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This quick guide will give an overview of common standards and frameworks and their differences. 

To learn more about it, consider taking an ESG qualification with the Corporate Governance Institute. More info here. 

For starters, what are standards and frameworks?

They are sets of guiding principles for the crucial topic of ESG reporting. 

ESG reporting is the heart of the movement because it’s how organisations communicate their progress in environmental, social or governance issues to stakeholders, particularly investors. 

If organisations can’t communicate this progress, any ESG-related work – no matter how strong – will not translate to verifiable results.

Why are standards and frameworks necessary?

They’re necessary because companies can’t just report on ESG in any way they choose. They need to do so in a way that makes sense and has context. Standards and frameworks address this need. 

The persistent problem is that we don’t yet have a universal ESG reporting standard or framework that’s used worldwide. 

Because of that, industries have fallen back towards several widely-used standards as a substitute.

What’s the difference between ESG reporting frameworks and standards?

Specificity. 

ESG reporting

frameworks

are more about principles. This focus on the bigger questions, such as how information is structured, what information is collected, etc.  

ESG reporting

standards

are more

technical. They give specific requirements, like precise metrics for reporting each topic. 

Remember that standards and frameworks should be used together. The former gives context and quantifiable objectives to the latter. 

Ultimately, the combination ensures that if you look at reports from multiple organisations side by side, they will make sense as individual documents and when compared against each other.

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What are some common ESG reporting frameworks?

The

Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures (TCFD)

framework. As the name suggests, it focuses on climate – or the “E” component of ESG. 

The

International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC)

framework – developed to promote integration across all kinds of ESG reporting. 

The

Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)

framework is a “catch-all” framework that tries to broadly capture multiple corners of ESG. 

The

Climate Disclosure Standards Board (CDSB)

framework. Again, this focuses on the “E” in ESG and aims to standardise information connected to climate change.

What are some common ESG reporting standards?

The

European Financial Reporting Advisory Group (EFRAG)

standards. EFRAG was established by the European Commission and is closely tied to that body’s Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive (CSRD), passed in 2023. The standards focus on sustainability and financial matters. 

The

IFRS Sustainability Disclosure Standards,

spearheaded by the International Sustainability Standards Board (ISSB). These standards aim to streamline accounting reporting globally, increasing transparency in financial markets. 

The

Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB)

standards. These focus on all three pillars of ESG and are closely connected with the IFRS standards above.

In summary

ESG reporting frameworks provide guiding principles for ESG reporting, while standards give the tools to follow through on those principles. 

Both are important, and both should be used in tandem for full ESG transparency.

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Ethical Standards In India And Other Countries

An ethical standard regarding psychological research or practice varies greatly from country to country, depending on its existing legislation, culture, and the prevailing conditions of the particular field. In India, a clinical psychologist needs to be certified by the Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI), the governing body for mental health professionals in the country. Psychiatry and practitioners in neuroscience are regulated by the Medical Council of India (MCI). Some ethical standards and their legal implementations are discussed in the following text.

What are Ethical Standards?

Ethical standards in science refer to the principles and values that guide scientific research and experimentation. These standards are intended to ensure that scientific research is conducted fairly, responsibly, and transparently and that the rights and well-being of research participants, animals, and the environment are respected. Some of the key ethical standards in science include −

These ethical standards are intended to guide scientists and researchers and are often incorporated into institutional review boards, national laws and regulations, and professional guidelines.

The Need for Culture-Specific Ethical Standards

The need for culture-specific ethical standards arises because different cultures have different values, beliefs, and norms that shape how people think and behave. It is important for professionals working in different cultures to be aware of these cultural differences and to adapt ethical standards accordingly to ensure that services and research are provided in a fair, responsible, and transparent manner and that the rights and well-being of individuals are respected.

Ethical Standards in India

India has several laws and regulations to ensure that scientific research is conducted fairly, responsibly, and transparently. A governing body in India does not strictly regulate psychotherapy. However, psychiatry and neurology are much more established fields under the restrictions of the Medicine Council of India, among other governing bodies. Some restrictions are elaborated on in the following section.

One of the key laws in India that relate to ethics in science is the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Participants. These guidelines provide a framework for the ethical conduct of biomedical research involving human participants.

They include provisions for obtaining informed consent, protecting the rights and welfare of participants, and ensuring the confidentiality of personal information. The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) and the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) also have guidelines on science ethics. The DBT guidelines focus on ethical issues related to the use of animals in scientific research. In contrast, the CSIR guidelines guide issues related to the responsible use of biotechnology.

