the formation of gas. Certain gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), can cause increased gas production and discomfort.

The practice of certain habits such as using a straw while drinking allows more air to go inside the stomach. For those who don’t chew their food properly, it is difficult for the digestive organs to break down larger chunks of food. This ends up leaving behind undigested food in the digestive tract and gas. Gastric problems are also very common for people who talk while eating. Our lifestyle habits define our health. Heavy smokers or drinkers experience gas problems very often as compared to those who smoke occasionally or not at all.

Symptoms of Gas Issues

If a person is suffering from gas or gas pain, he or she may experience certain symptoms related to the condition. The symptoms include −

Bloating − Bloating is when a person experiences a feeling of fullness when consuming any kind of food. Even when a person hasn’t eaten much, the gas inside the stomach fills up a certain amount of space and causes a feeling of fullness.

Flatulence − Flatulence is the release of gas through the rectum. It is when too much gas is produced in the body that a person may need the urge to pass it.

Nausea − Nausea is characterized by a feeling to vomit but isn’t the same as vomiting. It is an unpleasant feeling a person may experience when the overproduction of gas takes place in the body.

Cramps − A person having gas pain may experience pain in the stomach or abdominal region known as cramps.

Distension − Distension is a feeling of swelling of the abdominal region caused due to bloating.

Burping − Burping or belching is the release of gas in the stomach through the mouth.

Gastric Management

Changes in our daily habits and routines may help us manage excess gas production and gas pain.

Eating slowly allows us to chew the food properly and aids in efficient digestion of the food. This will also not allow excess air intake while eating.

Taking up healthy habits like regular exercise will not only allow movement of the body but also help relieve gas that is trapped inside the body.

Smoking and drinking frequently or eating food outside more often can develop gastric problems. Cutting down on these habits will help manage excess gas production.

Prevention of Gas

Gas and pain caused by its production can certainly be prevented if regular habits are observed.

Cut down a little on eating cruciferous vegetables and try not to eat food from the stores or junk more often. Homemade food is the best to prevent digestive problems.

When having a feeling of gas in the body, holding it won’t solve the problem. Instead, not allowing gas to pass will cause bloating and pain. Thus, it is always best to release gas either through the mouth by burping or through the rectum by flatulence. If the gas has a pungent odour, it is considered as a sign of digestive infection, and consulting a doctor would be good.

Taking up healthier choices such as exercising over sitting for too long, or intaking probiotics and herbal drinks over junk and processed food will not only help prevent gastric disorders but will also benefit the digestive system for a longer period.

Gentle walking can help stimulate digestion and reduce gas.

Certain yoga poses, such as the Wind-Relieving Pose or Child’s pose, can help alleviate gas

Gently massaging the abdominal area can help move trapped gas and reduce discomfort.

Engaging in regular aerobic exercise, such as running or cycling, can help improve digestion and reduce gas.

Gentle stretching can help relieve gas and improve digestion


Regular movement of the body is as equally important to allow excess gas in the body to be released either by belching or flatulence. Gas pains are often misinterpreted as a heart stroke or colon medical conditions such as appendicitis. Therefore, it is important to be aware of gastric conditions and how to prevent, or deal with gastric issues.

Ketosis – Symptoms, Benefits, Risks, And More

Ketosis is a condition in which the ketone levels of the body rise. These ketones are derived from fats. The body uses the ketones as a source of energy in replacement to glucose. The condition of ketosis develops when a person is following a very low-carb diet. Some studies show that ketosis can improve blood sugar levels and keep the body away from disorders such as seizures. However, the keto diet is not suitable for everyone.

Doctors recommend ketosis for wight loss management, or for the treatment of chronic illnesses. The keto diet can produce side-effects because of the nutrient-deficiencies it puts the body into. In this tutorial, we will discuss the impact of keto diet on health conditions, called ketosis.

What is Ketosis?

Ketosis is a metabolic state in which the body burns fat for fuel instead of carbohydrates. It occurs when the body does not have enough carbohydrates available to burn for energy release which results in the breakdown of stored fat into molecules called ketones. These ketones can be used as an alternative energy source.

Symptoms of Ketosis

A lot of people who follow a ketogenic diet and want to track their progress can keep a check on the following symptoms −

Bad Breath − People following a ketogenic diet can notice bad breath as a key symptom. This condition occurs due to the accumulation of a ketone called acetone.

Nausea − People with a ketogenic diet plan may experience frequent nausea, stomach cramps, bloating, and discomfort. This is because the body is adjusting to the new way of processing fats for energy instead of carbohydrates.

