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They’re smart, secretive, adaptable—and have an appetite for everything in sight.

That’s why the U.S. Department of Agriculture recently announced $75 million in funding toward a pilot program to control feral pigs. The effort is focused on areas where the hogs are causing the most damage, primarily in the Southeast. But officials in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Texas face significant challenges, not just due to the pigs’ rapid feeding and breeding, but also because of their value as game.

Today, they number an estimated nearly seven million and have established themselves in 35 states (and have been spotted in 48!). According to the USDA, they cause $2 billion in damage every year. “This situation has been described as the greatest emerging wildlife challenge that the United States faces in the 21st century,” says John “Jack” Mayer, a biologist Savannah River National Laboratory who’s been studying wild pigs for over 40 years. “This is something we did to ourselves.”

The pigs’ rooting and wallowing all began in the 1500s, when European settlers brought them to the states for food. Then, in the 1900s, sport hunters imported wild boars. Today, America’s feral swine include wild boar, escaped domestic pigs, and hybrids of the two.

In the 1950s and 60s, says Mayer, wildlife departments promoted pig hunting and sometimes even stocked the animals. Now, they’re the second most popular game animal after white-tailed deer. But even when state officials encouraged sport hunting for the explicit purpose of curbing the tidal wave of pigs, it’s backfired. Hunters love to shoot them so they transport the animals to new areas. Even when the new hunting spots are fenced properties, the swine are notoriously good at digging their way out and escaping.

Once they’re out in the open, feral hogs simply breed too fast for hunters to keep up. To wipe out a population, you need to shoot 60 to 80 percent a year, says Mayer, but recreational hunting can only cut their numbers by about a quarter. And while plenty of non-human predators would enjoy some pork—including mountain lions, alligators, coyotes, and hawks—there are just too many pigs to make a dent. Meanwhile, they thrive almost anywhere between the Arctic and the tropics and females can birth two litters every year. They are “opportunistic omnivores,” which is a fancy way of saying “if it’s got a calorie in it and they can get their mouth around it, they’ll try to eat it,” says Mayer.

This is bad news for farmers, conservationists, and even archaeologists. The hogs literally tear up fields, especially in the Southeast. It’s not just that they voraciously eat anything edible, but they also vigorously root around in the soil as they search for food, leading to their nickname “the rototillers of nature.” They also wreck areas through repeated trampling. About half of that $2 billion in damage is agricultural impacts.

They also trash natural habitats. Perhaps the worst impacts are to watersheds—pigs love living around and rooting through these areas. They also need to wallow in water to cool off. These activities lead to loss of plants, soil erosion, and increased sediment in streams. Swine waste also introduces pathogens and nutrients into water, posing a health risk and contributing to algal blooms and fish kills downstream.

Importantly, feral swine are a vector for diseases that spread to both domestic pigs and humans. That’s not only a public health concern—it could destroy the nation’s livestock. African swine fever is currently devastating the Asian and European pork industry. If it hopped the pond, wild pigs could quickly spread the deadly disease, bringing hundreds of billions of dollars in damage to the pork industry here, says Mayer.

That’s why the USDA has poured money into fending off the swine. In a previous effort, they helped fund control efforts in less-densely populated states. Officials used corral-like traps to round up as many individuals of a sounder (a group of hogs) as they could and then euthanized the animals. According to a USDA spokesperson, Idaho, New York, Maryland and New Jersey are now pig-free. Iowa, Minnesota, Washington and Wisconsin are nearing success, too.

Field dug up by wild hogs

Damage caused by feral pigs rooting.

But the Southeast is another scenario. “I don’t know that the Southeast is solvable,” says Mayer. Not only are feral pigs long-established and numerous, he says, “People in the South, they grew up hunting wild pigs, it’s a part of the culture.”

In the new effort, a lot of the funds will go to local soil and water conservation districts, which will work with USDA officials to implement trapping and shooting efforts. In addition to the corral traps, aerial shooting is also a popular control measure. In the early spring in Louisiana, before trees have leafed out, officials fly in helicopters and gun down hogs, says John Pitre, the state’s resource conservationist.

