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Testing has use beyond only establishing whether or not a person has a virus. After a virus has been identified, its severity must be assessed to decide whether or not hospitalisation is necessary. Diagnostic tests and antibody tests are two types of testing. Molecular testing and antigen tests are two subsets of diagnostic procedures. Therefore, PCR tests are classified as a type of molecular test that looks for viral DNA. Blood antibody testing are one method of monitoring antibody levels.

What is Antibody Test?

Immunoglobulins, also known as gamma globulin proteins, are the building blocks of antibodies. Vertebrate blood and other bodily fluids include antibodies. They aid vertebrate immune systems in recognising and eliminating pathogens. This is why detecting antibodies in the blood is what an antibody test does. The human body naturally generates antibodies for self-defense, however vaccination may be used to artificially increase antibody production.

Testing for certain antibodies in the blood can reveal whether or not a person has been exposed to a particular virus or infection. The test only reveals whether or not the subject was previously infected, not whether or not they are now sick. A previous infection with SARS-CoV-2, for instance, is evidenced by a positive result for COVID-19 antibodies.

What is PCR Test?

Monitoring gene expression, determining the number of food-borne pathogens, determining the amount of a virus, and making a clinical diagnosis are just few of the many uses for the powerful molecular test known as polymerase chain reaction (or PCR). In vitro PCR is a laboratory technique for the enzymatic production of targeted DNA sequences.

Differences: Antibody Test and PCR Test

The following table highlights the major differences between Antibody Test and PCR Test −


Antibody Test

PCR Test


The antibody test and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test are the gold standards for determining whether or not a patient has contracted a virus. These two methodologies have continued to dominate COVID-19 testing even after the current coronavirus epidemic.

In contrast to tests that rely on antibodies or the body’s immunological response, polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) may detect the presence of antigens directly.


A history of infection can be deduced from a blood antibody test. Due to the fact that antibodies are usually produced by the body a few days after an infection, rather than before, this test cannot be used to detect whether or not a person is currently sick.

However, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is a diagnostic tool for identifying infections in their earliest stages, before antibodies have had time to build. In vitro PCR is a laboratory technique for the enzymatic production of targeted DNA sequences.

To detect the presence of a virus, it first multiplies a small section of DNA many times over (by the millions or billions) before analysing the results.


Tests for antibodies in the blood can reveal whether or not a person has been infected with a particular virus or other infection in the past.

The method identifies the virus indirectly by examining the body’s defences against it.

DNA polymerase is an enzyme that causes DNA to duplicate in cycles, and this is what a PCR test does to amplify a specific section of DNA.

The test looks for the virus’s genetic material in a fluid sample taken from the nose or throat passages.


Antibodies play an important role in the immune system by assisting in the detection and destruction of invading pathogens. Detecting antibodies in the blood is what an antibody test does.

The PCR test provides definitive results, allowing for the isolation of infected individuals to prevent the spread of the virus.

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Difference Between Information And Data

What is Data?

Data is a raw and unorganized fact that required to be processed to make it meaningful. Data can be simple at the same time unorganized unless it is organized. Generally, data comprises facts, observations, perceptions numbers, characters, symbols, image, etc.

Data is always interpreted, by a human or machine, to derive meaning. So, data is meaningless. Data contains numbers, statements, and characters in a raw form.

What is Information?

Information is a set of data which is processed in a meaningful way according to the given requirement. Information is processed, structured, or presented in a given context to make it meaningful and useful.

It is processed data which includes data that possess context, relevance, and purpose. It also involves manipulation of raw data.

Information assigns meaning and improves the reliability of the data. It helps to ensure undesirability and reduces uncertainty. So, when the data is transformed into information, it never has any useless details.


Data is a raw and unorganized fact that is required to be processed to make it meaningful whereas Information is a set of data that is processed in a meaningful way according to the given requirement.

Data does not have any specific purpose whereas Information carries a meaning that has been assigned by interpreting data.

Data alone has no significance while Information is significant by itself.

Data never depends on Information while Information is dependent on Data.

Data measured in bits and bytes, on the other hand, Information is measured in meaningful units like time, quantity, etc.

