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Unlike popular belief, Jung postulated that personality development takes place over a series of stages that result in the culmination of individuation or self-realization. To him, the latter half of life, the period after 35-40 years of age, is crucial in bringing together various aspects of personality in an attempt to attain self-realization. However, the risk runs high for a steady decline or severe reactions if a balance between polar opposite forces is not achieved. This ability relates to the proportionality of success gained in traversing through the previous stages of life.

Stages of Development

Jung identified four developmental stages: childhood, youth, middle life, and old age. He believed that the traverse through life is analogous to the sun’s journey through the sky, with its brightness representing consciousness. The early morning sun reflects childhood which is full of endless potential but lacking brilliance, and the morning sun is our youth where a steep climb towards the zenith is observed without the slightest knowledge of the impending doom; the early afternoon sun characterizes middle life, brilliant like the late morning sun, but headed for the sunset and the evening sun is old age, the once brightly lit consciousness losing its light. Jung believed that the ideals, values, and modes of behavior are dynamic entities that must be changed to adjust to current life stages.


Childhood was divided into three stages −

Anarchic Phase − It is characterized by a disturbed and irregular consciousness where little or no connection may be found between different intervals. Certain experiences enter the consciousness at times as primitive images that cannot be adequately verbalized. It can be called “islands of consciousness.”

Monarchic Phase − It lays the foundation for the development of the ego and the onset of logical and verbal thinking. During this phase, children usually refer to themselves in the third person because they begin to see themselves objectively. Here, the islands of consciousness enlarge and provide a home to a primitive ego that perceives itself as an object, unaware of its ability to be the perceiver.

Dualistic Phase − In this stage, the ego identifies itself as a perceiver and is divided into objective and subjective. Children go back to referring to themselves in the first person as they see themselves as separate individuals. Here, the islands of consciousness become continuous land inhabited by an ego complex. At this stage, the child’s personality is just a tad bit different from that of their parents, thus, showing the strong influence that parents play in shaping their child’s personality.


The period from puberty until middle life is called youth, wherein young people strive for psychic and physical independence from their parents to find a partner, raise a family, and stand some footing in the world. According to Jung, this period should entail an increase in activity, achieve sexual maturation, widen consciousness, and, most importantly, come to terms with the saddening reality that the carefree childhood phase is long gone. The major obstacle of this stage is to overcome the barrier of clinging to the narrow consciousness of childhood in avoiding problems about present life situations. This desire to live in the past is called the conservative principle.

It is not until puberty that the psyche formulates into a concrete entity. This phase has been named psychic birth by Jung and is marked by difficulties and the need for adaptation – putting a full stop to childhood fantasies and confronting reality demands as adults. Our focus on youth is external, with a dominating consciousness as we aim to achieve our goals and establish a secure and successful place for ourselves in the world.

Middle Life

Jung said that this stage starts around 35 to 40 years of age when descent is overserved. It might present people with anxious thoughts and yet provide immense potential. If the tendency is to retain early life’s social and moral values, a rigid and fanatical approach might be observed in trying to maintain their physical attractiveness and agility. Hence, to live fully during this stage, the period of youth should not be lived by either childish or middle-aged values. People who can do that can give up extraverted youth goals and move towards the introverted direction of expanded consciousness. Their psychological health is a characteristic of finding new meaning in life and not merely achieving success in business or good family life.


According to Jung, psychological rebirth, also called self-realization or individuation, is the process of becoming an individual or whole person by integrating the opposite poles of personality into a single, homogenous self. There are several stages enlisted to reach the ideal of self-fulfilment.

Confront the unconscious − The first step is to desert the behavior and values guiding the first half of our life, confront our unconscious, and accept what it tells us. This means listening to our dreams, following our fantasies, and exercising creative imagination. Rational thinking must not be the guide; spontaneity should (flow of unconscious). However, this does not mean being governed entirely by the unconscious and letting it dominate us but by striking a balance between the two.

