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The country of India had a lower than 20% literacy rate at the time the constitution went into effect. India was, in short, a mess. It was a nation that was plagued by both internal and external tensions, with people who were still not over an oppressive colonial regime and a bloody partition.

The majority of the developed world viewed democratic India as a risky experiment. The authors of our constitution made the decision to include rights that were inherent in nature in the midst of all this.

These rights were included to promote equality in society and free individuals from governmental dominance. Even these ‘inalienable’ rights are not unqualified, though. They are bound by a number of limitations that are stated in the constitution itself.

Exceptions to The Fundamental Rights Article 14 Exception: Right to Equality

Article 14 discusses the right to equal protection under the law and equality before the law. This specific right is an example of the equality referred to in the preamble.

Constitutional and other exceptions to Article 14 exist. Although equality is regarded as one of the pillars of democracy and Article 14 specifically mentions equal treatment for all, it is still permissible to treat equals and unequals differently.

In other words, Article 14 permits the classification of people, things, and transactions in a reasonable manner.

Article 14 Constitutional Exceptions

Article 361 of the constitution grants the President of India and the Governor of a state immunity.

A substantially true report of proceedings in either house of parliament or the legislature of a state may be published without subjecting the author to any civil or criminal proceedings in any court (Article 361-A).

Members of parliament are exempt from legal action in any court based on anything they said or voted in the legislature or any parliamentary committee (Article 105).

Exception to Article 21: Protection of Personal Liberty and Life

This clause safeguards an individual’s life and liberty, all of the aforementioned epithets are well-deserved. When activists and courts want to broaden the protection offered to people by fundamental rights, they turn to this rights.

New rights have been incorporated into Article 21’s more comprehensive protection, as evidenced by the inclusion of the right to privacy, the right to a life of dignity, the right to a livelihood, etc.

Even a fundamental right as significant as Article 21 does not, however, apply without exception. For instance, the court ruled in Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India [5] that legal procedure must be right, just, and fair and not capricious, irrational, or oppressive.

This decision made it clear that any exception to Article 21 must pass a stricter test than had previously been thought necessary. The process intended to revoke someone’s right to life and liberty must also adhere to the principles of natural justice.

Article 22 Exception: Protection from Arrest and Detention In Certain Circumstances

This Article is a crucial defense against the state acting arbitrarily. A state will always be afraid of dissenting opinions, whether it is democratic or not. Dissent does not support the power structure, despite being an essential component of democratic discourse.

Those in positions of authority will always try to limit any actions or words that go against them. Those in charge have always been able to imprison their critics for dubious reasons with the support of the police. Through Article 22, the constitution protects citizens from arbitrary detention and arrest.

When it comes to Article 22 of the constitution, everything is not rainbows and candies. Only India, a democratic country, has incorporated preventive detention into its constitution

Clauses (1) and (2) of Article 22’s general rules are discussed in detail in Article 22(3). Therefore, in cases of preventive detention laws and when a person is an enemy alien at the time of arrest or detention, the protections mentioned in clauses (1) and (2) will not be applicable.

It is not news that enemy aliens are treated differently, but it is regrettable that colonial raj practices like preventive detention, which is an exception to how arrestees and detainees are treated in civilized countries, have constitutional validity.

Article 31A: Laws Governing the Purchase of Estates and Other Things Are Protected

It prevents five categories of laws from being contested and declared invalid on the grounds that they violate articles 14 and 19.

Purchase of states by the government and related rights.

Assuming state control over property management.

Combination of businesses.

Rights of corporate directors or shareholders being revoked or changed.

Cancellation or modification of a mining lease.


Q1. How are fundamental rights in India limited?

Ans: The Indian Constitution has provisions for exceptions to fundamental rights, including Article 31A and Article 31C. These exceptions are not subject to the Right to Equality and the Right to Freedom, as outlined in Articles 14 and 19. Specifically, Article 31A limits the applicability of Article 14 and 19.

Q2. What are the instances where Article 14 does not apply?