Data can be structured, tabular data, graph, data tree whereas Information is language, ideas, and thoughts based on the given data.

Data Vs. Information

Parameters Data Information

Description Qualitative Or QuantitativeVariables which helps to develop ideas or conclusions. It is a group of data which carries news and meaning.

Etymology Data comes from a Latin word, datum, which means “To give something.” Over a time “data” has become the plural of datum. Information word has old French and middle English origins. It has referred to the “act of informing.”. It is mostly used for education or other known communication.

Format Data is in the form of numbers, letters, or a set of characters. Ideas and inferences

Represented in It can be structured, tabular data, graph, data tree, etc. Language, ideas, andthoughts based on the given data.

Meaning Data does not have any specific purpose. It carries meaning that has been assigned by interpreting data.

Interrelation Information that is collected Information that is processed.

Feature Data is a single unit and is raw. It alone doesn’t have any meaning. Information is the product and group of data which jointly carry a logical meaning.

Dependence It never depends on Information It depended on Data.

Measuring unit Measured in bits and bytes. Measured in meaningful units like time, quantity, etc.

Support for Decision making It can’t be used for decision making It is widely used for decision making.

Contains Unprocessed raw factors Processed in a meaningful way

Knowledge level It is low-level knowledge. It is the second level of knowledge.

Characteristic Data is the property of an organization and is not available for sale to the public. Information is available for sale to the public.

Dependency Data depends upon the sources for collecting data. Information depends upon data.

Example Ticket sales on a band on tour. Sales report by region and venue. It gives information which venue is profitable for that business.

Significance Data alone has no signifiance. Information is significant by itself.

Meaning Data is based on records and observations and, which are stored in computers or remembered by a person. Information is considered more reliable than data. It helps the researcher to conduct a proper analysis.

Usefulness The data collected by the researcher, may or may not be useful. Information is useful and valuable as it is readily available to the researcher for use.

Dependency Data is never designed to the specific need of the user. Information is always specific to the requirements and expectations because all the irrelevant facts and figures are removed, during the transformation process.

DIKW (Data Information Knowledge Wisdom)

DIKW is the model used for discussion of data, information, knowledge, wisdom and their interrelationships. It represents structural or functional relationships between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom.


Difference Between Bacon And Ham

One key distinction between bacon and ham is the source of the meat. Many cultures rely heavily on pig farming as a primary means of animal protein production. Many people are thrown off by the fact that it is referred to as “pig flesh” in several distinct contexts. You can get ham and bacon. Pork is also available. Both gammon and muscle are present. In reality, there are dozens of distinct names for various pieces of meat from the same animal, and as bacon and ham tend to be the most perplexing, we’ll focus on those here.

To begin, pork is the most used term worldwide for pig flesh. But how exactly does pork end up as bacon or ham? Well, let’s find out.

What is Bacon?

Bacon originates from the side of the pig that remains after the head and feet have been removed. But it doesn’t happen until after the meat has been cured for quite some time. The cut of flesh from the hog loin is also used to produce bacon. Bacon is commonly made from pig bellies in the United States. Because of this, bacon from the United States and Canada is commonly referred to as “American style” “fatty” or “streaky” bacon outside of these countries. This is because pig belly is solely used in the United States and Canada to make bacon.

Green bacon is the name given to the hog leg after it has been salted and left out for a long time. In the south of England, this cured beef is smoked at low heat using oak wood. The leg−wrapped version of this bacon is known as gammon, whereas pork loin is used to make traditional back bacon.

To prepare bacon for consumption, it is often fried. They crisp up well, and bacon is a popular snack. They are a staple of the Western morning. Bacon can be prepared in a variety of ways, including boiling, smoking, and grilling.

What is Ham?

Ham is cut from the upper thigh, buttock, or the area where the thigh meets the knee. According to etymologists, the term “ham” originates from the verb “hom,” which means “to bend the knee.” Ham can be wet−cured or dry−cured. Cured refers to the several methods used to prolong the shelf life of foods such as meat, fish, and produce. Ham can be wet−cured or dry−cured. Meat is “dry cured” by rubbing it with a mixture including salt and several additional substances. After that, the meat is dried and aged for some time. Wet−cured beef is either submerged in brine or given an injection of the brine mixture.