Dethrone the persona − For a smooth shift to the process of individuation, the shift is of utmost importance, like archetypes. The first involves dethroning the persona. Although normal life continues with the multitude of social roles we play, we must come to terms with the fact that this public personality does not represent our true nature and accept the genuine self that the persona has been hiding.

Accept our dark sides − An awareness of the destructive forces of shadow dawns, and we acknowledge that its primitive impulses like selfishness do not mean we let it dominate us but accept its existence. During the first half of life, we conceal it in an attempt to show only our good side, but in that process, we also conceal it from ourselves. In getting to know oneself, accepting both constructive and destructive forces will give a deeper and fuller dimension to the personality.

Accept our anima and animus − Expression of the anima archetype that is feminine traits such as care and concern by the man and an expression of the animus archetype by women that is masculine characteristics such as assertiveness symbolizes the acceptance of psychological bisexuality. Jung believed this is the most difficult step towards individuation as it posits the biggest challenge to our self-image. Nevertheless, an acceptance of the same opens up new avenues of creativity.

Transcend − Once the individuation of the psyche’s structures is acknowledged, transcendence occurs, an innate tendency towards unity and wholeness. Environmental factors such as failed marriages or unsuccessful careers might inhibit the process.


While many ideas Jung postulates make sense and might sound doable, personality development is not that simple. We draw on different forces of nature, and different hurdles might characterize each stage, so a sequential flow is now always possible. Apart from the deterministic view by Freud, Jung put forward an approach that sounds both mystical and yet not completely distant from scientific concepts. However, the problem lies with the universality of ideas.

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Animal Models Of Personality And Cross

So often, we have heard the term personality when referring to human nature, and it is not uncommon to use the word while describing the attributes of a human. However, have you ever wondered if non-human animals have personalities too? Can their moods, temperament, or behaviors tell us something about their personalities? Why do ants work in unity? Why do elephants have a matriarch? Why do some animals hunt in packs and others do it alone? Do these questions intrigue you? Since humans are animals, too, can models or assessments used to study human personality be applied to study animal personalities?

What are animal models of personality? Why are they used?

Animal models of personality help in understanding the evolutionary process of animals better. Cross-species examinations help in understanding their personalities better. Personality in animals can also be understood as their coping style or temperament. Further differences are also found between the species or between genders.

They are studied across various fields such as agricultural science, veterinary, zoology, forest studies, habitat studies, etc. The study of animal personality helps to understand boldness, sociability, and aggression in species of the animal kingdom. Cross-species distinctions may contribute to illuminating the reasons behind the development and persistence of within-species individual differences as well as how similar or dissimilar they are among species.

Studying personality in animals

Studying animal personalities can be a daunting and humongous task as there are many species, and defining their personalities can seem unachievable. Some scientists claim that not all species exhibit a personality, and the requirements for an animal to be given a personality are unclear. Studies of animal personalities have become increasingly popular recently. This development is closely related to a recent trend in ecology, behavior, and evolutionary biology that emphasizes how individuals differ from one another and focuses on the reasons, effects, and mechanisms underlying these differences. The best way to understand personality traits is as dispositions, which can be operationally described in particular sets of behaviors.

Examining animal behavior to understand personality

In empirical studies of animal personalities, behaviors are the different types of acts that animals exhibit and are seen, noted, quantified, categorized, or scored. Examples include ‘responding to threat by a predator, and ‘approaching an unknown object.’ Further, there are behavioral types that refer to subtypes of behavior, for instance, fast reflexes when a predator approaches.

Big five-factor model and animal personality

The big give factor traits for humans include −

openness to experience,



agreeableness, and


The model identifies personality traits at their most general degree of abstraction. It can be challenging to standardize the five-factor model’s application to animals because the assessment of personality using this model frequently uses self-reported data for humans. Naturally, not all animals exhibit the same breadth of personality as people, and the animal’s personality takes on the characteristics that are exclusive to its kind. Similarly, a species may be more likely than others to display one type of personality. The three personality characteristics that are most frequently observed in measured animals are neuroticism, agreeableness, and extraversion. Chimpanzees, for instance, show these traits.

