You are reading the article Four Marketing Lessons From Consumer Inbox Behavior updated in December 2023 on the website Daihoichemgio.com. We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested January 2024 Four Marketing Lessons From Consumer Inbox BehaviorUK DMA’s survey reveals key insights for email marketers
One of the challenges for email marketers is to stop thinking like email marketers.
A lot of assumptions about best practices are based on our collective view of just what’s going on inside consumer inboxes. But this view is biased by what’s going on inside our own inboxes.
If you’re an email marketer, you’re probably an online regular with a heavy duty email account or accounts. The same can’t be said of the proverbial man and woman in the street: the people who typically get the actual emails.
Our email experience is not their email experience.
Or is it?
Truth is we don’t really know.
Surveys of end users can, however, help correct our misconceptions. They provide important insight into how we might adapt our email campaigns to the reality of end-user chúng tôi the benefit of the email bottom line.
The UK DMA, chúng tôi and Alchemy Worx recently released the 2011 edition of the Email Tracker Report, which surveyed 1,800 UK consumers on their inbox activity and habits, responses and attitudes to commercial email, use of mobile email, and their social sharing behavior.
The numbers include a few surprises. For example, it turns out most people do not use email during their working day.Lesson 1: The wider relationship is important
Survey result: Over 60% of respondents are signed up to 10 or fewer senders.
People enter relatively few email relationships when you consider the total number of brands (i.e. potential senders) they interact with.
Many email marketers conceive campaigns on the assumption that the recipient’s inbox is flooded with great deals from their many competitors. This may not be the case, offering more scope for alternatives to the ever-increasing-discount wars, including content-oriented, loyalty and branding messages.
Senders face a challenge to crack what Merkle have long called the “inner circle” of senders (they say the average email user subscribes to email from just over 11 companies). The key here may be to exploit the wider, existing (hopefully positive) relationship with the recipient to capture the opt-in. For example by placing sign-up CTAs at key points of contact (like the point of sale in stores) or promoting the email list in transactional communications.
Loren McDonald has a good list building overview, where he emphasizes the need to exploit heightened interest caused by the forthcoming holiday season. It’s a similar principle: exploit the existing brand relationship to get the opt-in.Lesson 2: Email drives many out-of-email responses
Alchemy Worx’s Dela Quist sums up nicely in the report’s introduction:
“Email makes things happen in other channels and at other times too. Many consumers hold on to email to refer to for later use, which is vital for attribution and a valuable growing trend: a consumer who returns a week later to retrieve a commercial email demonstrates very high purchase propensity, for instance.”
The recognition that emails are having a significant impact on attitudes and responses outside of the actual email itself changes everything, as I’ve written before. To summarize:
it tells us we need to reassess how we measure email success, so our investment in email reflects it’s true value
it encourages us to create specific campaigns to exploit the out-of-email response, driving action now through other channels or driving action in the future through branding and awareness impacts.
“Organizations need to do a better job at defining an inactive”Lesson 3: You might be able to send more emails after all
Survey result: 94% of respondents are signed up to email from trusted brands, but over half are getting less than 3 such emails a day total.
Most inboxes are not overflowing with commercial email from trusted brands. This is confirmed by benchmark reports which show UK email frequencies at long-term lows.
Email marketers have long been wary of increasing email frequency for fear of triggering excessive spam complaints. Sending “too much” email is chúng tôi nor do you want to miss out on responses by sending “too little”.
Just under 1 in 10 respondents cited “too many emails” as the primary reason for marking a message as spam. So it’s still an issue, but many senders may be well under the threshold for what constitutes “too many”.
1. Consider carefully testing broad-brush increases in frequency
2. Explore ways to deliver more value, which lifts both responses and upper thresholds for acceptable frequency
3. Treat frequency changes as another option for specific segments or individuals. Your list is not an amorphous blob: some subscribers might resent more email, some will welcome it. The challenge is identifying the subscriber preferences, characteristics and/or behavior that lets you know who falls into each categoryLessons 4: Social sharing is not a global panacea
Survey result: 33% of respondents use no social network at all. Only 12% of respondents said they shared commercial email content into their social networks.
There is much interest in exploiting the interaction between social networks and email to the benefit of both.
That interest is justified, but needs to be tempered by realism: content and CTAs involving social networks are not relevant to many (most?) subscribers.