Brain Fog − Individuals following ketogenic diet plans have reported instances of brain fog and confusion.

Weight Loss − One of the key reasons for starting a keto diet in the first place is to lose weight. In ketosis, the body loses weight considerably.

Increased Thirst and Dry Mouth − Another frequently reported symptom of following a ketogenic diet is increased thirst and mouth dryness. When the body is in the state of ketosis, it produces ketones, which can make the blood more acidic. The kidneys work to remove excess ketones from the blood, which can lead to an increase in urine production and dehydration. This, in turn, can cause increased thirst.

Constipation − As the body gets used to digesting more fats than carbs, people following a ketogenic diet may experience dehydration and constipation. Constipation is one of the major symptoms of ketosis.

Insomnia − People with a ketogenic diet plan have also reported sleeping disorders like insomnia.

It’s important to note that not everyone will experience all of these symptoms because these symptoms are based on the studies and data collected by researchers across the world.

Benefits of Ketosis

Some research also suggests that a ketogenic diet may be beneficial for certain neurological conditions, such as epilepsy, and may have anti-inflammatory effects. However, it is important to note that more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of following a ketogenic diet. Here is a list of benefits of ketosis.

Improves Neurological Disorders

Ketosis can contribute towards the treatment of neurological disorders like epilepsy. Epilepsy is a condition in which the patient suffers recurring seizures. Although medication is available for the treatment of epilepsy, in case, there is medical management failure, a ketogenic diet can help manage the problem. According to multiple studies, individuals following a ketogenic diet had reported a significant dip in the frequency of seizure accidents.

Weight Loss

Ketogenic diet has gained popularity because of its weight loss aspect. Many celebrities and icons have opted for the trend of following this diet and using it as a fitness tool. When the body is in ketosis, it begins to break down stored fat into molecules called ketones, which can be used as an energy source. The absence of carbohydrates in the diet can lead to decreased insulin levels and a decrease in water weight.

Additionally, because the body is using fat for fuel, it may begin to break down fat stores, leading to weight loss. However, it’s important to note that weight loss on a ketogenic diet may not be as significant as weight loss on a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet. The weight loss on a ketogenic diet may be mostly due to water loss, which can be regained once an individual returns to a diet containing carbohydrates.


Before we conclude, let us consider understanding the risks and other aspects that one may have to encounter while following a ketogenic diet. A ketogenic diet can undoubtedly produce outstanding results but the side effects of this dietary plan might make our dieting endeavour potentially risky. The short-term sideeffects are −





Bad breath

A ketogenic diet can be low in certain essential vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin C, potassium, and magnesium. It is important to ensure that these deficiencies are adequately addressed through nutrient-dense foods or supplements. Kidney stones are also one potential risk that can be caused due to ketosis. Those who have a history of kidney stones should consult a healthcare professional before starting a ketogenic diet.

Ketosis can also impact the liver. A high concentration of fat is never a piece of good news for the liver and it can cause serious damage and complications to the body.

Loss Of Indian Citizenship: Causes And Consequences


Loss of Indian Citizenship: The nature of Indian citizenship is unitary and Single Citizenship. It is not simple to gain the Indian Citizenship, but loosing is. This is why, as an aware citizens of India, we need to be aware about those points on which an Indian can lose its citizenship.

In this article, we have mentioned everything about loss of Indian Citizenship, their causes and consequences.

So, let’s start-

Nature of Indian Citizenship

Indian citizenship is the legal status granted to an individual who is recognized as a member of the Indian nation. It is a complex concept that involves a range of legal, social, and cultural dimensions.

The Constitution of India defines Indian citizenship and sets out the conditions under which it may be acquired or lost.

Indian citizenship can be acquired in four ways:

By birth.

By descent.

By registration.

By naturalization.

The Indian citizenship law has undergone several changes over the years, with the most recent amendment being made in 2023.

How to Get Indian Citizenship

Indian citizenship can be acquired through various ways, as outlined in the Indian Citizenship Act of 1955 and subsequent amendments. Here are the ways to acquire Indian citizenship:

By Birth

If you are born in India on or after January 26, 1950, you are considered an Indian citizen by birth, regardless of the nationality of your parents.

By Descent

If either of your parents is an Indian citizen at the time of your birth, you can acquire Indian citizenship by descent.

By Registration

If you are not an Indian citizen by birth or descent, but you are eligible for registration, you can apply for citizenship by registration.

By Naturalization

If you are not an Indian citizen by birth, descent or registration, but you are eligible for naturalization, you can apply for citizenship by naturalization.