Ans: Individuals such as foreign rulers, ambassadors, and diplomats are not subject to legal action in civil and criminal courts.

Q3. How can we describe the limitations imposed on fundamental rights?

Ans: Although fundamental rights are granted, they are not without limitations. These limitations are reasonable and depend on factors like state security, public morality, decency, and maintaining amicable relations with other nations.

Q4. How can the right to equality be limited?

Ans: The right to equality ensures that no individual can face discrimination in public employment or appointments based on factors like race, religion, caste, sex, place of birth, descent, or residence. However, exceptions can be made to provide special provisions for backward classes.

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How To Balance Automation And Personalization

The many ways technology has transformed our lives can be seen clearly in the ways we live, work, shop and communicate

Customers today are more likely to use online channels to complete their journeys than ever before. Gone are the days when customers were anxious about ordering online. Nowadays, many people are just as confident and trusting of websites as they are of heading into a physical store.

This isn’t just for impulsive, cheap purchases like fast fashion or consumer goods either. As online channels continue to become normalized, customers are also increasingly heading online to shop for higher ticket items too, such as cars and high-end electronics.

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This guide is aimed at marketing managers involved with making the business case for personalization, looking to plan a personalization implementation or extend their use of personalization.

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The many ways technology has transformed our lives can be seen clearly in the ways we live, work, shop and communicate. It’s become so deeply entwined with everyday life that it’s difficult to imagine going a day without technology.

With this in mind, it’s understandable that a lot of companies are now choosing to automate many of their processes, communications and marketing strategies. It falls in line with the modern consumers’ desire for all things digital, so it’s the next logical step towards improving customer experience, right?

Well, not exactly.

It’s true that digitalized processes are convenient and are generally well-received today, but automation simply cannot provide the attention to detail and the human-touch that customers still want.

But let’s also be realistic. It’s impossible to run a big company, or any company for that matter, without having some processes automated. In fact, customers now expect certain processes to be automated. For example, I’d hazard a guess that most customers expect order confirmation emails to be automated. After all, if the technology exists to make more processes more efficient, why not make the most of it?

How do you strike the balance?

Like anything, automation and personalization only work effectively when they are well-balanced. Too much automation and your company seems inhuman, detached, and the customer lacks interest in your campaigns as they aren’t tailored to their needs. On the other hand, too much personalization can feel intrusive, overwhelming and just plain creepy.

To find out how to balance automation and personalization, let’s delve into three key parts of the customer journey, and why getting it right is so important to the ongoing relationship between a brand and its customers.

Surprise and delight

A key benefit of automation is that it allows companies to deduce information about their customers and use the information to provide a better quality service. By knowing the preferences of customers on paper, companies can be more precise in their targeted marketing campaigns, which is something most modern consumers have now come to expect.

The problem is that humans don’t exist on paper; they’re real, three dimensional and, at times, contradictory. People want different things at different times, but consumers’ expectations for a great service remains incredibly high.

This means that in order to surprise and delight customers, the method must be tailored to their specific needs and delivered in a way that makes the customer feel special.

Automation can help businesses gather information about their customers quickly and effectively to help achieve this (provided they don’t take it too far- more on that later). The key thing to remember is that technology should be used to facilitate a better customer experience, not rip out human interaction entirely. Here’s a great example of how a restaurant surprised and delighted its most regular customers.

Use automation to bring people together

The owner of the restaurant recognized a regular customer through beacon on an app as they walked through the front door. The owner could see from the customer’s previous order history that they always order the same starter, so without being prompted, the owner sends the waitress over to their table with their favourite starter on the house. The customer was thrilled and although the delivery of the surprise was highly personalized, it was made possible through an automated notification on a restaurant system.

In this instance, it would be impossible even for a human to get it right 100% of the time, but thanks to clever data collection and automation, the restaurant owner could be sure that the gift would be well received by the customer. It ensured that they were made to feel appreciated and valued.

Another great example of how a company used personalized messaging to surprise and delight customers is Sainsbury’s.