But since pigs like densely-vegetated marsh habitat it can be hard to track them down. So, in what’s called the “Judas pig technique,” officials capture a hog and equip it with a tracking collar. They then free it and let it betray the whereabouts of its sounder.

To stop the swine’s destruction, officials might need additional tools. Though not in use yet, scientists are developing contraceptives and toxins that would target the pigs. The challenge is ensuring that these measures only affect pigs. Feeders laced with such chemicals need to be only accessible to pigs and not other wildlife. And toxins need to degrade quickly, so that hunters or animals that eat the pigs aren’t harmed.

But measures to control the pigs aren’t always appreciated. After announcements of eradication efforts, game biologists in the Southeast have had their tires slashed and received death threats, according to Mayer. In states like Louisiana, AKA Sportsman’s Paradise, “the bulk of the population enjoys hunting and fishing,” says Pitre. So people aren’t happy with their pigs getting taken away.

Wild hogs are also big business, says Mayer. In some states, including Texas, Oklahoma and Florida, ranchers can round up the animals and sell them to government buying stations, after which the animals are slaughtered and the meat sold. If you’ve ever eaten a “wild boar” pulled pork sandwich, chances are that’s where the meat came from. In Texas, ranchers are making a killing off of charging hunters to fly in a helicopter on their property and shoot wild pigs, says Mayer.

Hunting the pigs for food might seem like a way to at least recycle the animals instead of letting their carcasses rot away, but it’s created an industry that relies on their continued existence. In Texas, although some 25,000 to 30,000 pigs are killed annually, that’s nothing compared to an estimated population of over two million. Some states have banned sport hunting or even possession of feral pigs for that reason. “We’re not going to barbecue our way out of this one,” says Mayer.

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Some Schools Are Prioritizing More Sleep For Kids. Is It Making A Difference?

“Basically, I was teaching zombies,” Landboe told Edutopia. 

Thankfully, that changed. 

In 2023, Seattle Public Schools moved start times for high school students back to 8:45 a.m. The change was based on a large and growing body of research that suggests insufficient sleep among adolescents has significant ramifications for their mental health, alertness, and academic success.

Seattle’s decision came on the heels of an influential report from the American Academy of Pediatrics, which concluded that “evidence strongly implicates earlier school start times (i.e., before 8:30 a.m.) as a key modifiable contributor to insufficient sleep.” Several districts in the Denver metro area followed suit in 2023 and 2023, and this year California became the first to change start times statewide, implementing a new law that prohibits high schools from starting classes earlier than 8:30 a.m. New Jersey, New York, and Massachusetts legislators are considering similar changes. 

AJ Katzaroff, a biology and forensics teacher at West Seattle High School, noticed a stark difference in students almost immediately. “They were more fun to work with because they absolutely had more sleep,” she said. “They had more cognitive processing ability to do the intellectual work of the classroom.” 

The findings aligned with previous research showing that later start times improve the physical, mental, and emotional health of adolescents; boost academic performance; and reduce destructive behaviors like drug abuse, alcohol abuse, and sleepy driving—leading to significantly fewer car crashes.

Despite the benefits, as well as data suggesting that later start times lead to better-rested teachers and parents—and have minimal effects on the sleep and academic performance of elementary school students who see their start times move up to accommodate older peers—making the change isn’t usually popular. A 2023 nationwide poll of parents, teachers, and other school personnel found that a plurality of parents (44 percent) and teachers (36 percent) didn’t think school should start later. 

“Anybody who’s doing it has to recognize it’s a big culture shift,” said Clark Burke, superintendent of the Manteca Unified School District in California, which moved start times back in 2023. Burke said the change came with additional headaches for commuters, working parents, and students involved in after-school activities—a familiar litany of concerns that tend to come up when changes to school start times are discussed in local communities. “It takes a lot of adjustments from the community, staff, and students,” Burke said, cautioning other states and districts considering the change. “It shifts priorities; so there is a need for communities to determine what their priorities really are.” 

