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MATLAB is a technical computing language. MATLAB gets its popularity from providing an easy environment for performing and integrating computing tasks, visualizing & programming.

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Uses of MATLAB include (but not limited to)

Computation

Simulation

Modeling

Data analytics (Analysing and Visualizing data)

Prototyping

Application development

Engineering & Scientific graphics

Linspace Function in MATLABIn this article, we will understand a very useful function of MATLAB called ‘linspace’. This function will generate a vector of values linearly spaced between two endpoints. It will need two inputs for the endpoints and an optional input to specify the number of points to include in the two endpoints.

X = linspace(a1, a2)

Now let us understand this one by one

1. X=linspace(a1,a2)This function will return a row of a vector of 100(default) linearly spaced points between a1 and a2

a1 and a2 can be real or complex

a2 can be either larger or smaller than a1

If a2 is smaller than a1 then the vector contains descending values

Here is an example to understand this:

Example #1X = linspace(-1, 1)

It will generate a vector of 100 evenly spaced vectors for the interval [-1, 1]

Output:

Example #2X = linspace(2, 3)

It will generate a vector of 100 evenly spaced vectors for the interval [2,3]

Output:

Example #3X = linspace(2, 1)

Here a2 is smaller than a1, it will generate a vector of 100 evenly spaced vectors for the interval [2,1] in descending order

Output:

2. X=linspace(a1,a2,n)This function will return a row of a vector of “n” points as specified in input for linearly spaced points between a1 and a2. This function gives control of the number of points and will always include the endpoints specified in the input as well.

If n is 1, the function will return a2 as output

If n is zero or negative, the function will return 1by0 empty matrix

Here is an example to understand this:

Example #1X = linspace(-1, 1, 7 )

It will generate a vector of 7 evenly spaced vectors for the interval [-1, 1]

Output:

Example #2X = linspace(2,3,5)

It will generate a vector of 5 evenly spaced vectors for the interval [2,3]

Output:

Example #3X = linspace(2, 3, 1)

Here n = 1, so the function will return a2 input parameter

Output:

Example #4Here n = 0, so function will return 1X0 empty double row vector

Output:

Vector of evenly spaced Complex numbersX = linspace(2+2i, 3+3i)

Here a1 and a2 are complex numbers, it will generate a vector of complex numbers for 100 evenly spaced points for the interval [2+21, 3+3i]

Output:

X= linspace(1+1i, 5+5i, 4)

It will generate a vector of complex numbers with 4 evenly spaced point for the interval [1+1i, 5+5i]

Output:

The linspace function in MATLAB provides us with an array/matrix comprising the desired number of values starting from and ending at a declared value. The produced array will have exactly the desired number of terms which will be evenly spaced. The values will be in the range of start and end values passed. So, the linspace function will help us in creating an instantiated matrix or array.

Recommended ArticlesThis is a guide to Linspace MATLAB. Here we discuss the introduction, Linspace Function in MATLAB and Vector of evenly spaced Complex numbers with examples and outputs. You can also go through our other suggested articles to learn more–

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## How Autocorrelation Function Works In Matlab?

Definition of Matlab Autocorrelation

In Matlab, Autocorrelation function means a correlation between numbers in a set or series with other numbers in the same set or series separated by provided time interval. Autocorrelation is also called a serial correlation because it correlates numbers with a delayed copy of itself set or series. Autocorrelation is used in signal processing for analyzing a series of values like time-domain signals. Autocorrelation means the correlation between the observation at the current time spot and the observation at previous time spots. Autocorrelation is used to determine the terms used in the MA model. Autocorrelation is used to measure the relation between the elements’ current value and past values of the same element.

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How does Autocorrelation Function work in Matlab?Autocorrelation measures the relation between elements’ current value and past values of the same element. There are the following steps of autocorrelation function to work in Matlab: –

Step 1: Load and read all the data from the file.

Step 2: Assign all data to a variable.

Step 3: Then, use the appropriate syntax of the ‘Matlab Autocorrelation’ function.

Step 4: then execute the code.

Examples of Matlab AutocorrelationLets us discuss the examples of Matlab Autocorrelation.