Sainsbury’s is a UK-based supermarket chain, which is known for its forward-thinking approach to technology. It was the first European retailer to introduce self-service machines in all of its stores and it has recently opened the first ever no-till store.

The team at Sainsbury’s went one step further in 2023 with their ‘The Time It’s Ultra Personalized!’ campaign. By using smartphone location data, they were able to offer customers personalized offers and promotions through their phones as they were walking around the store. Not only did it help to promote in-store offers, but it also provided valuable insight into the way customers navigate the stores. This helps Sainsbury’s to make better merchandising decisions and improve its in-store customer experience.

Handling customer queries

In an effort to streamline customer services processes and reduce contact centre wait times, many companies are increasingly leaning towards automation. The most obvious example of this can be seen with the rise of chatbots, but other forms of AI such as IVR (Interactive Voice Response) are also being used to communicate with customers directly.

This isn’t such a bad thing when it’s being used properly. After all, big companies have a huge volume of customer cases they need to manage on a daily basis, so it makes sense to have a system in place that can sort through the queries and send them over to the correct department.

But here’s the problem: whilst people nowadays expect high efficiency and speed, they also expect a high-quality customer experience. Automation works well for triaging queries, but it simply isn’t robust enough yet to handle a complex conversation, which means that this can cause more harm than good for the customer.

Ultimately, if a customer is trying to resolve an issue with a company and the assigned help is an automated bot that can’t understand them or help them properly, this will just infuriate the customer and increase case resolution times.

Truly personalized support can only come from humans

Automated solutions like chatbots can work well for responding to simple queries and FAQs. In fact, this can be an optimal setup, as it alleviates resources from the customer service team who can, therefore, spend more time talking with customers and managing more complex enquiries.

But there are also more nuanced ways to balance the two. Incorporating a live chat feature on your website can enable human communication between agents and customers, meaning the customer receives high-quality answers to their questions quickly.

It also means that customers can engage in more meaningful conversations with agents as they journey through a website together. The support is personal and tailored, but technology makes the whole experience more efficient for both the company and the customer.

Remember, people usually contact customer services for one of two reasons: they have a problem that needs fixing, or they need more information about something. Customers want to feel supported in both of these scenarios, and the best way of ensuring that is by making it as easy as possible for them to have a real conversation with another person.

News updates and promotions

There are times when personalization is neither necessary nor efficient, such as when sending out important company news updates to customers, offers or promotions. It’s impossible for any company to individually send every customer an email containing a personalized coupon, for example.

Similarly, it’s not the most effective strategy to send everyone on the mailing list the exact same promotion or offers, as customers’ interests vary greatly depending on the products they’re looking to purchase.

Of course, some could argue that sending over offers or promotions to customers should always be personalized to some extent as it encourages customers to buy, and there’s some truth in that.

For example, if I was shopping for a summer dress, it makes sense that the clothing company I was browsing on would send me a discount code for 30% off summer dresses because they know from their website history that this is highly relevant to me. In fact, I daresay I’ve received many emails like this… and many have worked.

But there’s a line.

Hyper-personalized marketing tactics can sometimes go too far, making customers feel more creeped out than impressed. Problems with personalization can arise when brands don’t pay enough attention to the people they’re targeting and how their targets might make the customer feel.

A particularly creepy example of this is the man in assisted living who was sent a personalized Christmas hamper from the local mortuary. Not exactly the best Christmas present, I think we can all agree.

Another example of this is the infamous Target story, where a distressed father angrily called up his local Target store after they had sent his teenaged daughter pregnancy-related goods coupons. Turns out, their prediction was completely correct.

Customers are willing to share their data with brands they trust, so it’s important not to break that trust. Algorithms and customer data can be used effectively to improve the customer’s experience, but beware of losing sight of the line in the sand. Taking personalization too far can become unnerving or alarming to your customers, which can create a negative brand image and deter them from your services.

Just remember, the most important thing is CS

To avoid confusion, when I say CS, I’m not talking about customer service. I’m talking about common sense.