Cross-species comparison of animal personalities

Animal cognitive and neurological adaptations have been studied through comparison. Identification of adaptations can be made by comparing closely related species that differ in a cognitive or neural characteristic with distantly related species that share the same cognitive or neural characteristic. A cross-species comparison gives three patterns to provide a framework to study psychological adaptations in humans and animals. Firstly, it identifies that specialized and generalized cognitive capacities exist, and secondly, it identifies that evolution has led to a change in the size of the brain. An experiment conducted to understand the similarities or differences in the judgments of humans and dogs found that dogs’ evaluations were just as reliable as human judgments. These results support the evolutionary continuity theory and point to a crucial conclusion often ignored by experts. This shows that personality differences do exist and can be studied.


The study of animal personality has recently become a subject of interest for many experts who wish to understand more about the evolution and continuity of the species in an ecosystem. Additionally, a cross-species comparison helps in understanding similarities and differences between behaviors of different species. As complex as it is to study personality in humans, it is the same in studying animals too. Research on animals offers excellent chances to understand the dynamic interaction of biological, genetic, and environmental factors on personality. Furthermore, the current body of data supporting the existence of personality traits in mammals opens the door for both animal and personality researchers to integrate personality components in their research. As a result, benefitting both researches on animals as well as personality.

Different Phases Of Mobile App Development

For successful development of mobile apps the whole process of development goes through different phases to make sure that the user finds the app the best fit.

The applicable steps, stages and phases that the mobile app development company must follow are as follows:

Different phases of Mobile App Development

Mobile app ideation phase

The first phase towards developing a mobile app is summarizing the whole idea of creating an app.

Know the targeted audience and what features are to be included and what not.

Knowing the requirements of the users and working accordingly will help you get the desired results from the app.

Getting solutions and thinking from both the views of the parties will provide the perfect solution in the creation of the app.

The questions that need to be answered are the features that are to be included in the app whether it is discussing the user interface, integrated infrastructure and all the things that decides the value of the apps.

Some specifications that make the app unique and different from all the other apps with the same functionality should be noted and implemented.

Mobile app design phase

The mobile app design phase is the second phase in the development process where the nature of the app is to be discussed which further decides overall design of the app.

The type of platform to be adopted for the app gets decided in this phase of development.

When the designer team comes along to work with the developmental team they know the platform which needs to get laid as they both know the project requirements and the needs of the audience.

Through workflow designs, charts and distribution of responsibilities further gets more clarified.

Defining and assigning the different roles and responsibilities with developers and designers helps in speeding up the whole process of development.

The blueprints of the app get finalized in this process and developers manage all the things with regards to including  the features in the app or to use the basic features.

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Mobile App development phase

The mobile app development is more technical and the phase also defines the  technicality of its structure, stack and milestones.

The three major parts in development of the mobile apps are:

Back end server technologies

Back-end refers to the database which is indirectly accessed by the users without their acknowledgement. The back end code includes more than two programming languages.


Application programming interface is the communication that takes place between the app and the back-end database.

Front End

It refers to the vernacular mobile app part that the ultimate user utilizes randomly and regularly.

Mobile apps must possess an user friendly approach that manages API’s and back-end perfectly to manage the provided data.

Mobile App testing phase

Through successfully completing the developmental phase and cleaning all the errors which were earlier faced in the developmental stage makes the apps more user friendly and appropriate.

The software for the apps needs to get tested in this stage of development. By testing the software we can fix the bugs and errors in the code and programs before the launch of the app.

Repetitive tests and accurate reviews helps the developers and designers to know that everything is in the calibration.

The app often goes for much hard testing to make sure that the components and rest of the software things are functioning well and according to the needs.

The potentiality of the app after the tests decides the launch of the app on the store.

Mobile app deployment stage

After discussing the basic idea of the app, designing, developing and testing. The next step is to deploy the mobile app.

The apps have successfully passed all the tests and have generated positive reviews for its functionality.