Rather than clutter up emails with “share with your network” links as a matter of course, marketers may benefit from using social CTAs more selectively. One option is to target by social network use, placing stronger focus on social calls to action with subscribers identified as potential sharers and influencers.
A second option is to reserve sharing efforts for specific contexts. Gretchen Scheiman, for example, recommends three reasons to keep (or not) sharing links in emails:
When the email content is newsworthy
When sharing is central to the message
When sharing is the way you increase your audience
We shouldn’t forget, of course, that what consumers say and what they do are not necessarily the same. Yet this kind of research does alert us to the key differences between our biased perceptions and inbox reality.
If you want to find out more about the way the email consumer thinks, as well as the DMA study, you might also want to check out surveys by e-Dialog, ContactLab, ExactTarget, Merkle. Or have you conducted your own study recently? What did you learn?
You're reading Four Marketing Lessons From Consumer Inbox Behavior
When your website has become a running joke on late-night talk shows, you know you have a problem. Yet, as CIOs move to cloud architectures, many are worrying that they’ll have a chúng tôi experience themselves.
Of course, website launches fail spectacularly all the time. It’s not uncommon for new apps and sites to crash, hang and frustrate users in a million and one ways. Eventually, the kinks get ironed out, but those ROI projections you presented to the CEO are now a complete fiction.
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This is one of the reasons risk-averse CIOs are hesitant about moving from tried-and-true on-premise systems to cloud ones: fear of the unknown. If an on-premise system goes down, it’s not hard to figure out whose neck to choke. When a cloud application breaks, do you even have the visibility into the infrastructure to know what went wrong?
Here are four lessons you can learn from the chúng tôi fiasco to help guide you as you adopt, migrate to, and build cloud applications.
One thing overlooked as we discuss how profoundly chúng tôi failed as a site is that contractors were not able to tap in to the efficiencies of cloud providers like AWS, which until very recently was considered too insecure for federal purposes. Thus, legacy providers such as Oracle, Quality Software Solutions, Booz Allen and CGI Federal were tasked with building a patchwork chúng tôi system that hearkens back to the late 90s.
You know that old IT saying: “No one gets fired for choosing [Big Name IT Company].” True enough, but, unfortunately, chúng tôi missed its chance to create a streamlined, agile, cloud-based infrastructure, believing instead that this approach would be too risky.
Most organizations fear moving too quickly with new technologies. Sometimes the truly risky option is moving too slowly and sticking with the status quo, especially when the status quo is quickly disappearing in the rearview mirror (unless you’re stuck in the slow lane, of course).
It’s been more than a dozen years since a few top-tier software developers met at a Utah ski resort and came up with the Manifesto for Agile Software Development. Yet, the very term “agile development” seems to be one that doesn’t translate into chúng tôi development-speak.
“It’s important to engage service providers with experience in agile delivery methods that can effectively act as a catalyst for transforming delivery capabilities,” said Craig Wright, a principal at consulting firm Pace Harmon. “Ensure that outsourcing agreements include meaningful expectations around agile service delivery performance structures and relevant provisions to hold service providers responsible for quickly responding to changing needs, aggregating their services into an ecosystem-wide, seamless end-to-end service experience for users.”
A lingering question in my mind is: didn’t anyone see this coming? Good developers know about the bugs they ship. They may not have caught them all, but they know they’re in there and that they’ll have to fix them sooner or later. Typically, the product has reached “good enough” status, so shipping even with some bugs isn’t that big of a risk. Let’s just call this the Microsoft model, and that’s not a slam on Microsoft.
However, the Microsoft model dictates that the product is “good enough,” or that it actually works. It may not work perfectly, but if they’re shipping a browser, you can actually browse the web with it.
Judging from all of these chúng tôi “glitches,” you have to conclude that QA engineers must have all been furloughed during the government shutdown.
“It is clear to us, by the types of issues consumers are experiencing with chúng tôi this past month that the site was not fully tested,” said Tom Lounibos, CEO of SOASTA, a provider of test automation and monitoring tools. “One of the most common problems in website development is the focus on the speed of delivery versus the quality of the end-user experience.”
One of the rumors circulating this week is that Verizon will be tapped to fix chúng tôi But there’s a problem buried in that solution. It’s not always easy to jump ship this far into a project. The existing contractors, including GCI Federal and Booz Allen, will have to release their proprietary code to Verizon (or to whomever the fixer ends up being). That fact alone makes the repair more complicated and difficult.