When figuring out how to balance automation and personalization, remember that you’re not just a marketer, you are also a consumer, so apply some common sense to the situation. Take a step back from your campaigns and consider how you would feel if you were on the receiving end of the targeted message.

Hold a mirror up to your campaigns and have a frank discussion about them. Is it too personalized – would you wonder why and how the company got your personal information? Is it overly automated and do you think your customers would feel isolated if they had a problem or need help?

There’s a simple way to help you achieve the best balance between automation and personalization. It’s easy to get swept away with the tide of the latest trends and technology to help you dazzle customers and hit your targets, but it’s important to make sure that your use of automation and personalization are logical and always put your customer’s experience first.

The Link Between Utis And Sex: Causes And How To Prevent Them

If you have watched that one scene from the popular web series Decoupled, where the know-it-all son-in-law comes to his docile mother-in-law’s rescue and tries explaining to his septuagenarian father-in-law what safe sex is and how one can avoid UTIs, it will be pretty much easier for you to understand what we are trying to explain here. Urinary tract infections, commonly referred to as UTIs, are a very common health concern that affects millions of people annually, particularly women.

A UTI is an infection that occurs in any part of the urinary system, including the kidneys, bladder, urethra, and ureters. The symptoms of UTIs can be quite uncomfortable −

Pain and burning during urination

Urine with a strong smell or appearance

Lower back pain

One of the most common questions related to UTIs is the link between these types of infections and the sexual activity one indulges in, which we will explore in our subsequent sections.

Causes of UTIs and Sex

Women often tend to experience fluctuations in body chemistry and hormonal changes during sexual activity, and more so after sexual intercourse. This increases the chances of them contracting UTIs.

Sexual activity can cause the spread of bacteria, particularly from the anus, to the urinary tract.

The anatomy of women, specifically the short length of the urethra in women, makes it easier for bacteria to travel from the skin and vagina to the bladder, and eventually to the kidneys.

Additionally, sexual activity may cause irritation or trauma to the urethra, making it more prone to bacterial infection.

Discomfort, and tissue abrasions in the vaginal area, also provide a way for bacteria and other infection-causing microbes to enter the urinary tract.

Most importantly, certain birth control methods such as a diaphragm, at times, may cause bacteria build-up which can increase the risk of UTIs.

How to Prevent UTIs from Sex

By now, it is pretty clear UTIs can be unpleasant and uncomfortable; but we have some respite here. UTIs can be easily prevented. Here are some simple strategies and all-the-more simple preventive measures you can take to reduce the risk of UTI infections resulting from sexual activity −

Stay Hydrated

The one solution to so many ailments! Drinking water can help flush bacteria from the urinary system and decrease the risk of UTIs. Urinating after sexual activity can also help flush out any bacteria that may have entered the urethra during sexual activity.

Good Hygiene Habits

Good hygiene can significantly reduce the likelihood of UTIs, particularly after sexual activity. After sex, a shower or a quick rinse can help remove and flush any external bacteria and prevent the growth of bacteria in the genital area.

Urinating Before and After Sexual Activity

Emptying the bladder before and after sexual activity can decrease the risk of bacterial infection. Urinating before sex helps flush out any bacteria present in the area while urinating after sex reduces the bacteria count in the urethra.

Wiping Properly

To avoid the spread of bacteria from the anus to the urinary tract, it is important to wipe the vulva thoroughly from front to back. This action helps reduce the risk of bacteria spreading into the urethra.


The chances of contracting UTIs through sexual activity can be significantly reduced through simple preventive measures. UTI infection symptoms may vary, and early treatment is critical to avoid further complications.

If you are experiencing symptoms of UTIs or have frequent UTIs, consult a healthcare expert or your gynaecologist for timely intervention, diagnosis, and treatment. Maintaining hygiene above all is most important to lower the chances of becoming infected.