“Change is always hard, and the early start time for secondary schools is something that is sort of entrenched in our culture. It’s very hard to convince people—parents, even teachers—that this is going to be a good move,” Iglesia said. Still, he thinks the research published in the last decade on later sleep times makes a strong case for districts to push past this initial resistance. “I’m still surprised that the rest of the U.S. has not implemented this change,” he said.

Although many have gravitated to the academic gains his study revealed, Iglesia said, the most important finding is the more than 30 minutes of sleep that students in Seattle gained per night. According to Iglesia, the extra time is crucial because of a change in sleep rhythms that sets in around puberty. During adolescence, a child’s biological need for sleep shifts later by a couple of hours, driven by changes in the release times of the chemical precursors to sleep—melatonin and cortisol, primarily—along with other physiological adjustments that alter what scientists call sleep pressure. As a result, Iglesia said, teens are no longer ready to fall asleep at 9 p.m, 10 p.m., or even 11 p.m. Instead, they naturally fall asleep at midnight—or later, no matter how early you send them to bed.  

A school start time of 7:30 a.m. that might work for a 10-year-old jolts a 13-year-old from a sound, biologically predetermined sleep phase. A recent article in Scientific American notes that this means teens who wake up that early will miss out on both restorative sleep and REM sleep. Restorative sleep helps repair the body and may improve immune function. Meanwhile, REM sleep is crucial for consolidating events and learning into memories. “So when a 10th grader who naturally goes to bed around 11 p.m. has to wake up at 6 a.m. for school, that teen is losing not only hours of sleep but hours of quality sleep,” the article states. “And even if they sleep in on the weekends, they won’t fully catch up.” 

The biological alterations to sleep cycles disappear as adolescents transition into adulthood. Yet, Iglesia notes, we have largely designed school start times as if our teens are already adults. “Essentially, we’re making our teenagers wake up at the time when we think we should be waking up,” he said. “But really, if you have period one at 7:30 a.m.”—which means students need to get up by 6:30 a.m.—“that’s like asking an adult to wake up at 4:30 a.m. and be ready to process complex information by 5:30 a.m.” 

Iglesia said that later start times are a “simple measure” to counteract this, and they increase the amount of time that students sleep from five or six hours a night to seven or eight. “Of course, it may not do the job alone. But it certainly helps and has no negative side effects in the way that a sleeping pill might.” 

In her classroom in Seattle, Katzaroff said, she noticed that more first-period students are willing—and able—to engage in the rigorous work of her class now. “When you put kids into those content-heavy classes where they’ve told themselves stories like, I’m not good at science, and on top of that they’re so tired they can’t engage, it is no wonder why they check out,” she said. “But if they’re less tired, as a teacher you can fight off some of those stories they’ve told themselves about what they can handle. You can get through a bit more and say, ‘You can actually do this.’” 

Katzaroff said that in the months after the enactment of the new policy, she regularly overheard students gushing about the change and also heard it while driving an after-school carpool that includes students who go to schools outside the district. “The ones who still start at eight hate it. They talk about it in the car. ‘You don’t have to be there until 8:50? I’m jealous. I have to get up so early.’” 

Anderson said he’d gathered as much about the process from paying attention to places like Seattle, but also nearby Cherry Creek School District, which pushed back start times for high schools in 2023. He noticed the same crop of concerns reappearing and also noticed that the most successful districts seemed to address those concerns head-on when making the case for why the start-time changes were needed. 

Many of the most vocal critics of later start times, school leaders agree, tend to focus on the changes to extracurricular activities and athletics. If school ends later, they say, the effects cascade through a family’s day: Football or band practice begins later, kids get home later, and then they do homework and eat dinner later.