The process for acquiring Indian citizenship can be initiated by submitting an application to the appropriate authorities, such as the Ministry of Home Affairs or the Indian consulate in your country of residence.

Loss of Indian Citizenship: Causes and Consequences

Indian citizenship can be lost or revoked in certain circumstances, as outlined in the Indian Citizenship Act of 1955 and subsequent amendments. Here are the causes and consequences of loss of Indian citizenship:

Causes of Loss of Indian Citizenship


A person may renounce their Indian citizenship voluntarily by submitting a declaration of renunciation to the appropriate authorities.


Indian citizenship may be deprived or revoked by the government if the person has obtained it through fraud or misrepresentation, or if they have acted in a manner prejudicial to the interests of India.

Acquisition of Foreign Citizenship

Indian citizenship may be lost if a person acquires the citizenship of another country.

Consequences of loss of Indian citizenship

Loss of Rights and Privileges

Once Indian citizenship is lost, the person loses all the rights and privileges associated with Indian citizenship, including the right to vote, own property, and work in India.

Need for Visa and Permits

After losing Indian citizenship, the person may need to obtain a visa or permit to enter or work in India, depending on their nationality and the purpose of their visit.

Restrictions on Travel

The person may face restrictions on travel to India, and may not be allowed to stay in India for an extended period of time.


Q1. What is renunciation of Indian citizenship, and how is it done?

Ans: Renunciation of Indian citizenship is a voluntary act of giving up Indian citizenship. It can be done by submitting a declaration of renunciation to the appropriate authorities, either in India or at an Indian embassy or consulate abroad.

Q2. What happens to my Indian passport if I renounce my citizenship?

Ans: If you renounce your Indian citizenship, you will be required to surrender your Indian passport to the authorities. Your passport will be cancelled and returned to you as a proof of cancellation.

Q3. Can I retain my Indian citizenship if I acquire the citizenship of another country?

Ans: No, under Indian law, if you acquire the citizenship of another country, you will lose your Indian citizenship, unless you are granted permission by the Indian government to retain your Indian citizenship.

Q4. How long does it take to process an application for renunciation of Indian citizenship?

Ans: The processing time for renunciation of Indian citizenship can vary depending on the specific circumstances of the case and the location where the application is made. Generally, it can take several weeks to several months to process the application.

Q5. Can a person be stateless if they lose their Indian citizenship, also What is Stateless person?

Ans: Yes, a person can be stateless if they lose their Indian citizenship and do not acquire the citizenship of another country. A stateless person is someone who is not considered a citizen by any country under its laws. This can happen due to a variety of reasons, such as being born in a country that does not grant citizenship to people born there, or losing citizenship due to changes in citizenship laws. Stateless persons often face significant challenges in accessing basic rights and services, such as education, healthcare, and employment.

Treating Tonsillitis: Antibiotics, Home Treatment

Tonsils are lumps of tissues present on each side of the throat. They are an important part of our immune system and are responsible for producing antibodies and white blood cells. Tonsillitis is a health condition which is associated with inflammation or swelling of the tonsils due to infections from bacteria or viruses in the mouth.

It is a viral or bacterial infection which tends to happen more often during the flu and cold season. Nevertheless, tonsillitis can strike at any time of the year. It is a health condition that occurs when the tonsil in the back of your throat become infected. In most cases, tonsillitis gets cured on its own without any antibiotics.

Let us understand the causes and symptoms of tonsillitis so that we can understand how to treat them at home and if antibiotics are required to treat tonsillitis.

Causes of Tonsillitis

One of the most common causes of tonsillitis is the common cold. This infection can occur in individuals of all age groups and there are two types of tonsillitis which are as follows −

Bacterial Tonsillitis − This health condition is commonly called strep throat and is caused due to Streptococcus bacteria.

Viral Tonsillitis − The majority of the cases are viral tonsillitis and are caused by a cold or flu (influenza) virus. Some of the other viruses that may cause tonsillitis are Adenoviruses, Herpes simplex virus, Cytomegalovirus, Measles virus and Epstein Barr virus.

Symptoms of Tonsillitis

The most common symptoms of tonsillitis are −

Swollen lymph nodes

Swollen tonsils

Blisters in the throat

Sore throat

Pain and difficulty in swallowing food or beverages

Foul breath


Hoarse voice

Ear pain

The symptoms of tonsillitis may appear similar to some other health conditions. You can consult your doctor for an appropriate diagnosis. Tonsillitis can be treated at home for alleviating the symptoms. However, in some cases, the doctors may prescribe antibiotics.