Ham is commonly used to make sandwiches and other snacks. There’s no way you haven’t heard of a ham sandwich before. Ham slices are used to fill the space between the bread in these. Ham is also a popular topping for pizza and other pies.

Differences: Bacon and Ham

The following table highlights how Bacon is different from Ham −

Characteristics Bacon Ham

Cut of the meat Bacon is cured pork flesh, often cut from the ribs or rear of the pig. The pig belly is also used to create bacon in the United States. Ham is cut from the upper thigh, buttock, or the area where the thigh meets the knee.

Preparation Bacon is often smoked after being cured. Ham can be dry cured or wet cured, depending on the method used.

Eating Some common methods of eating bacon include frying, smoking, boiling, and grilling. The typical method of consuming ham is slicing it.

Taste The bacon’s crispiness is what makes it so delicious. Comparatively, ham has more moisture than bacon.

Shape Bacon is available in paper−thin slices. You may also eat ham by slicing it very thinly.


Bacon and ham are both generic terms for pig flesh, and the designation “bacon” or “ham” depends on which portion of the pig the meat was originally taken. Bacon and ham are two of the most popular cuts of pork among meat eaters. In addition, bacon from both is commonly consumed with toast and eggs for breakfast. Ham is a popular sandwich filler and pizza topping substitute. Many people enjoy eating both of them because of their high quality and popularity.

Difference Between Anonymity And Confidentiality

Humans go through different stages in their personal and professional lives during which they undergo situations or experiences after which privacy and information security becomes a vital requirement for them. For example, a person approaching someone from the medical profession would much appreciate his medical data remain protected from others so that he/she doesn’t face discrimination at home or work.

Similarly, a company tasked with conducting surveys and running research activities is obliged to maintain strong anonymity and confidentiality measures in regard to their survey pool. In some sectors– such as medicine, religion, and politics, to mention a few—many participants deciding to participate in studies, experiments, or public outreach initiatives may choose to remain anonymous for various reasons.

Confidentiality, anonymity, and other forms of privacy protection can help with this concern. However, before we move on, there’s a need to know the difference between these two terms, “confidentiality” and “anonymity”, because these two are some of the most widely confused terms in the world of data privacy. As a student or user of data privacy, it’s important for readers to build a clear understanding of difference between these two terms before you participate in any such surveys or employ such services.

What is Anonymity?

This is a situation in which the researchers do not collect personally identifying information about the participants. When the statistics are aggregated, they should not include any personal information that may be used to reveal anyone’s identity. Although a person’s age is not a unique identifier on its own, it may be combined with other information to help pinpoint their location and identify the sort of research they participated in.

What is Confidentiality?

Confidentiality occurs when the collected data is kept secret from anybody other than the researchers or investigators who gathered it. Data are not supplied in a form that would permit respondents to be recognized, and unique identifiers are not made public. Data such as names, ages, addresses, and phone numbers can be collected from participants. Therefore, the researcher should take measures to protect the confidentiality of the material, including the use of passwords and encryption, as well as the secure locking of any physical copies.

Differences − Anonymity and Confidentiality

Both of these concepts are extremely significant in research and data collecting. The following table highlights how Anonymity is different from Confidentiality −

Characteristics Anonymity Confidentiality

Definition The term “anonymity” is used to describe situations in which participants’ names, addresses, phone numbers, identification numbers, emails, images, and other personally identifying characteristics are not collected by the researchers. “Confidentiality” describes a circumstance in which the collected data is kept secret from anybody other than the researchers and investigators involved in the study.

Participants identity Researchers maintain participant anonymity if they do not collect any information that might be used to identify them, such as names, addresses, phone numbers, identification numbers, email addresses, photographs, or any other information that may be used to identify them. Researchers and investigators are the only people who are privy to the information gathered from participants in a covert study. In addition, the information is not made public or presented in a way that may be used to track down the individuals who provided their responses.

Type of research studies Identity concealment is standard procedure in quantitative research. The notion of confidentiality is often used in both qualitative and quantitative research.