In Seattle, Katzaroff said that in addition to the concerns around extracurriculars, there was consternation around the fact that high school teachers who were used to ending their day early would no longer have time to schedule afternoon appointments or errands. As a parent, Katzaroff said that later start times also created the need for adjustments when it came to finding after-school care for her elementary school kids, whom she was no longer able to pick up on her own. Burke said that in California he faced a lot of pushback from parents—particularly those who left for work at 7:30 a.m. or 8 a.m. and could no longer drop their kids off. A nationwide bus driver shortage, meanwhile, has complicated the efforts to reorient intradistrict bus schedules around the later start times. 

Anderson is convinced that this sort of pushback stops more districts from changing their own start times across the country. But based on his experience, none of the obstacles are insurmountable. 

“It was tough at first. But now, we’re in our fourth year of implementing this. It’s just the way we do business now,” he said. “And you know what? No one has ever showed up to school early to protest our later start times. They sleep in.”

Smith said that one key to making the transition work is to commit internally as a district and discuss all potential implications. It was only after meticulously sketching out what the change would look like that he said his district opened the floor to engaging with parents and the larger community to ask for input and feedback: “What are your ideas? What should we think about as we implement this plan that we have?” 

During the input stage, Smith said, it is important that everyone communicating with parents really knows and understands the science behind the proposed change. “From the beginning, we communicated that this isn’t only a good thing for academics and sleep, but also for physical health, and for mental health of students—something many of our parents were concerned with.” 

Neil Anderson, executive director of the Boulder Valley School District and a former high school principal at the time of his district’s late-start rollout, agreed. As a principal, he said, his district prepared him to speak clearly about the benefits of the time change, knowing that his community would find him more persuasive than a statement or mailed-home bulletin. “Many parents come to principals to be the communicators and sense makers for them.” 

Anderson recalled “raw” meetings during early listening sessions. But he said the meetings were useful because they allowed the district to improve their plan. When it came to athletics, for example, he made sure to provide flexibility to coaches to ensure that practices started and ended on time and never disrupted learning by requiring kids to miss class time at the end of the day, for instance. For teachers with children, he worked individually with their schedules to ensure that final periods ended before the end of the school day, giving them time to pick up their kids. He also created a physical space for their children to be in school and be monitored by adults while their parents finished their teaching or planning duties. 

For parents who needed to drop students off earlier, despite the later start, Anderson said, his school opened doors at 7:30 a.m. so that anyone who needed to come in early could. “We wanted to honor our parents’ constrictions.” 

Busing issues have been harder to solve—and in some cases the impacts are ongoing. “We have some lingering traffic implications,” said Superintendent Anderson in Boulder. “But we’re able to make it work. We just have to allocate resources and make them a priority.” 

On the expenditure side, school leaders told Edutopia they did not see their budgets rise much due to bus changes. Research suggests that small increases in funding to busing and other expenditures (less than $200 per student) are needed to make later start times a reality—and that this initial investment comes with a 9:1 benefit-to-cost ratio for high school students and 40:1 ratio for middle school students, once you factor in savings to nationwide public health expenditures and the potential increased earnings of students in the future. 

During its rollout of changes to school start times, the Cherry Creek School District partnered with National Jewish Health to collect data from students, parents, and teachers. The results not only showed a 45-minute increase on average in sleep for high school students, but also revealed that the change had minimal impacts on student participation in extracurricular activities—a major concern for the district. 

“It was really important that we partnered with a research organization and we were able to push back out to the community what we found,” Smith said. “We were able to say, ‘Hey, we made this decision—it might have been uncomfortable, but look at what we’re seeing.’”

Like other leaders who spoke to Edutopia, Smith said the initial pushback to the new start times never lasted long. “Things that seemed like they were going to be big deals really weren’t after a few months,” he said. “Eventually, people just got used to it.”

In 2023, Seattle, which had struggled to implement the new policy, considered moving some of the start times back toward their previous times. Katzaroff said the pushback was immediate. “The community was like: No way!” she said, which suggested to her that whatever initial concerns there were, they’d largely been overcome. 