Immediately when the app gets certification and is ready for its deployment. The sales and marketing team comes into the picture where they promote the app before its actual launch to generate more curiosity among the individuals.

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Mobile app maintenance and update

On the functioning side of the customers after the few months of the launch of the app.

The apps are required to get first hand user experience, collect its important functions, performance data, provide necessary updates and its technical evaluation gets done.

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Summing up

Every phase in the mobile app development industry is comprehensive and broad for its excellence and functionality.

Developing an application which perfectly matches the needs of the users along with achieving the objectives of the apps must be dealt accurately.

The future of the apps will depend on the developers whether they can fix the bugs and errors before its launch.

Vishal Virani

Vishal Virani is a Founder and CEO of Coruscate Solutions, a leading Uber-like taxi app development company. He enjoys writing about the vital role of mobile apps for different industries, custom web development, and the latest technology trends.

Software Development Vs Web Development

Difference Between Software Development vs Web Development

Software development is used to create software or applications in computer-coded and specific programming languages. It is a process of developing software by writing maintainable code. Software development means creating, planning, reusing, research and development, making things simple, broader usage, etc. Web development is the term used to create web applications or websites that need to get hosted. Web development means developing a complex web-based application as well as the development of simple and single-page applications.

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Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Software development gives the product with features that have been planned and required for the computer software. While developing software, developers should have specific knowledge of client requirements, programming language, and end-user’s-user usage.

Software development is based on the software development life cycle (SDLC).SDLC has many phases or stages: 1. Requirement Analysis and Planning. 2. Requirement defining. 3. Designing Requirements. 4. Building Application or Coding 5. Testing of Application 5. Implementation. 6. Deployment and Maintenance.

Software Development follows different methodologies for building the software or a development process: the waterfall model, the Iterative model, the Spiral Model, the Agile methodology, the prototype model, rapid application development, DevOps, etc.

Web Development

Web development includes other work also, like content management, web designing, security, etc. The engineers who develop web applications are web developers, full-stack web developers, front-end developers, UI developers, and back-end developers.

Web development is based on the web development life cycle, similar to SDLC. In this, the phases are 1. Requirement gathering (Purpose, Goal, and audience) 2. Planning (Workflow creation) 3. Designing (Site page designing) 4. Content Management or Writing 5. Coding (building website) 6. Testing 7. Deployment, hosting, and maintainability.

Web development follows different methodologies to build or develop applications like Agile methodology. Breaking big tasks into minors and checking the continuous progress from beginning to end to design the web application is web development.

Head to Head Comparisons Between Software Development and Web Development (Infographics)

Key Differences between Software Development and Web Development

Software-developed applications mainly perform better in gaming and file handling. Web-developed applications perform better in data centralization or multi-user.

The critical difference between both Software Development and Web Development is a change of Interface.

In software development applications, customization has limitations. Web-developed applications have a more comprehensive range of customization.

In software development, screens are developed with static content. In web development, static pages, as well as dynamic web content, can be managed.

Software-developed applications can be used in a specific machine in which it has been installed.

The software-developed application does not need more security. We developed an application that requires more protection from viruses, malware, and data hackers.

Software-developed applications are not stateless. Web-developed applications are mainly stateless.

In software development, there are certain limitations to using technologies.

Software Development and Web Development Comparison Table

Following is the list of points that show the comparison between Software Development and Web Development.

Basis of Comparison Software Development Web Development

Architecture Software-developed applications are client based only. Web-developed applications are client-server-based.

Designing Software design is generally simple and straight. Web design is mostly the graphic design of web content.

Programming In Software development, coding can be done without script language. In web development, scripting is mainly used for developing apps.

Hosting Developed software does not require hosting. Web Application needs to get hosted via the internet or intranet.

Robust Software applications are the most robust. Web-developed applications are not much robust.

Applications Software-developed application mainly refers to desktop application. Web-developed application refers to web applications or websites.

Platform In Software development, Applications are developed for a specific platform. In web development, web applications are developed for cross-platform.

Software applications are mainly static. Web applications are mainly developed with dynamic pages.