Common use The anonymity feature is widely utilized in a variety of research settings, including interviews, content analysis, and online surveys. Confidentiality is commonly preserved when carrying out public activities, including conducting surveys, interviews, medical research, or even just talking to the general public.


Researchers must ensure that participants understand the importance of maintaining their anonymity and the confidentiality of their data. When participants are assured of their anonymity, researchers do not record any information that may be used to identify them, including their names, addresses, phone numbers, email addresses, or other identifying characteristics.

The term “confidentiality” is used to describe when the obtained data is shielded from view by any other parties other than the researchers who gathered it. Separate from the idea of anonymity is the idea of confidentiality.

Difference Between Kw And Kva

In any electric circuit (AC or DC), the electric power is one of the major electrical quantity. The electrical power is broadly classified into three types namely active power, reactive power and apparent power.

These three types of electric powers are measured in different units. Where, the active power is measured in Watts (W), the reactive power is measured in Volt Ampere Reactive (VAR) and the apparent power is measured in Volt Ampere (VA). But in practice, these powers are measured in larger units, i.e., kW (kilo-Watt), kVAR (kilo Volt Ampere Reactive), and kVA (kilo Volt Ampere).

Read through this article to understand how kW is different from kVA. Let’s start with some basics of kW and kVA, the relation between kW and kVA, so that it becomes easier to understand the differences between them.

What is kW?

kW is short for kilo Watt. It is the unit of measurement of active power or real power or true power. kW gives the measure of how much average power an electrical device consumes. 1 kW of electric power is equivalent to 1000 watts. Thus, kW can be converted into Watt simply by multiplying the numerical value in kW by 1000, i.e.


In DC circuit, the Watt or kW is used to measure the average DC power, whereas in an AC circuit, it is used to measure the active or real part of the total AC electric power.

kW is the unit of power which is used to define the load type electrical devices such as motors, lamps, irons, heaters, etc.

What is kVA?

kVA stands for kilo Volt Ampere. kVA is the unit of measurement of apparent electric power in the AC circuit. kVA is a large unit of apparent power, its base unit is VA (Volt Ampere). kVA is the term which is related to AC circuit only. There is no such thing in a DC circuit, because in a DC circuit, the total power is measured in watts or kW.

Just like kW, kVA may also be converted into VA by multiplying it by 1000, i.e.

$$mathrm{1:kVA:=:1:times:1000:VA:= :1000:VA}$$

Generally, kVA is used to represent the rating of such electrical devices that act as source such as alternators, generators, transformers, inverters, etc.

Difference between kW and KVA

Both kW and kVA are the units of measurement of electrical power, but they are different from each other. The major differences between kW and kVA are given in the following table −

Basis of Difference kW kVA

kW stands for kilo-Watt. kVA stands for kilo Volt Ampere.

Description The kW is the unit of measurement of average power in DC circuit and active (or real) power in AC circuits. kVA is the unit of apparent power in AC circuits.

Relevant circuit kW is term related to both AC and DC circuits. kVA is only relevant in AC circuits. It is not used in DC circuits.

What it is? kW is the measure of active power consumed by an electrical load. kVA is the measure of total power delivered by a source (ex. generator) to the load.

Dependency on power factor kW is directly proportional to the load power factor. kVA is independent of the power factor of load.

Expression kW is given by the following expression, $$mathrm{kW:=:1000:times:V:times:A:times:pf}$$ kVA is given by the following expression, $$mathrm{kVA:= :1000:times:V:times:A}$$

Uses kW is used to represent the ratings of electrical load devices such as electric motors, electric heaters, iron, lamps, etc. kVA is used to represent the rating of electrical source devices such as generators, alternators, inverters, UPS, etc.


The most significant difference that you should note here is that kW represents the amount of electric power consumed by an electric load, whereas kVA represents the total amount of power supplied by a source to an electrical load.

Difference Between Bronchitis And Bronchiectasis

Bronchitis and bronchiectasis are two respiratory disorders that affect the airways, particularly the bronchi, which are the tubes that carry air into the lungs. Although both conditions share some similarities, they differ in their causes, symptoms, and treatments. In this essay, we will discuss the difference between bronchitis and bronchiectasis in detail.