What’s The Difference Between Facebook Stories And Messenger Stories

Now that Facebook has introduced the Story feature in its own app as well, you might be wondering, “Wasn’t there Facebook Messenger stories as well that was launched just last week?”

If you are confused with all that’s happening, let me clear your doubts.

Facebook Messenger Stories aka “Your day” feature is completely different from the Facebook app’s Stories. By different we mean both are separate story streams. Whatever you upload to Facebook Story is not reflected in the Messenger Story, while same goes for Messenger Story as well.

However, functionality wise both remain similar i.e. you can enhance your photos and videos with doodles and captions. And, similar to all the other “Stories” of other apps, Stories in both Messenger and Facebook app disappear after 24 hours.

In case you are wondering, why have two separate mediums to share Story via FACEBOOK, it’s because they have a different audience. Really different audience. And that has some effect, as even WhatsApp had to bring back old status feature back as About when it faced backlash from majority of its users.

Also read: 8 cool new WhatsApp Status Tips and Tricks

Facebook stories are visible only to your friends, and strictly to your friend list, as of now. You cannot keep your stories public. However, Stories on Messenger are visible to all the people you have interacted with via Facebook Messenger, even if it was just once. They might not be on your friend list. So beware. But the good thing is, you can change the privacy settings for Messenger Stories and restrict it to custom people.

Here is a detailed talk on similarities and differences between Facebook Stories and Messenger stories.

Facebook Stories vs Messenger Stories: the differences

Facebook Messenger Story is also called “Your day”. There is no other name for Facebook Story, it is known by one name “Story”.

Facebook Messenger Story lacks the amazing Facebook filters. Though it comes with its own filters, the quantity and quality are less.

Facebook Messenger doesn’t allow you to change the color of captions, only the background can be changed that is also predefined.

There are more color options present in Facebook Messenger Story.

Unlike Facebook Story, where you have to hold the color to increase the brush size, in Facebook Messenger Story, you have to drag the color towards the left to increase the brush size.

You can flip your photo in Facebook app Story. The feature is missing in Messenger Story.

There is no Direct Messages for Messenger Story that disappears after you have seen them in the Messenger. The replies to your story are sent via the normal Messenger chat. (Though there is a secret conversation feature, but that is not related to stories). Whereas, in the Facebook app, if you send a message through Facebook Direct or reply to the story of your friends, it disappears after the other person has seen it twice.

To pause a story in the Facebook Messenger, just tap it. However, in Facebook app, you have to pinch the story to pause it.

You can hide or mute stories of other people in the Messenger, however, the Facebook app lacks this feature.

As mentioned above, Messenger comes with Privacy features, unlike Facebook Story that published your story to your entire friend list.

Facebook Stories vs Messenger Stories: the similarities

Being from the same developer, the apps feature a lot of commonalities between them. And if you have worked your way through messenger app, you would feel at home on Facebook app too when looking to post a story or two.

Whatever you upload in the story disappears after 24 hours on both apps.

You can add captions and doodle in both of them.

Double tap to switch the camera instantly.

Both allow you to publish media from your gallery.

Both allow you to save the edited photo/video to your gallery.

Both allow you to tap the photo once to move to the next story. Also, swipe to move to the next screen is available on both the apps.

Did Facebook really need stories in the mainstream app?

What Is The Difference Between Cloning And Molecular Biology?


Cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occur in nature when organisms such as bacteria, fungi, insects, or plants reproduce asexually. Examples of such organisms are various trees such as hazel trees, blueberry plants, and the American sweetgum. Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms.

The term also refers to the production of multiple copies of a product such as digital media or software. Cloning can be natural or artificial. Examples of cloning that occur naturally are vegetative reproduction in plants, e.g., water hyacinth producing multiple copies of genetically identical plants through apomixis, binary fission in bacteria, and parthenogenesis in certain animals. Clones can also be produced through artificial means.

Making multiple copies by manipulation procedures or biotechnology is artificial cloning such as molecular cloning, where copies of specific gene fragments are produced. Cellular cloning, where single-celled organisms with the exact genetic content of the original cell are produced in cell cultures. Organism cloning, or reproductive cloning, is where a multicellular clone is created generally through somatic cell nuclear transfer.