Ethical Standards in the USA

The ethical standards in psychological science in the USA are established by the American Psychological Association (APA). They are intended to guide psychologists and other mental health professionals in their practice. These standards are based on the APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, which is regularly reviewed and updated to reflect the latest developments in the field.

Some of the key ethical standards in psychological science in the USA include −

Informed consent − Psychologists must obtain informed consent from clients before providing any treatment or services.

Confidentiality − Psychologists must protect the confidentiality of client information, except in cases where there is a legal or ethical reason to disclose it.

Beneficence and non-maleficence − Psychologists must strive to do good and minimize harm in their practice.

Professional competence − Psychologists must maintain professional competence and continuously update their knowledge and skills.

Cultural competence − Psychologists must be aware of their client’s cultural and diverse contexts and respect their values and beliefs.

Responsible research − Psychologists must conduct research responsibly and ethically, ensuring the protection of human subjects and respect for their rights and welfare.

By adhering to these ethical standards, psychologists and other mental health professionals in the USA can ensure that their practice is fair, responsible, and transparent and that clients’ rights and well-being are respected.

Ethical Standards in Europe

It is crucial to look into the development of research ethics in order to get a thorough understanding of the subject. Though research ethics is best developed in medicine, broad guidelines hold for all types of research. A sociological study needs informed permission and confidentiality just as much as a clinical study.

A declaration on research ethics was adopted in 1964 in Helsinki, Finland, by the World Medical Association, founded in Paris in 1947 in response to the ethical violations exposed during the Nuremberg trials. The Helsinki Declaration has undergone multiple revisions since then, but its basic points and objectives have not changed.

The Declaration of Helsinki outlines ethical guidelines for medical research involving identifiable human beings, including data and material. The declaration’s fundamental tenet is that, in any study, the welfare of the individual research subject must come before any other interests.

The proclamation lays out guidelines for conducting medical research and additional guidelines for combining medical research with medical treatment. Although medical research is the environment in which research ethics has progressed the most, research ethics are essential for all scientific fields. Professional and academic organizations frequently offer guidelines and ethics rules tailored to their study fields’ particulars.

Human rights and research ethics have a close relationship. Significant overlaps exist, and both fields have an impact on one another. The Oviedo Convention, adopted by the Ministers of the Council of Europe in 1996, illustrates this. This convention establishes uniform criteria for all Council of Europe members and is intended to address the ethical challenges generated by research within the context of defending human rights.

Additional protocols offer guidelines for more specialized sorts of study, whereas the convention lays out the broad underlying concepts. These values include the importance of a person’s well-being and interests, informed consent, and privacy.

The Oviedo Convention also establishes guidelines for using human genome data and human embryo research. The Additional Protocol Concerning Biomedical Research, which was signed by the majority of Council of Europe members but was only ratified by a small number of them, confirms the fundamental ideas and offers more detailed guidelines for the function of ethics committees in research, the requirements for sufficient informed consent, confidentiality, and the right to information.

The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights by UNESCO and the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) are two additional significant international declarations and conventions.

The clear European commitment to human rights is the foundation for research ethics under the European regulatory framework. Respect for human rights, firmly established in the treaties13, is essential for all areas of European policy. The European Union passed its human rights law, the European Charter of Fundamental Rights, to further solidify this commitment.

The Charter of Fundamental Rights in Europe

Given that the European Union was established on a foundation of shared values outlined in the European Charter of Fundamental Rights, considering the ethical aspects of research activities has a special significance in the European legal system. A variety of personal, civil, political, economic, and social rights are recognized by the Charter. The creation of a charter was given to a convention by the June 1999 European Council in Cologne.

The Lisbon Treaty declares that all European law must adhere to the principles of the Charter and incorporates the Charter into the Treaty on the European Union, giving it equal legal effect. This consequently holds for European research policy as well. Several principles in the European Charter of Fundamental Rights apply to research. The conduct of research is supported by these concepts, which also serve as the foundation for significant ethics guidelines.

Conclusion

Ethics in science is an important aspect of the scientific enterprise in India. The country has several laws and regulations to ensure that scientific research is conducted fairly, responsibly, and transparently. Adhering to these laws and guidelines helps to ensure that scientific research is conducted in a manner that respects the rights and well-being of all parties involved and promotes public trust in science.