Example #1In this example, we calculate the autocorrelation of random Gaussian noise in Matlab. We know that autocorrelation means matching signals with the delayed version itself. Now for random Gaussian noise, only when shift= 0 is there some autocorrelation value, and for all other cases, the autocorrelation result will be zero. Now first, we will generate random Gaussian noise in Matlab. For generating random Gaussian noise, we will use randn function in Matlab. “x= randn(1, length(t))” generates length t Gaussian sequence with mean 0 and variance 1. After that, we use the subplot and plot function to plot the random Gaussian noise signal. Here we will use the Matlab autocorrelation function to calculate the autocorrelation of random Gaussian noise in Matlab.“autocorr(x)” this syntax is used for calculating the autocorrelation of random Gaussian noise. Then subplot and plot function is used for plotting the autocorrelation of random Gaussian noise. To calculate the autocorrelation of a random Gaussian signal, execute the Matlab code.

Code :

Output:

Example #2In this example, we can see how we can find the periodicity of the signal using the function. So let’s first load the data. Here we use office temperature for data. This is, by default, available in Matlab. Once we load the data, we plot the data. We use a plot function to plot the data. After the plotting data, we will find the temperature oscillates. So we take the normal temperature by using mean temperature. “normal_temp= temp -mean(temp)” ones we subtract mean temperature from temperature, we get the normal temperature. After that, we will plot the normal temperature using the plot function. so we get normal temperatures varying around zero. Now we will set sampling ‘fs’ as 24. Then we are going to create a time vector t. The t will start from 0 and go up to the length of the normal temperature. Then we use Matlab autocorrelation to find the periodicity of the signal. Then we use above syntax “[autocor, lags]= xcorr (normal_temp,3*7*fs,’coeff’)”. Here ‘autocor’ variable stores the autocorrelation matrix, and ‘lags’ this variable stores the lags between the data. ‘xcorr’ correlates between normal temperature and sampling frequency. Then we plot the data that lag/fs, and autocor plot the autocorrelation of the signal.

Code:

plot(lags/fs,autocor);

Output:

Example #3In this example, we calculate the autocorrelation of the input sine signal. Now we load the signal in variable ‘x.’ “x= sin(2*t)” is used to get the sine signal in Matlab. After that, we use the subplot and plot function to plot the sine signal. Here we will use the function to calculate the autocorrelation of random Gaussian noise in Matlab.“autocorr(x)” this syntax is used for calculating the autocorrelation of sine signal. Then subplot and plot function is used for plotting the autocorrelation of the sine signal.

Code:

autocorr(x)

Output:

ConclusionIn this article, we saw the concept of Matlab autocorrelation. Basically, this function is used to measure the relation between elements’ current values and past values of the same element. Then we saw how we could find the periodicity of the signal using this function and the efficient work of the Matlab autocorrelation function.

Recommended ArticlesThis is a guide to Matlab Autocorrelation. Here we discuss the definition, How Autocorrelation Function works in Matlab, along with code implementation. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

## How Parents() Function Works With Examples

Introduction to jQuery parents

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Syntax:

$(selector ).parents(filter_expr)Or

$(selector).parents()In the above-given syntax, the jQuery parents() function is applied on a particular element. It is a selector tag where all ancestors are returned when this parent () function is applied to this selector tag. This function does not take any parameters, but still, it is considered optional.

selector: In this, the selector is nothing, but it is an HTML element or tag of which we want the element’s ancestors or grandparent element to be returned.

filter_expr: This is an optional parameter in this function for specifying the selector tag expression to look upwards in the DOM tree for searching with all this selector’s ancestors.

How parents() Function Works with Examples

In jQuery, the parents() function is a built-in function for displaying all the ancestors of the selected HTML tag for which this function needs to be applied. The working of this function is very simple Firstly, it will check for the specified selector tag, followed by the period (dot) operator and the parents() method to this selector tag. This function will traverse the entire DOM tree, where this tree is the representation of elements of the jQuery object.