“On a case-by-case basis, I’m sure there are some people who say, I’d like more afternoon time, or something like that,” she said. “But as a community, I don’t think there is a lot of will to change things back. Honestly, I think most of my high school students would like to start later than we already do.”

Two States Of Angularjs Validation

Introduction to AngularJS Validation

AngularJS offers client-side form validation. We use AngularJS as a frontend framework that is very scalable and easy to code and developed our single-page angular web application. The AngularJS validation also provides us with more exciting features like form validation, which only validates the user input to the client side without sending it to the backend server for validation. Also, it reduces our backend code and complexity for code maintenance. In angular, we have form validation, and we can also create custom validation as well.

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States of AngularJS Validation

So in angular js, we have divided the states into two parts. They are specific to form and fields.

1. Input Filed State

As we input different fields into the form, they possess varying states, outlined below. Each of these fields has a Boolean value of either true or false:

$dirty: This state shows whether the file is modified or not.

$untouched: This state shows whether the current form filed is touched.

$valid: This file holds significance as it showcases that the input data we have provided complies with the requested input.

$touched: It is used to show the field is touched.

$invalid: This file shows that the input we have provided is invalid according to the input we have asked to enter.

$pristine: This indicates that we have not done anything on the filed yet means has not been modified by the user.

2. Form State

The form state is as follows now all the states will apply for whole form fields, not for specific one or two:

$valid: Apply to the entire form that shows fields are valid.

$dirty: Used to show whether more than one field is modified or not.

$submitted: This state shows that the form is submitted.

$pristine: Apply to the whole form to show more than one file has not been modified yet.

$invalid: This indicates that the form fields are invalid corresponding to the input asked to enter.

Similarly, all these form states also have Boolean values, true or false. We can use these states to show some messages to the user, error messages, or success messages.

Following is an example to show validation:



Examples of AngularJS Validation

Fields can easily ensure validity by applying built-in validation options such as email and required in Angular.

Example #1

Email Validation.

If we have user input that contains the user’s email, we need to verify the input data so we can directly make this field a type of email. It is a feature of HTML5. Below is one example to show how to use this.


When we provide the correct email format, it will show the below output:

Example #2

Required Validation.

This is also an HTML5 feature that makes the filed as required. Below is a simple example to show how to use this.



We can also have custom validation, which means we can build our own validation according to the requirement. But that is not easy; we must make many things that make the code tricky to understand. We need to add a new directive to our application as follows.

Example #3

Custom Validation.


var app = angular.module(‘myApp’, []); app.directive(‘myDirective1’, function() { return { require: ‘ngModel’, link: function(scope, element, attr, mCtrl) { function myValidation1(value) { mCtrl.$setValidity(‘charE’, true); } else { mCtrl.$setValidity(‘charE’, false); } return value; } mCtrl.$parsers.push(myValidation1); } }; });


Here we are adding a new directive named mydirective1. The directive should follow the camel case naming convention. When calling the directive, it should be separated by a hyphen (‘-‘). Furthermore, an object is being returned to ngModel. Now we will make one function that takes argument according to requirement, and here mCTRL1 is the ngModelCotroller. Now test the input by providing some value wrong and right it will return true or false based on the value passed.


So AngularJS validation provides client-side validation before submitting it to the back end. So it reduces some backend calls to improve performance. Also, we can create custom validations by creating a directive in AngularJS, linking them with the controller, and providing logic in functions.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to AngularJS Validation. Here we discuss the introduction and states of AngularJS validation, examples, and code implementation. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

Making Ethical Decisions And Taking Action

Recent years have seen much interest in how humans make judgments. Such interest focuses exclusively on the prevalence of dubious decisions and the reasons why people who ought to stay informed execute them. The main goal is to pinpoint the origins of erroneous conclusions that could endanger our clients and us. If we have been working as mental health professionals for any time, we have almost likely encountered at least one ethical challenge that either directly affected us or concerned a colleague we know well.