Differences Between Sexual Orientation And Gender Identity

Sexual orientation and gender identity are two distinct but interrelated aspects of human sexuality. While sexual orientation refers to a person’s emotional, romantic, and sexual attraction to other people, gender identity refers to a person’s sense of their own gender, whether male, female, or non-binary. Despite their differences, both sexual orientation and gender identity are important components of a person’s identity and can impact how they interact with the world around them.

What is Gender Identity?

Gender identity refers to the gender that an individual personally identifies with and the manner in which they express their gender through behavior and personal appearance.

The process of understanding and expressing your gender identity begins at an early age. Often parents will assume the gender identity of their baby and make choices for their child regarding how they express their gender identity. For example, a female baby will often be dressed in pink clothing and given feminine toys to play with. However, once the child is old enough to express themselves, they may continue to express their gender accordingly or identify with another gender. Parents should be open to each of these possibilities.

Furthermore, there is an ever-growing list of gender identities that reflects the intersectional nature of gender identity and the cultural shift that allows various gender identities to be acknowledged in research, mainstream media and so forth.

It should be noted that hundreds of gender identities have developed as a result of people from all over the world expressing themselves in a variety of different ways.

Some of these gender identities include identifying as −

Transgender − A transgender person has a gender identity that differs from the sex they were assigned to at birth

Cis-gender − A cisgender person has a gender identity that matches their sex at birth.

Genderfluid − A genderfluid person interchangeably identifies as different genders.

Agender − An agender person does not identify with a gender at all. They can be considered genderless.

What is Sexual Orientation?

Sexual orientation refers to the gender in which an individual is physically, sexually and/or romantically attracted to. This can be understood as a person’s sexuality. It is often assumed that an individual is heterosexual. A heterosexual person is attracted to a member of the “opposite” sex. For example, a woman being attracted to a man and vice-versa. We cannot limit our understanding of sexual orientation to heterosexuality because it does not acknowledge the definitive existence of the various other sexual orientations.

There are multiple sexual orientations that have been extensively categorized according to the lived experience of people across the world.

A person’s sexual orientation could be −

Heterosexual − Sexual/ romantic attraction to someone of the opposite sex or gender

Homosexual − Sexual/ romantic attraction to someone of the same sex or gender

Bisexual − Sexual/romantic attraction to men and women

Asexual − No sexual/romantic attractions

Any other sexual orientation that suits their sexual practices.

An individual’s sex is either male, female or intersex. It is often determined by the appearance and function of their sexual anatomy. Contrary to popular belief, the sex of an individual does not determine their sexual orientation or gender identity.

A person can be born a male, identify as a man and be sexually attracted to men too. Furthermore, a person can be born female, identify as a man and be sexually attracted to females. There is no specific combination of gender identities and sexual orientations.

Differences: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

Sexual orientation is typically categorized into four main categories: heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, and asexual. Heterosexual individuals are attracted to members of the opposite sex, while homosexual individuals are attracted to members of the same sex. Bisexual individuals are attracted to both men and women, while asexual individuals experience little or no sexual attraction to others. Sexual orientation is often seen as a spectrum, with many people falling somewhere between these categories.

Gender identity, on the other hand, refers to a person’s sense of their own gender, which may or may not align with the sex they were assigned at birth. Gender identity is not necessarily tied to sexual orientation, and a person’s gender identity may not necessarily determine their sexual attraction. For example, a transgender woman may be attracted to men or women or both, just as a cisgender woman may be attracted to men or women or both.

Gender identity is often categorized into three main categories: male, female, and non-binary. While male and female gender identities are traditionally associated with biological sex, non-binary gender identities do not fit into the male/female binary. Non-binary individuals may identify as neither male nor female or as a combination of both.

It is important to note that sexual orientation and gender identity are not choices, but rather aspects of a person’s innate identity. Just as a person cannot choose their biological sex, they also cannot choose their sexual orientation or gender identity. Furthermore, both sexual orientation and gender identity are fluid and may change over time.

While sexual orientation and gender identity are distinct aspects of human sexuality, they are also interrelated. Discrimination based on sexual orientation often intersects with discrimination based on gender identity, as many people who identify as LGBTQ+ experience discrimination and harassment due to their sexual orientation and/or gender identity.

The following table highlights the major differences between Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity −

Characteristics

Sexual Orientation

Gender Identity

Associations

Associated to the sexuality of an individual. This encompasses their sexual practices.