Antibiotics for Tonsillitis

If tonsillitis is caused by a bacterial infection like strep throat, antibiotics are prescribed by doctors so as to avoid health complications and improve the symptoms of the infection. Once the antibiotics are started, the person may witness a significant improvement in symptoms within the first 24 to 72 hours. However, if tonsillitis is caused by a viral infection, antibiotics are not recommended by doctors. One of the prime reasons is that the infection would usually resolve itself within five to seven days without the intervention of antibiotics.

As doctors don’t prescribe antibiotics for tonsillitis caused due to viral infections, home care is the only option for treating tonsillitis.

Home Treatment for Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis can be cured with the help of some at-home remedies which can make the affected person more comfortable and promote better recovery. Some of the best home treatment strategies for tonsillitis are as follows −

Drink Warm Fluids

Sipping on warm drinks like soups or tea can soothe the back of your throat. You can add raw honey to warm tea as honey has strong antibacterial properties. Also, ginger tea and fennel tea are considered strong anti-inflammatories and can help in reducing discomfort.

Frozen Drinks and Foods

Cold is considered highly effective in treating inflammation, pain and swelling that may come with tonsillitis. As tonsillitis is most common in children as compared to adults, children can eat popsicles and frozen foods like ice cream or consume frozen drinks. They can also suck on ice chips to get rid of the discomfort caused due to tonsillitis.


Gargling and rinsing with warm salt water can soothe a sore throat. It can also reduce pain and inflammation and in some cases may even help to treat infections. You can take half a teaspoon of salt and dissolve it in about four ounces of warm water. Stir for about a minute or until the sale is completely dissolved in water. Later on, gargle and swish through the mouth for some time and spit it out. After gargling, don’t forget to rinse your mouth with regular water to get rid of the salty taste. You can also mix baking soda instead of salt. Baking soda can soothe the throat and salt can reduce the swelling and irritation in the throat.


Lozenges may help to soothe the throat but always consult a physician to get the right one for you. Lozenges that contain licorice as an ingredient have anti-inflammatory properties and can offer comfort in the tonsils. Avoid giving lozenges to young children as there is a choking risk. Throat sprays can be a good alternative to lozenges for children.

Humidifiers or Steam

If you are experiencing dry mouth or the air around you is dry, it may irritate the throat. Humidifiers can help soothe discomfort in the throat and relieve sore throat. Cool-mist humidifiers can be helpful, especially, if tonsillitis is caused by viruses. You can keep your humidifier on at night when you sleep. This can be done until tonsillitis subsides.

However, if you don’t have a humidifier, you can sit in a room filled with steam such as a shower room. Inhaling steam can moisturise and soothe a sore throat. It also helps to keep the throat clean at normal times. One of the best places to inhale steam is the bathroom with a shower. You can take a hot shower and when the bathroom or the shower cubicle gets steamy, you can breathe in the steam.

Herbal Teas

Clove tea and green tea have anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties that can fight infections and provide relief. Moreover, peppermint, raspberry and chamomile teas can also help in reducing swelling and pain caused by tonsillitis.

Honey and Lemon with Warm Water

Honey acts as a natural wound-healing agent and offers pain relief. It has natural antibacterial properties that can fight off viral infections. Mix a teaspoon of raw honey in a glass of warm water and drink it to reduce swelling caused by tonsillitis.

Lemon juice has vitamin C which can boost our immune system and fight off infections. Also, it can break the mucus and provide pain relief for tonsillitis. Add lemon juice to a glass of warm water and drink this liquid for pain relief.

Over-the-counter (OTC) Medications

OTC pain relievers like acetaminophen and ibuprofen may help in relieving pain and discomfort. Both painkillers may reduce throat pain, inflammation and fever.

At-home Care for Tonsillitis

Apart from the above-mentioned home remedies the following strategies can also aid in recovery.

Taking sufficient rest

Elevating the bed or sitting straight to alleviate the discomfort and pain

Avoid lying down flat. This can cause swelling because of increased pressure at the back of the neck.

Consuming an appropriate volume of fluids

Avoid smoking cigarettes and inhaling second-hand smoke.

Avoid consuming acidic foods and beverages

Eating foods that are soft and easy to chew and swallow


Tonsillitis can occur at any age but is less common in adults. Depending on whether the infection is bacterial or viral, the treatment can be decided. Home treatments provide relief from the symptoms and may fight off the infection, but if the infection is not cured at home, you may have to seek medical help.

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