Software development means growing Windows-based applications and Web development means developing web-based applications. Software development and Web development have used a standard set of software and web designing rules to create more secure, reliable applications with better performance.

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The Crucial Role Of Ai In Web Development

Artificial intelligence is undeniably no longer a buzzword in the web development space. Sure, the vast majority of web developers can have a lucrative career without ever touching AI. But in an industry where tools can decide your place in the competition, you can’t afford to be left out when it comes to the strides of AI in web development. As long as you understand the different roles of AI in specific web development workflows, it’s only a matter of finding the right tools that will give your ideas some legs. Now that we got that out of the way, let’s dig into some of the functions of AI in web development.  

1. Design Automation

Perhaps the most straightforward application of AI in web development can be found in platforms that “automate” the early design process based on the preferences set by users. Sure, platforms have been offering customizable It works by asking you a series of questions regarding your website goals. By the end of the initial setup process, •  Bookmark Similar to Wix, uses AI to speed up the early design process by having the user to answer questions. They call the program Artificial Intelligence Design Assistant or AiDA for short. •  The Grid The Grid is an AI website builder that focuses on the content you upload. Molly — the AI designer of the platform — works by learning design patterns from users 24/7. •  Jimdo Dolphin Lastly, is another implementation of automated web design through AI. It will also provide you with different customizable design options to get the ball rolling.  

2. Integrating AI Into Your SaaS Product

If you’re a SaaS business, integrating AI-powered features into your website has to do with personalization. Many services like e-commerce and CRM platforms preemptively ask several questions upon registration to tailor the experience to your objectives. You may encounter questions pertaining to the number of employees in your organization, your niche, your target keywords, and so on. For tools used in web development, a questionnaire during the account creation process may sound like a simplistic customization feature. Even so, it can significantly accelerate the web development process by showing you the platform’s most relevant features. There are also countless cloud-based services that assimilate user data and recognize patterns to constantly improve the user experience. You, too, may

3. Using AI to Augment Your Content & Traffic Channels

If you’re a one-man developer working on your own website, there are two things you need to handle when it comes to your content: development and promotion. Both fronts can be improved with AI, especially if you choose to go beyond traditional blog posts and spice up your content mix. That’s where AI steps in and enhance your ad targeting efforts, which is already implemented by a number of display networks like  

4. Transform Hand-Drawn Sketches Into Code

For years, we’ve seen platforms that enabled non-programmers to develop professional-looking websites from scratch — without writing a single line of code.

Since the code itself can be downloaded, Sketch2Code can be an excellent starting point for web development projects. It doesn’t matter if you’re an aspiring website owner with zero coding experience or a veteran developer. Sketch2Code will help you save a significant amount of time giving your web design ideas some legs. The technology works using five different components — the most notable ones being the Microsoft Custom Vision Model and Computer Vision Service. Put simply, the Microsoft Custom Vision Model is an AI trained to recognize HTML elements like text boxes and buttons from hand-drawn designs. The Microsoft Computer Vision Service, on the other hand, is capable of reading text and translating them into design elements. Sketch2Code also utilizes a couple of

5. Utilize Machine Learning for Cyber Security

Although cybersecurity know-how doesn’t have to be in a web developer’s skillset, it’s an excellent factor that would make them stand out. Of course, it’s the owner’s prerogative to choose the cybersecurity tools to keep your website safe from hackers. But if you’re developing your own website, you should ensure the usual blend of a web application firewall, antivirus, and SSL certification. You should also go with a platform that can match the adaptive nature of online threats. A


As AI technology progresses each year, we observe more and more disruption in major industries.

WordPress Considers Historic Development Change

Matt Mullenweg, developer of WordPress and CEO of Autommatic, proposed no longer adding new features to the WordPress, pivoting instead to a plugin-first policy.

This new approach to the future of WordPress has already resulted in a new feature intended for the next version of WordPress to be dropped entirely.

Canonical plugins are said to offer a way to keep improving WordPress on a faster schedule.

But some WordPress core contributors expressed the opinion that publisher user experience may suffer.