Molecular biology cloning generally uses DNA sequences from two different organisms. First is the species that is the source of the DNA to be cloned. Second, is the species that will serve as the living host for the replication of the recombinant DNA. Molecular cloning technology is central to many contemporary areas of modern biology and medicine. Long before attempts were made to clone an entire organism, researchers learned how to reproduce desired regions or fragments of the genome, a process that is referred to as molecular cloning.

Plasmids have been repurposed and engineered as vectors for molecular cloning and the large-scale production of important reagents such as insulin and human growth hormone. Molecular cloning has progressed from the cloning of a single DNA fragment to the assembly of multiple DNA components into a single contiguous stretch of DNA.

Molecular Biology Cloning

Molecular cloning is one method in molecular biology that is commonly used to amplify a genetic sequence of interest. This is accomplished by inserting recombinant DNA into a vector which can then carry DNA fragments in host organisms to be amplified

This process of amplification is based on molecular biology standard, first is to recombine the target gene into the vector DNA molecules in vitro. Then transfer the recombinant DNA to host cells. After transferring there is a screening of cells which have expressed the recombinant DNA, after purification and amplification.

Molecular Biology Cloning Technology Process

This is the process by which copies of biomolecules, such as DNAs, are produced. It is used to amplify a particular DNA fragment containing target genes. Apart from the genes (coding sequences), it is also used in making multiple copies of promoters, non-coding sequences, and randomly fragmented DNA. The general steps in molecular cloning are fragmentation, ligation, transfection, screening, or selection.

Isolate the target gene and vector.

Direct separation is suitable for the extraction and separation of bacterial chromosomes, plasmids, and virus DNA whose genetic background are of interest to be studied.

Gene synthesis is used to generate short DNA fragments whose sequence is known clearly.

cDNA can be synthesized by reverse transcription from mRNA.

Screening the gene of from the genomic library for molecular cloning.

The target gene and vector are cleaved with a restriction enzyme: This allows the fragments to be more easily connected later.

The target gene and vector are then ligated with DNA ligase: This seals the connection between target gene and vector.

Transfer the ligated recombinant vector into host cells: Bacteria: E. coli, fungi: yeast, insect cells or mammalian cells.

Conduct screening at different levels using different methods to test for quality: For example: vector size, enzyme digestion results, screening markers and so on.


Molecular cloning provides scientists with an essentially unlimited quantity of any individual DNA segments derived from any genome. This material can be used for a wide range of purposes, including those in both basic and applied biological science. A few of the more important applications are summarized here.

Genome organization and gene expression

Production of recombinant proteins

Transgenic organisms

Gene therapy


Molecular cloning has progressed from arduously isolating and piecing together two pieces of DNA, followed by intensive screening of potential clones, to seamlessly assembling up to 10 DNA fragments with remarkable efficiency in just a few hours, or designing DNA molecules in silico and synthesizing them in vitro.

Together, all these technologies give molecular biologists an astonishingly powerful toolbox for exploring, manipulating, and harnessing DNA, that will further broaden the horizons of science. Among the possibilities are the development of safer recombinant proteins for the treatment of diseases, enhancement of gene therapy, and quicker production, validation, and release of new vaccines.

Pilates Can Improve Your Posture And Balance. The Killer Body Is Just A Bonus.

Now that the new year is upon us, it’s a good time to do a self-audit of the things that went wrong, right, or what you want to change in life. One common New Year’s resolution is to get healthier. For some that might mean showing up to the gym or cutting back on the carbs. But if you’re constantly looking down at your phone or slouching, a healthy goal could be to improve your posture and balance. 