Therefore parents() function traverses this DOM tree in the upward direction to search all the element’s ancestors such as grandparent element, great grandparent element, etc. are all displayed, which means this function parent () returns all the ancestor elements of the particular selected or matched HTML tag that is specified before the function declaration, and this particular specified selector optionally filters it. This function returns the element set in reverse order for the given multiple DOM having the original set, and the duplicate elements are removed and displayed.

Example #1Code:

.parents_func_body* { display: block; border: 2px solid red; color: red; padding: 5px; margin: 15px; } <script $(document).ready(function() { $(“p”).parents().css({ “color”: “blue”, “border”: “2px solid red” }); });

Output:

In the above example, we have first made the document ready for the web page to be displayed according to the given function in the above code. In this, we are using the .ready() function for making the document ready. Then we specify the parents() function in which “p” the paragraph tag as a selector for this function, which means this function returns all the ancestor elements of the element “P” in the above code. Finally, we are applying the .css() function to properly display each element with described properties. This logic is defined or declared within the script tag, which is within the head tag.

Example #2Now let us see another example for demonstrating the parents() function in which we are passing the optional parameters as some other HTML elements or selectors.

Code:

.main *{ border: 2px solid red; padding: 10px; margin: 10px; } function parents_func(){ $(document).ready(function(){ $(“p”).parents(“li, h2”).css({ “border”: “3px dashed blue”}); }); }

Conclusion – jQuery parentsIn this article, we conclude that the parents() function in jQuery is very simple and is used to search or traverse the DOM tree, which consists of various elements to find out the parent element to help any developer to easily correct or upgrade any details. Similar to this parent () function, which returns all its ancestors elements of any selected element, even the parent() function also returns the direct parent element but not all the ancestors elements.

Recommended ArticlesThis is a guide to jQuery parents. Here we discuss the introduction and how parents() function works with examples, respectively. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

## How Does Pop Function Work In Perl With Examples

Introduction to Perl pop

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Syntax:

The Perl script uses some data structure concepts like push and pop. It is mainly used for manipulates the data, and it reduces the memory to perform the operations quickly. The pop() functionality have to remove the last element from the array or any other data structures in the memory.

@var =(' '); print pop(@var); ----some perl script codes depends upon the user requirement the perl functions will be called and used in the file---The above codes are the basic syntax for the pop() function used in the Perl script; the user input values are popped out on the data structures.

How does the pop Function work in Perl?

The Perl script uses some default functions, keywords, variables for creating the sophisticated applications. Likewise, we use some data structures concepts like an array, stack, queue, push, pop, shift etc., for securing the datas as well as reduce the data usages in the memory location. Perl array uses a pop() function for removing the last element of the array; it also pointed out the stack in data collections and structure concepts. It also used for to remove as well as return or pop the last element from the array.

This is meant by to reduce the number of elements in the array. Generally, the last stage or position of the element is the highest level of the index is generated automatically in the stack memory. Also, the pop() function of the elements are chopped off the elements from the right side positions of the array list, and it will return the element as soon as to reduce the element size automatically with one by one in the memory. The array elements are also thought of as the stack for the numbered boxes that are top to bottom, and increasing the element size goes down so that the bottom of the stack memory is popped out in the memory.

Examples of Perl popGiven below are the examples of Perl pop:

Example #1Code:

#!/usr/bin/perl -w @var = (7654,3876,2736,91237,237,9273,36483,12973,2739,918723,9273,8263,912873,9812732,973924,192873184,9210838,91723,90238,921838); print("Welcome To My Domain", pop(@var), "After using the pop() function in the script it return the value as recently removed in the list",@var, "n")Output:

In the above example, we used a basic variable like @var to initialise the values; it will be lengthy to store them in the array. So each value has a separate reference, and it holds the reference to the stack memory location because when we removed the particular element in the stack, it also holds the reference keep on the memory so the memory loss will be occurred due to avoid the memory leaks and consumption it removes in the memory. If we use the pop() function, it removes the last element in the array that is left to right position; the last position of the element is 921838 it will be removed in the stack memory.