Self-Deception Red Flags

This somewhat new interest in the decider rather than just the choice aids in explaining a behavior we frequently noticed while sitting on ethics committees. Many of the psychologists who appeared before the committee seemed to be improbable ethical breakers, even if some of them merited to be criminally prosecuted. Warning indicators frequently remained unnoticed because of justifications, intense stress, incapacity in a particular circumstance, or negligence. Therefore, we are likely to act by forces we need not entirely recognize if we digest important information without clear recognition. However, if a situation indicating possible risk is obvious, it is vital to consider it carefully and make necessary adjustments in the following phase.

Making Role-Blending Decisions

A significant fraction of therapists’ worst or most careless decisions result from role mixing. Amid self-serving conditions, frontiers become flimsy and cross a line if not recognized and corrected promptly. Roles become incongruous when one role’s expectations call for actions or behavior that conflicts with another. There are three criteria to measure the harm caused by role merging. First, there is a greater chance of harm as the ideals of professionals and individuals they serve diverge. Second, there is a greater chance of losing objectivity and having divided loyalties as job responsibilities diverge. Third, the risk of exploitation increases when the therapist’s influence and reputation outweigh the client’s needs.

Making Decisions When There is Lead Time

We must emphasize right away that using ethical decision-making techniques does not result in a decision being made. However, a thorough analysis of the circumstance will significantly impact the choice.

Strategies for Decision-Making Ethical Decision-Making Under Behavioural Emergencies and Crisis Conditions

Frenetic communications from clients or their families, threats made by clients to hurt themselves or others, unanticipated client behavior or requests, and startling disclosures throughout a session are not uncommon events. Consequently, ethical conundrums requiring a quick solution can and do emerge abruptly.

Therapists may understandably feel anxious and become more inclined to act less than adequately if they need more time to formulate a properly considered conclusion utilizing a technique like the one we just described. It is also feasible that anxiety can induce unethical, self-serving, or even protective choices. Although behavioral catastrophes and emergencies are frequently used identically, differentiating between the two may be important for making decisions.

A behavioral emergency demands an urgent response and intervention to prevent potential injury. Suicidal or violent behavior, as well as interpersonal victimization, are behavioral crises. The client’s state must be assessed first, and then an intervention to lower the risk of damage must be made. Interventions might be as simple as listening without judgment or as complex as directing inpatient hospitalization.

Finally, a strategy for the subsequent steps needs to be developed for an outside occurrence that upsets a person’s psychological balance and makes it difficult for them to cope. These can range from less serious but stressful situations, including reacting to a spouse who abruptly asks for a separation or losing a job, to the anguish brought on by a life-or-death circumstance. The person may request help or, at the very least, greet it.

When deciding and responding amidst emergency or critical settings, persons in the mental health profession rate highly among those in occupations subject to ethical and statutory constraints. These circumstances apply when therapists are worried about a client’s health, when the appropriate action to take is ambiguous, when the scenario is impassioned, when the clock is ticking or when a bad outcome happens, and the stakes are great. Adapting and both decision-making abilities must be used.

Even though disclosing would undermine trust in the process, alerting the proper authorities would be permissible. Irrespective of the real or potential danger, therapists may experience anxiety or distress if there is an oncoming emergency and they are forced to make several difficult decisions at once. In times of potential disaster, especially when it comes to affairs of life and death, the most socially responsible course of action might entail comforting grieving family members, divulging information that would have remained private under ordinary situations, exercising more patience, or touching clients or their partners more frequently than usual, or even particularly searching for them.

Preparation for Emergencies in Advance Conclusion

Making moral choices can help us maintain our integrity, create a positive image of ourselves in professional situations, and produce work we are pleased with. It can be difficult and time-consuming to properly incorporate ethics into our decision-making properly, yet doing so can improve our reputation and sense of value. By prioritizing ethics in our working practice, we can improve our capacity to act in a manner that reflects our underlying values.

120Hz Tvs And Phones Are Here: Do You Need It?