Associated to the identity of an individual. This refers to the markers they use to define themselves as a person.

Feelings

Romantic or sexual feelings towards another person.

The feelings that one has about themselves and how they wish to understand and express their gender.

Expression

Usually expressed through one’s sexual desires and choices in a partner.

Usually expressed through behavioral choices that exist within the parameters of masculinity and femininity.

Misconceptions

Believing that sexual orientation is connected to your gender.

Believing that there are only two genders. One can either be a man or a woman.

Examples

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Asexual, Pansexual

Transgender, Cisgender, Agender

Conclusion

In conclusion, sexual orientation and gender identity are two distinct but interrelated aspects of human sexuality. Sexual orientation refers to a person’s emotional, romantic, and sexual attraction to others, while gender identity refers to a person’s sense of their own gender.

While both sexual orientation and gender identity are important components of a person’s identity, they are also fluid and may change over time.

Discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity is unfortunately all too common, and it is important for society to recognize and address this discrimination in order to create a more accepting and inclusive world for all individuals.

Fix Windows Error Reporting Event Id 1001

Your Windows 10 computer may occasionally stop working. This problem can manifest in a variety of ways. For example, the system may suddenly lock up, your computer becomes completely unresponsive, and eventually crashes. You may even get various Blue Screen of Death errors. If you want to identify the exact cause of the problem, you can launch the Windows Error Reporting tool and check the event log.

Oftentimes, you’ll see a mysterious Event ID 1001 error next to the hardware or software problem that bricked your computer. Let’s explore what causes this error and how you can fix it.

What Causes Event ID 1001 Errors?

The Event ID 1001 error is usually caused by hardware failure, application errors, malware, and Blue Screen of Death errors. Some of the most common root causes for these problems include high CPU and RAM usage, overheating issues, app compatibility issues, or running resource-demanding programs on low-end devices. Malware infections or corrupted Windows system files may also cause error 1001.

How Do I Fix and Prevent Event ID 1000 Errors? Close Background Programs

Make sure to disable unnecessary background apps to reduce the strain they put on your system. Close all the unnecessary apps when running resource-hogging processes to free up more system resources for your main programs.

Run Apps in Compatibility Mode

Keep your apps and OS updated to make sure everything runs smoothly on your device. If you’re running outdated app versions on the latest Windows 10 OS versions, you’re bound to experience various glitches.

Disable Windows Defender Sample Submission

Check if the Event ID 1001 error occurs due to running multiple security solutions on your computer. The OS automatically disables Windows Security when it detects you installed a second antivirus solution. Then, Windows telemetry generates the Event ID 1001 error.

For example, Windows Error Reporting often throws this error after installing McAfee Endpoint Security Threat Prevention or McAfee VirusScan Enterprise.

To prevent this error, turn off Windows Security’s cloud-based protection and automatic sample submission features before installing additional antimalware tools.

Reinstall the Problematic Program

Identify the app or program causing the Event ID 1001 error and uninstall it. Then restart your computer and download a fresh copy of the problematic app. If the respective app or program got corrupted, reinstall it should fix the problem.

Check Your System Files

If your system files got corrupted, your computer might fail to run apps and programs properly. Repair faulty system files with the SFC and DISM commands, restart your computer, and check if this solution solved the annoying Event ID 1001 error.

Launch Command Prompt with admin rights and run the sfc /scannow command.

Wait until your machine has finished running the command.

Then run the DISM /Online /Cleanup-Image /RestoreHealth command.

Restart your computer and check the results.

Scan Your System for Malware

Virus or malware infections often break your system’s performance and trigger unexpected glitches. Run an in-depth antivirus scan to remove any malware traces. Do that regularly to prevent hackers from turning your machine into a zombie computer.

Conclusion

Event ID 1001 is an error code that can be triggered by a long list of factors. The troubleshooting solutions you’ll use depend on the error details available in the Windows Error Reporting tool. To fix the Event ID 1001 error, run your apps in Compatibility Mode with admin privileges. If the error persists, reinstall the problematic programs and repair your system files.

Xiaomi 13 Vs Xiaomi 13 Pro – What Are The Main Differences?