Enter Pilates, a low-intensity and beginner-friendly workout intended to build strength and flexibility to support every body muscle. You can go to a class, take one-on-one lessons with a certified instructor, or follow instructional videos at home. Lauren Vestal, a certified Pilates, yoga, and breathwork instructor based in Tennessee, says that if you’re hunched over a computer all day, Pilates can help spread the collarbones wider, pull the shoulder down and back, and focus on smaller movements to keep you stable. “You’ll see yourself standing up taller and straighter over time,” she notes. With enough repitition and effort, Pilates can have a lasting impact on your health, while improving your relationship to your body.

How does Pilates help with posture and balance?

While Pilates is a full-body workout, there are targeted exercises for improving balance and posture. Much of the practice focuses on strengthening your core—the pelvis, lower back, hips, and abs—and teaching it how to work in harmony as one unit. “If your hips are uneven, you may feel a bit wobbly in the knees or ankles,” explains Vestal. “Pilates is awesome because you can target specific muscles, small or big, which will allow for greater stability throughout the body.” A stabilized trunk gives your body better support to maintain an upright and erect position, whether you’re playing sports or lugging groceries around.

Building a strong core improves balance as well. Think of standing on one leg, which most humans aren’t accustomed to doing. Chances are you might feel wobbly and possibly tumble after a few seconds in that stance. But, Vestal says that the more consistent you are, the more you’ll build up the smaller stabilizing muscles and joints to keep the core tight and engaged. “That will keep you centered and balanced.”

[Related: Working from home can ravage your spine, but good posture can help fix it]

Pilates benefits all ages. A 2023 study in 17- to 22-year-old dancers showed improved body posture after taking classes twice a week for 14 weeks. This included fixing forward head postures, hyper-extended knees, and foot movements that can cause injury. Another study in older adults who do Pilates regularly showed a significant improvement in their balance and decreased risk of falling.

One of the best starting points for posture and balance is an exercise called bird dog, says Vanessa Johnson, the director of instructor training for Club Pilates in Hawaii. Other good moves to start with are planks and swans. 

A reformer machine will help you unlock more intense Pilates workouts. Deposit Photos

What’s the best way to do Pilates?

Compared to standard gym routines, Pilates requires little gear and offers plenty of online resources. You can start at home with a yoga mat following along with an instructor online. For those looking to make more of an investment, a Pilates reformer machine could be a supportive tool for your training. This bed-like platform uses the spring and levers to create resistance for a more intense workout.

Johnson recommends trying an introductory class at a studio to see whether Pilates is a good fit. One benefit of training with a professional is they can guide you as you learn the practice. Not only can they provide easier or more challenging adjustments to a workout, but they can fix your form if it’s incorrect. “Oftentimes people don’t realize their posture is wrong or that they need to activate a particular area of your body at home unless somebody’s checking in on them,” Johnson says. 

Another perk of attending in-person classes is that you’re leveling up your commitment—about 43 percent of individuals give up their New Year’s resolutions after a month. When people buy a package or membership, Johnson says she sees them “sticking with it and meeting their goals more often.”

How long does it take to see results from Pilates?

There’s no magic number when it comes to Pilates, but there are some baselines for how much time and effort you should put in.

All experts recommend a minimum of two workouts a week to see progress. “If I see people in the studio twice a week, I would say you’ll see results in about two months,” Johnson says. She explains you’ll start feeling differences in your posture and balance at first. After 16 to 20 sessions, you can expect other people to notice changes in your body. And after 60 sessions, she says “your body is just a different body.”

[Related: A beginner’s guide to becoming buff]

Jaclyn Forrester, a Pilates instructor and the owner of Niche Pilates in Virginia, says it’s ideal to attend an hour-long class twice a week—but admits that’s not always possible. She recommends people “mix it up” by coming to a full class and doing a 10 to 30-minute class online. You can also supplement your workout by doing other activities such as cardio. 

Forrester also stresses that the exercises are not a cure-all for bad posture and other physical issues. “What are you doing all the other hours you’re not doing Pilates?” she asks. Continuing bad habits like slouching or eating fast food, for example, can mean it will take longer to see results. “You have to really be mindful of everything else that you’re doing in your life,” Forrester says. 

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