Consumer electronics such as TVs and phones are often marketed with new technology buzzwords that are easy to stick on the outside of the box. Which is why you see icons with terms like “4K”, “HDR” and other technology soundbites emblazoned on the marketing materials. 

Now “120Hz” has joined the list of marketable features for both of these product types. What does this mean? A “120Hz TV” refers to the “refresh rate” of the TV screen, which needs just a little explanation.

Table of Contents

What Does “Refresh Rate” Mean?

The refresh rate describes how often your screen can completely update the image it’s displaying. So a 120Hz TV screen can display 120 unique fresh images every second! It’s a simple concept, but it has a significant impact on what the image looks like.

Refresh rate is related to the “frame rate” of the content you’re viewing. That is, how many unique still frames for every second of the video’s duration. The more frames there are each second, the smoother the motion will appear. If the content has a frame rate higher than the refresh rate of the screen, then you’ll see no benefit from the extra motion detail.

Refresh Rate Vs. Resolution

You’re probably already familiar with the concept of “resolution” when it comes to modern screens. This is the number of “pixels” that make up the picture. The higher the resolution, the finer the detail in the image. This assumes you’re displaying an image that contains enough detail to match what the screen is capable of displaying!

The refresh rate is somewhat like resolution. In fact, it’s sometimes referred to as “temporal” resolution. It’s the amount of motion detail that can be displayed over time, as opposed to the total amount of detail that can be shown in a single frame.

120Hz displays do not have to be a particular resolution. For 120Hz TVs, most units are going to offer a 4K image resolution, but you might find examples that offer that refresh rate at lower resolutions. So remember to assess these two features separately. 

It’s also important to ensure that the connection options on your TV support 120Hz at the resolution you desire. A TV with an HDMI 2.1 connector is capable of 120Hz at 4K resolutions. Anything lower than this does not officially support this resolution and refresh rate combination.

Why 120Hz Matters for TVs

Just about every TV in homes and on shelves today supports a minimum of 60Hz. Right now, you won’t find any video content on platforms like YouTube that runs at a higher refresh rate. For cinematic content, 24 frames per second is the norm, with the occasional experiment at higher rates, such as the Hobbit films which were offered at 48 frames per second. Much of television content is at 30 frames per second. So, as you can see, there’s little if anything to watch above 60Hz.

Things are very different when we switch to computers or gaming consoles. The latest generation of gaming consoles are capable of outputting frame rates at 120Hz, depending on the title. So in titles that can run at those speeds, you’ll experience incredible smoothness and responsiveness.

Why 120Hz Matters for Phones and Tablets

While the case for 120Hz on a TV is all about ultimate fluidity, there’s an added dimension on phones and tablets. That’s because on a smartphone the screen is not only something you look at. It’s a tactile interface. 

A 120Hz screen’s fluidity improves the feel of using a touch interface. Usually the touch detection on such phones is also set to sample your touch input at 120Hz, which makes the phone feel snappy and intuitive to use. Many people who have used 120Hz smartphones feel that 60Hz interfaces now feel sluggish, regardless of how fast the internal processors are.

120Hz phones do have trade offs however. Usually the phone has to run at a slightly lower resolution than its screen is capable of, resulting in a slightly less sharp image. 120Hz phones are also more power hungry, though they do offer power saving options, such as lowering the refresh rate in battery saving mode.

Other Display Features to Consider

The refresh rate of a screen is just one component that affects overall image quality. As we mentioned before, in some cases 120Hz mode requires dropping your image resolution. A 120Hz TV that lacks features such as HDR or good black levels may be a worse overall choice than a 60Hz model that does have these features.

So you should never let a single marketing number such as “120Hz” sway you one way or another. Rather, look at the device holistically and consider it in relation to the content you’re actually going to consume and the use cases you have for it.

Be Aware of “Fake” 120Hz TVs!

Many TVs list an “effective” rate of 120Hz or some other high refresh rate. However, what these TVs actually do is use a technique such as black frame insertion or frame interpolation to make motion look smoother.