Example #2Code:

use strict; use warnings; my @var = qw(+ - * / %); pop @var; print "Welcome To My Domain its the first pop() function used in the stack memory n n @varn"; print "After Inserting the aboev two operators in the stack memory the variable and the array size is shown n n @var n"; my @var1 = qw(74 dg dgh wehf whewf jh e wiejh eih eihrf 3748 jh48 hef 4897y jhef 4 9y8 hr 9 4 herfu9 jkd jdeij iejhfb wefih); pop (@var1); unshift @var1, 'Have a Nice Day User'; print "After using the unshift() function in the pop() functionality the stack memory of the varaible is shown n [email protected]n"; my @demo = ('1'..'100'); unshift(@demo, pop(@demo)); print "We compared the unshift() functionality in the pop() function the result is: n n@@demo = @@demon";Output:

In the second example, we used some different functions like unshift and push() in pop() functionality. After removing the last element in the stack, the memory reference of the particular value has also been empty. It is in null space, so it will be occupied with the other elements by using the push() operation; it will be inserted in the array list. When we use unshift() function, we can call the pop() function and the user input variable to compare the two functionality in the script. Here we used 1..100 in the variable @demo; it will be called in the unshift(@demo, pop(@demo)) method for comparing the same variable values for the different purposes.

Example #3 use strict; use warnings; print "Welcome User after using the split() function in pop() out the result is: n $varn"; my $var1 = ['55gtg', 'fu', 'erhgfb', 'jwehg', 'jehwgfvj']; pop @$var1; print "Have a Nice day user after popped out the elements from the array list is: @{$var1}n"Output:

ConclusionIn concluded part, the Perl script used a lot of default methods with their properties in the application. Likewise, pop() is one of the pretty functionality for the data structure using the Perl script. Using these functions, we will remove the last element from the data structure and reduce the memory.

Recommended ArticlesThis is a guide to Perl pop. Here we discuss the introduction; how does pop function work in Perl? and examples, respectively. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

## Syntax And Different Examples Of Jquery Val()

Introduction to jQuery val()

JQuery Val() is a type of method used for the operations related to the values of the elements in an HTML based web page. The two operations where this method can be used are to set the value for a given element or to get the value for a given element. One can also used an already defined and declared function to fetch the element property, for which the val() method can be used to set or get the values. The syntax for this method is ‘$(selector).val()’, where val will have the value as a parameter and sometimes the function details wherever applicable.

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Syntax:

$(selector).val() $(selector).val( value )This method is used to set the value of a selected element.

$(selector).val( function ( index, currvalue ) )This method is used to set the value of a selected element by using a function.

Parameters:

Value: The value parameter is not an optional parameter, which is used to specify the set value of the attribute.

function ( index, currvalue ): Function ( index, currvalue ) parameter is an optional parameter, which is used to specify the name of a function to execute and return the set value of the attribute.

Examples for the jQuery val()Below given are the examples of jQuery val():

Example #1 – Without ParametersNext, we write the html code to understand the jQuery val ( ) method more clearly with the following example where we set the value attribute of the second and third input element with the value content of the first input element –

Code:

$(document).ready(function() { var cont = $(“input”).val(); $(“input”).val( cont ); });

Output:

Example #2 – Single Select BoxesNext example code where this method is used to get the form’s elements values. The jQuery val( ) method doesn’t accept any arguments and returns an array containing the value of each selected options in a list else returns a NULL value if no option is selected, as in the below code –

Code:

b { color: red; } p { background-color: yellow; margin: 10px; } function fruitdisplayVals() { var fruitValues = $( “#fruit” ).val(); } $( “select” ).change( fruitdisplayVals ); fruitdisplayVals();

Output:

Example #3 – jQuery val() Method with Single and Multiple Select BoxesIn the next example code, we rewrite the above code for jQuery val() method with single and multiple select boxes –

Code:

b { color: red; } p { background-color: yellow; margin: 4px; } function fruitdisplayVals() { var fruitValues = $( “#fruit” ).val(); } $( “select” ).change( fruitdisplayVals ); fruitdisplayVals();

Output:

Now we can select any single fruit option and multiple vegetable options, the output is –

Example #4 – jQuery val() Method with ParameterNext example code where the jQuery wrap( ) method accepts a string to set the value of each matched element. As shown in the below example –

Code:

$(document).ready(function(){ $(“input:text”).val(“Set Value”); }); });

Output:

Example #5 – jQuery val() Method with Function as ParameterThis method accepts a function as a parameter and sets the value of each matched element.