Similarities between Xiaomi 13 and 13 Pro

Before we look at the major differences between these devices, let us briefly talk about their similarities. As a flagship of the year, the core specs of these mobile phones are roughly the same. Both mobile phones come with the same SoC. They both use the new Snapdragon 8 Gen 2 flagship processor. This chip supports a top version of LPDDR5X and UFS 4.0 + FBO refresh storage. These devices also come with a 4642mm² super large VC liquid cooling. This is a cooling system for gaming mobile phones and they also support the IP68 waterproof function. On the front, both smartphones use a 32MP ultra-clear lens for selfies.

Differences between Xiaomi 13 and 13 Pro

From the official specs of these mobile phones, the standard and Pro versions of the Xiaomi 13 differ in four major aspects. The three aspects are

Screen (size/design/resolution/technology)

Back shell

Battery and fast charging

Rear Camera

Screen & design

Starting from the screen size, as usual, the Xiaomi 13 display is smaller than that of the Pro model. While the Xiaomi 13 comes with a 6.36-inch display, the Pro model uses a bigger 6.73-inch display. In addition, the design of the displays is not also the same. The standard model comes with a straight right-angle frame while the Pro model uses a hyperboloid design.

Back shell

In terms of the material of the back shell, the Xiaomi 13 (glass rear) has four regular colours including black, white, green and a nanotechnology leather model (sky blue). The Pro model uses a ceramic back shell with white, black and field green and a nanotechnology leather (sky Blue) version. The weight and thickness of the two phones are also different. Generally speaking, the Xiaomi 13 Pro is heavier and thicker than the standard model.

Battery and fast charging

In addition, the battery capacity of Xiaomi 13 is 4500mAh which supports 67W flash charging. It also supports 50W wireless charging and 10W wireless reverse charging. However, the Pro model comes with a bigger 4820 mAh battery that supports 120W flash charging. It also supports enhanced 50W wireless charging and 10W wireless reverse charging.

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Rear Camera

The camera department of these mobile phones is also quite different. While the front camera is the same, the rear is not. On the rear, the Xiaomi 13 comes with a 50MP Leica triple camera setup. In addition to the 50MP main camera (Sony IMX800), there is also a 12MP ultra-wide-angle lens and a 10MP telephoto lens.

The three Leica cameras on the rear of the Xiaomi 13 Pro are all the main camera specifications. The main camera (Sony IMX989) has a one-inch super outsole, and also has a 50MP floating telephoto lens and a 50-megapixel ultra-wide-angle lens.

Price and availability

The Xiaomi 13 series is currently sold out online. However, the two new models will have their first official sales on December 14th. As for the price, both models have four versions. The versions and their prices are

Xiaomi 13 Price 

8GB + 128GB model costs 3999 yuan ($573)

8GB + 256GB version is available for 4299 yuan ($618)

12GB + 256 version is selling for 4599 yuan ($661)

12GB + 512 version costs 4999 yuan ($717)

Xiaomi 13 Pro 

8GB + 128GB variant sells for 4999 yuan ($717)

8GB + 256GB is sold for 5399 yuan ($776)

12GB + 256GB goes for 5799 yuan ($833)

12GB + 512GB is selling for 6299 yuan ($905)

Xiaomi 13 series will be the first to use LPDDR5X memory, with a peak rate of 8.533 Gb/s

Micron Technology announced today that its LPDDR5X mobile memory has been officially installed in Xiaomi’s latest flagship mobile phone, the Xiaomi 13 series. It will be the first device in the world to adopt LPDDR5X, with a peak rate of 8.533 Gb/s. Micron said that the company’s latest version, LPDDR5X, is designed for high-end and flagship phones, and its peak rate is 33% higher than that of the previous generation of LPDDR5. Compared with the 7.5 Gb/s rates achieved last fall, this version of LPDDR5X has further improved the rate.

In November last year, Micron sampled and verified mobile memory LPDDR5X based on the industry’s first 1α (1-alpha) process node. Prior to this, Micron also introduced LPDDR5, LPDDR4X based on 1α node, UFS 3.1 based on 176-layer NAND and uMCP5 solutions.

Xu Chunli, vice president of the mobile phone department of Xiaomi Group, said that Micron LPDDR5X can effectively improve the user experience of mobile computing photography, local AI translation and other functions.

Ios 12 Lets Developers Create Extensions For Reporting Unwanted Texts And Calls As Spam

iOS 10 included a CallKit framework that brought a system-wide way for customers to use specialized apps on their iPhone, like Hiya and TrueCaller, that automatically identify and block nuisance calls before the phone even rings. With iOS 12, Apple started allowing developers to write new types of call-blocking extensions that gather information from the user before deciding whether to report or block the number.