What is Bronchitis?

Bronchitis is a common respiratory disorder that occurs when the bronchial tubes become inflamed and produce excess mucus. There are two types of bronchitis: acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis. Acute bronchitis is usually caused by a viral infection and is characterized by a sudden onset of cough, chest congestion, and difficulty breathing. The symptoms of acute bronchitis usually last for a few days to a week and can be managed with over-the-counter medications and plenty of fluids.

Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that is caused by smoking, air pollution, or other irritants. It is characterized by a persistent cough that produces sputum and can last for several months. Chronic bronchitis can lead to complications such as respiratory failure and pneumonia if left untreated.

Symptoms − Bronchitis typically begins with a cough that eventually may produce sputum. There is also often a pain in the chest and a feeling of tightness and dyspnea is often present. The breathing passages are often very congested. In addition, the condition usually lasts for over a week and may even take up to 21 days for a person to fully recover from.

Diagnosis and causes − A clinician can diagnose bronchitis in a person by doing a physical exam and noting the symptoms. Listening to the chest and also doing a chest X-ray may be helpful in ruling out other possible causes of the chest problems. Most often the condition is the result of a viral infection particularly associated with influenza type A and B, and rhinovirus. There are other viruses that can lead to bronchitis, including the parainfluenza and coronavirus. Environmental factors such as smoking can result in bronchitis as can having the illness cystic fibrosis.

What is Bronchiectasis?

Symptoms − Having a cough that will not go away and also coughing up pus-filled sputum are symptoms of bronchiectasis. Some patients may also experience difficulty breathing and have a fever.

Diagnosis and causes − A physical exam in conjunction with CT scans can help in diagnosing bronchiectasis in a patient. It is important that the scans are done at a high resolution in order to detect the condition. The condition may occur in one or a few spots in the lungs or throughout the lungs. The illness can be caused by allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, cystic fibrosis, and problems with the cilia and disease of the connective tissues. In some cases of focal bronchiectasis, the cause is thought to be pneumonia.

Differences: Bronchitis and Bronchiectasis

The treatment for bronchitis usually involves relieving the symptoms with over-the-counter medications, rest, and plenty of fluids. Antibiotics may be prescribed if the bronchitis is caused by a bacterial infection. In the case of chronic bronchitis, quitting smoking and avoiding irritants is crucial to prevent further damage to the airways.

Bronchiectasis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that requires ongoing treatment to manage the symptoms and prevent complications. This treatment may include antibiotics, bronchodilators, and pulmonary rehabilitation.

The following table highlights the major differences between Bronchitis and Bronchiectasis −





Bronchitis is the disorder in which the tracheal passage and bronchi become inflamed.

Bronchiectasis is the disorder in which bronchi in the lungs widen and become destroyed.

Permanent change


The earliest symptom of bronchitis is usually a cough, which may or may not result in sputum being produced. The chest is also painful and feels tight and there is difficulty in breathing (dyspnea).

The bronchiectasis often has symptoms of dyspnea, a chronic cough, and production of sputum which is full of pus.


The diagnosis of bronchitis is usually by physical examination and a chest X-ray.

The diagnosis of bronchiectasis is done by looking at a high-resolution CT scan of the chest


Bronchitis can be caused by smoking and from viral infections such as those caused by influenza A or B, parainfluenza or coronavirus.

Bronchiectasis can be caused by bacterial infections such as pneumonia, and chronic infections such as cystic fibrosis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosus, and HIV.

Risk factors

Cigarette smoking, having the flu, various viruses, and cystic fibrosis are risk factors for developing bronchitis.

Having cystic fibrosis, HIV, or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosus are risk factors for developing bronchiectasis.


In conclusion, bronchitis and bronchiectasis are two respiratory disorders that affect the bronchial tubes. While they share some similarities in their symptoms, they differ in their causes and treatments.

Bronchitis is usually a short-term condition that can be managed with rest and over-the-counter medications, while bronchiectasis is a long-term condition that requires ongoing treatment to manage the symptoms and prevent complications. It is important to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan for either condition.

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