Code:

$(document).ready(function(){ $(“input:text”).val( function(n,c){ return c+”Set Value”; }); }); });

Output:

ConclusionThis method is used to get the value of the html element or to set the value of the html element. Syntax for this are –

$(selector).val( )

$(selector).val( value )

$(selector).val( function ( index, currvalue ) )

Value used to specify the set value of the attribute. function ( index, currvalue ) used to specify the name of a function to execute and return the set value of the attribute.

Recommended ArticlesThis has been a guide to jQuery val(). Here we discuss the syntax, parameters, and various examples of jQuery val(). You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

## How To Create Matlab Object? (Examples)

Introduction to Matlab Object

The MATLAB language uses many specialized objects. For example, Exception objects, timer objects, the serial object, and so on. MATLAB toolboxes are used to define objects to manage data and analyses performed by the toolbox. Objects provide specific functionality that is not easily available from general-purpose language components. Objects are used to inform when errors occur, to execute code at a certain time interval, to enables you to communicate with devices connected to your computer’s serial port, etc.

Syntax:

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Object_name = class_name;

How to Create Matlab Object?To create an object, first, we need to create a class, using ‘ classdef ’ we create a class, in class we take some properties and end the class and then we take methods some methods using function statements after all these lastly we end the class with an end statement. First, we save the class using the .m extension.

Now, take a new Matlab script and create an object using the same class name which we used to create a class. For creating the object we write syntax like:

Object_name = class_name;

Let’s consider a1 is an object name and BasicClass1 is a class name. In class, we create 1 property and 3 methods. After creating an object of class we can perform the several operations on a class by using that class object:-

For accessing the properties to assign the data.

To perform operations on data calling of the method.

We saw all the properties and their current values available in the class.

Examples to Implement Matlab ObjectLet see the first example, in this example first, we create one class, that class name is ‘BasicClass1 ’. In this class we take a property like value, the must be only the numbers. Then we take a method, basically, methods are nothing but operations that defined by the class. We create some operations and then we end the method also with an end statement. And then finally we end the BasicClass1 class with an end statement. In methods for operations, we use some functions. This code saves using the .m extension.

Code:

end

Example #1Let us see to create an object and how it’s used. In this example we can create an object with the respected class name in our example it’s ‘ BasicClass1 ’, we create objects namely ‘a1’. Initially the value of the property it’s empty. Then using objects we can access the properties of the class that’s nothing but the property is value. So we assign some number to the value property using a class object, and simply it can display it.

Code:

Output:

As we have seen in the command window the output was value = [ ] empty. Because the initial value of property is empty. Then we assign the number to property value and the number is pi (3.142) / 3 and displays it using the class object.

Example #2Let us see an example, for this example also we use the same class that’s ‘BasicClass1’. First, we simply create an object for the same class name that’s BasicClass1. Then we can assign the number to property value and display it. Then after we call the methods of that class by using the help of class object ‘a1’. We called the method name, the method name is ‘multiplyBy (obj1 , n1)’ multiplying operation by the given number in parenthesis we simply pass the argument and then display the result.

Code:

multiplyBy(a1,3)

Example #3Let us see an example, for this example also we use the same class that’s ‘BasicClass1’. First, we simply create an object for the same class name that’s BasicClass1. Then we can assign the number to property value and display it. Then after we call the methods of that class by using the help of class object ‘a1’. We called the method name, the method is ‘divideBy (obj1 , n1)’ divide operation by the given number in parenthesis we simply pass the argument and then display the result.

Code:

a1.divideBy( 2 )

Output:

ConclusionIn this article, we saw the concept of Matlab object. We understood the basic concept and different ways to use Matlab objects and what exactly is a Matlab object. And also we saw the syntax. Also first we saw how to declare or create a class on Matlab and then how to create a class object. And what operations we perform using that class object.

Recommended ArticlesThis is a guide to Matlab Object. Here we discuss the Introduction of Matlab Object and how to Create along with different Examples as well as its Code Implementation. You can also go through our suggested articles to learn more –

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