NOTE: Apple introduced the Unwanted Communication feature described in this article at WWDC 2023 in June, and we’ve decided to highlight it ahead of iOS 12’s release this Fall.

When an iPhone with iOS 10 or iOS 11 receives an incoming call, the operating system first consults your Contacts app in an attempt to find a matching phone number. If no match is found, it then compares it to the list of phone numbers in your CallKit apps, like Skype.

If there’s a match, the iOS software then displays the identifying label chosen by the app, like Spam or Telemarketing. If your CallKit app determines that an incoming phone number is actually spam, iOS may choose to block the call automatically. The system is tailored for VoIP apps and identifying possible spammy calls initiated from such apps.

With iOS 12, you can also report unsolicited SMS/MMS messages and unwanted phone calls.

Call identification via a third-party extension in iOS 10

Speculation goes that Apple built these enhanced SMS and call spam reporting features into iOS 12 in order to comply with requests from the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, which has been pressured Apple relentlessly to approve the government’s anti-spam app.

SMS spam is a major problem in India.

Apple took the hard stance by rejecting the app as it did not want any government agency to have full access to users’ call and SMS logs. By creating a new SMS and call reporting extension in iOS 12, Apple might comply with the request without putting user privacy at risk.

Introducing Unwanted Communication

iOS 12 introduces a new extension type, dubbed Unwanted Communication.

According to the official developer documentation detailing iOS 12’s SMS and call spam reporting, the extension provides a consistent way for users to report selected phone calls and incoming texts to third-party spa apps, and for their developers to receive crucial call metrics.

After downloading a call-blocking app from App Store that ships with an Unwanted Communication extensions, the user has to enable the extension manually through Settings → Phone → SMS/Call Reporting in their Settings app.

User reports a nuisance phone call or unwanted SMS/MMS message

This is where you’ll see all SMS and call-reporting extensions that are available to you on this device. You can only turn on one Unwanted Communication extension at a time.

Reporting SMS & call spam

The user can easily report any unwanted call by swiping left on an unknown or spammy number in the Phone app’s Recents list to pull up a new Report option. For texts, you can press the Report Messages button when it appears in the Messages transcript or simply press the text with 3D Touch to reveal the option in the shortcuts menu.

For whole conversations, swipe left on the thread in Messages to reveal a Report option or long-press a text to select additional messages, then choose the option Report Messages.

iOS launches the Unwanted Communication extension you installed, which goes to work gathering additional information before deciding whether to report or block the number.

Here’s what the Unwanted Communication extensions typically collect:

SMS: For received SMS messages that you have reported, the Unwanted Communication extension receives all of the text, content and sender information.

Call: For received calls that you have reported, the Unwanted Communication extension collects things like the caller’s number and the time of the call.

After manually reporting a nuisance call or SMS message, iOS 12 calls the Unwanted Communication extension which presents its custom controls to gather data from you.

You can then decide to enter all of the information that the extension requires and tap a Done button, or hit a Cancel button to abort the operation. To protect user privacy, the system always deletes all collected data after the extension terminates.

Blocked SMS or call number is added to your Blocked Contact list, managed in:

Messages: Settings → Messages → Blocked

Phone: Settings → Phone → Call Blocking & Identification

FaceTime: Settings → FaceTime → Blocked.

It’s important to reiterate that iOS 12’s new Unwanted Communication extension only works with SMS/MMS texts and phone calls. But what about VoIP calls and iMessages, you ask.

Well, your existing spam apps that are compatible with iOS 10’s CallKit framework already handle VoIP spam, while Apple has its own features for reporting iMessage spam.

What about privacy?

As mentioned earlier, when you set up a third-party provider’s spam filter extension on your device, the filter provider is able to access all of the text and content including any incoming SMS and MMS messages received from senders that are not in Contacts.

And therein lies the rub because your texts may include verification codes for services like Dropbox, codes from banks and other institutions and other confidential info. You’re only at risk if you mistakenly report a legitimate text as spam and your filter provider is a bad actor.

Incoming calls are never sent to third-party developers.

After you have responded to a text three times or have added the sender to your Contacts, messages from that sender will no longer be passed to the filter provider for verification.

Your two cents

What are your feelings on the new Unwanted Communication extension in iOS 12?

Have you used iOS’s existing blocking and reporting functions? If so, should Apple do more in terms of helping users report nuisance calls, do you think?

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