However, you aren’t actually seeing more than 60 frames of video per second, since the fake frames don’t contain new information. Always look for a native 120Hz (or higher) refresh rate if you want the real deal!

Is 120Hz For You?

Here we get to the bottom line. Should you upgrade your current TV or phone to one with a 120Hz display?

On the TV side of the equation, the only people who should really consider the jump to 120Hz in the short term are gamers. The new PlayStation 5 and Xbox Series S and X consoles can offer gaming content at up to 120 frames per second. This is a significant upgrade. If you have a powerful gaming PC, there are monitors that support up to 240Hz as a graphics card can output at a frame rate higher than 120.

If you’re thinking about getting one of these new consoles, it’s worth purchasing a 120Hz TV with 4K capability. For other content types, there’s no rush at all. In fact, most people don’t like the look of high frame rate video when it comes to movies and TV shows.

When it comes to 120Hz phones, games also get a nice improvement. Assuming the phone in question can run the game at those speeds. However, the true value of 120Hz comes in the tactile user experience. 120Hz mobile devices feel dramatically more snappy and reactive. It’s a usability revolution that just about anyone will appreciate. While it’s not a reason to immediately dump your current smartphone, most people buy phones on a much shorter replacement cycle than televisions. 

Our recommendation for when that time comes is to look for a handset that offers 120Hz input and display. The subjective improvement in responsiveness and feel is so dramatic, that we’re comfortable in saying that a 120Hz display should be a minimum for phones and tablets moving forward.

Making Transitions Work For Students And Teachers

Some of the most challenging moments in a teacher’s day are during transitions—those moments when we move between academic subject areas or activities. Students may see transitions as an opportunity to release tension built up after long periods of passive instruction. Teachers, on the other hand, generally want short and efficient transitions from one activity to another.

These differing needs can lead to conflict. Students may be frustrated that they have little opportunity for social conversation or individual self-care. Teachers may be frustrated that their transitions are taking too long precisely because kids are indulging in social conversation or individual self-care.

But we may be missing an opportunity here. After all, what students are craving is the opportunity to relate to one another positively and practice self-management by giving themselves a break between sessions. These are important social and emotional learning (SEL) skill areas, and transitions can easily be infused with SEL skills practice. Let’s think together about how we can create transitions that fulfill both our needs and the needs of our students.

The Teacher’s Need for Efficient Transitions

How many of us have stopped instruction to remind students to refrain from side conversations? It’s a frustrating experience for any teacher. Because presentational instruction is often more effective and efficient when students are silent, some of us conclude that students should be silent during transitions as well. But what creates effective and efficient transitions is clarity, not silence. We need to consider the possibility that transitions could involve talking, laughing, moving joyfully, or listening to music and still be efficient, if we are clear about what should be happening in the transition.

Understanding Student Needs

Classroom climate is determined by the quality of the relationships in the room. Positive relationships make everyone feel safe and supported, which, as research tells us, increases academic performance. Our students’ urge to have social conversations throughout the day speaks to this need. In addition, sitting still and absorbing information for long periods is truly challenging for many students, as it is for many adults. In addition to connecting positively with their peers, students may need a chance to cultivate their own self-management skills by engaging in some type of self-care between long periods of passive academic instruction.

Meeting Teacher and Student Needs

If we accept that our need for efficient transitions and our students’ needs for social conversation and self-care are equally valid, we can look at transitions as an opportunity to provide everyone with more of what they need. We just need to provide some guidance about what kind of social conversation or self-care students can engage in during transitions.

Sometimes kids simply need a break between activities. These breaks can be as short as two or three minutes. The more autonomy that we provide during breaks, the more willing students will be to join us in the next planned activity. Consider providing a menu of break activities and let students choose. You could allow them to chat with friends quietly, draw, write in their journal, listen to music using headphones, daydream, or stretch or move around in some other way—especially helpful between sedentary tasks.

Sometimes, you may want to suggest transition activities that address the particular needs of the moment. For instance:

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