Canonical Plugins

First discussed in 2009, canonical plugins is a way to develop new features in the form of plugins.

The goal of this approach is to keep the WordPress core fast and lean while also encouraging development of experimental features in the form of plugins.

The original 2009 proposal described it like this:

“Canonical plugins would be plugins that are community developed (multiple developers, not just one person) and address the most popular functionality requests with superlative execution.

…There would be a very strong relationship between core and these plugins that ensured that a) the plugin code would be secure and the best possible example of coding standards, and b) that new versions of WordPress would be tested against these plugins prior to release to ensure compatibility.”

This approach to features and options is also referred to as Plugin First, to emphasize how features will first appear in the form of plugins.

These plugins are called canonical because they are developed by the WordPress core development team as opposed to non-canonical plugins that are created by third parties that might limit features in order to encourage purchase of a pro-version.

Integration of canonical plugins into the WordPress core itself would be considered once the plugin technology has proven itself to be popular and essential to the majority of users.

The benefit of this new approach to WordPress would be to avoid adding new features that might not be needed by the majority of users.

Plugin-first could be seen to be in keeping with the WordPress philosophy called Decisions, Not Options, which seeks to avoid burdening users with layers of technical options.

By offloading different features and functionalities to plugins, a user won’t have to wade through enabling or disabling functionalities they need, don’t need or don’t understand.

The WordPress design philosophy states:

“It’s our duty as developers to make smart design decisions and avoid putting the weight of technical choices on our end users.”

Canonical Plugins the Future?

Matt Mullenweg published a post titled, Canonical Plugins Revisited, in which he made the case that this is the way that WordPress should be developed moving forward.

He wrote:

“We are reaching a point where core needs to be more editorial and say “no” to features coming in as ad hoc as they sometimes do, and my hope is that more Make teams use this as an opportunity to influence the future of WordPress through a plugin-first approach that gives them the luxury of faster development and release cycles (instead of three times per year), less review overhead, and and path to come into core if the plugin becomes a runaway success.”

The first casualty of this new approach is the cancellation of integrating WebP image conversion into the next version of WordPress, WordPress 6.1, currently scheduled for November 2023.

Plugin-First is Controversial

Some developers, such as core contributor Jon Brown, expressed reservations about the proposal to switch to developing with canonical plugins.

“The problem remains that there are too many complicated plugins standing in for what would be a simple optional feature.

Plugins are _not_ a user-friendly option to core settings. First users have to discover there is a plugin, then they have negotiated yet another settings screen and updates and maintenance of that plugin.”

They noted that having one canonical plugin to solve a problem is preferable to the current state where desirable options can only be found on bloated third party plugins.

But they also said that having a settings option within core, without the need for a plugin, could present a better user experience.

They continued:

“Now, I do think Canonical plugins are a better situation than 6+ bloated plugins like exist here, but so would a single checkbox added to the settings page in core to do this. Which would further improve the UX and discovery issues inherent in plugins.”

“Canonical plugins” seems like a weaponized tool to derail discussions the same way “decisions not options” has become for years.”

That last statement is a reference to frustrations felt by some core contributors with the inability to add options for features because of the “decisions, not options” philosophy.

Others also disagreed with the plugin-first approach:

“Canonical plugin sounds grand but it will further increase maintenance burden on maintainers.

In my opinion, it’s no go.

It will be much more better to include some basic features in core itself instead of further saying – It’s a good place for plugin.”

Someone else pointed out a flaw in plugin-first in that collecting user feedback might not be easy. If that’s the case then there might not be a good way to improve plugins in a way that meets user needs if those needs are unknown.

They wrote:

“How can we better capture feedback from users?

Unless site owners are knowledgeable enough to report issues on GitHub or Trac (let’s be honest, no one reports plugin issues on Trac), there’s really no way to gather feedback from users to improve these recommended/official plugins. “

Canonical Plugins

An early indicator will be in what happens with the cancelled WebP feature that was previously intended to be integrated into the core and will now become a plugin.

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