As you evaluate various cloud providers, platforms and tools, it’s worth putting “open source” on your list of selection criteria. Then, if something goes wrong, it’ll be much easier to throw the fools causing the problem overboard and bring someone else in who can take the helm without a lengthy transition period.
Jeff Vance is a technology journalist based in Santa Monica, California. Connect with him on LinkedIn, follow him on Twitter @JWVance, add him to your cloud computing circle on Google Plus, or just shoot him an old-fashioned email at [email protected].
UiPath, one of the largest RPA players, filed its S-1 on March, 25, 2023 to get listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker PATH. UiPath is expected to raise $1 billion. After 2023 first quarter, UiPath raised their initial IPO range from $43 to $50 per share, to $52 to $54 per share.
UiPath’s initial public offering (IPO) filing includes important information about the company and the market trends shedding more light on how it became one of the fastest growing software companies in enterprise software. We summarized the highlights:
UiPath’s main activities
UiPath has created an end-to-end automation platform enabling customers to build, manage, run, engage, measure, and govern automation programs. Integrated Computer Vision capabilities, an AI platform, low code development capabilities and a free community edition are prominent features in the market for UiPath.
UiPath’s revenue comes from licenses for its proprietary software, maintenance and support, and professional services. License fees are based on the number of its software users and the number of automations running on its platform.IPO timing
UiPath is expected to go public sometime between June-September 2023.
Control will remain with the founder, Daniel Dines, .
Through the fundraising rounds, Daniel has kept Class B shares while investors have picked Class A shares. Due to 35 votes assigned to each Class B and 1 vote assigned to each Class A share, Daniel will be controlling ±%91 of votes.
This is similar to the models followed by Facebook and Google where founders retained control in public companies. So far, this has generated significant value for shareholders in the case of mentioned companies. However, one person rule checked purely by stock market regulations and laws is not a very diversified or democratic model of corporate control.
Finally, even though the company is controlled by a single individual, it has not chosen to get listed as a “controlled company” which would have exempted it from certain requirements about its boards and committee.Stakeholders Customers
UiPath is focused on large enterprises. As of January/2023,
75% of revenues were from 13% of customers (i.e. 1,002 / 7,968). These customers have an ARR of $100,000+
35% of revenues were from 1% of customers (i.e. 89 / 7,968). ARR of these customers was $1.0+ million
Most large enterprises seem to be trying UiPath with limited budgets or using it limited scenarios. Its customer base has exceeded ±8,000 customers including 80% of the Fortune 10 and 63% of the Fortune Global 500. Its large enterprise clients include:
Bank of America
Chipotle Mexican Grill
Deutsche Post DHL
Uber Technologies, Inc.
Most of its revenues (61%) are from outside the US which is not surprising given that was started in Romania.
UiPath also released a version of its software as a community edition which helps with growing its visibility in the market.Partners
Though we couldn’t find the numbers in the S-1, we expect most of UiPath’s customer relationships to be initiated by its partners.
UiPath has more than 3,700 business partners including BPOs, System Integrators (SIs) and consultants including Accenture LLP, Capgemini SE, CGI Inc., Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation, Deloitte & Touche LLP, Ernst and Young LLP, KPMG LLP, and PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP.
UiPath also underlined 3 types of tech partnerships:
Integrations to tech platforms like Adobe, Alteryx built either by these platforms or in partnership with UiPath team
OCR/ NLP and custom ML and AI solutions
Cloud tech providers like AWS, Google, Microsoft AzureTarget market size
UiPath’s market potential estimate relies on the revenues of its best performing customers so it seemed optimistic but not surprising for us. Companies tend to overestimate their addressable market to investors.
UiPath estimates its current market potential to be $60 billion. Underlying assumption is that all companies can spend on RPA in similar levels to UiPath’s highest revenue customers. UiPath’s rationale is that these customers have had the time to implement RPA and gain significant benefit from it and that other companies will also achieve the same.
Their methodology is:
Identification of number of companies with minimum 200 employees in all sectors
Grouping those companies into three segments according their total number of employees
Multiplication of the companies in each segment with their estimated revenue potential. To estimate this, UiPath team segmented their own customer base into three segments as described above. Then, for each segment, they take the 90th percentile of customer Annual Recurring Revenue ARR as of December 31, 2023, among customers with at least $10,000 in ARR. They take this ARR to be representative of the market potential for that segment
Summing the results from each of these segments
UiPath is active in the below markets and based on their total, we estimate their current market to be worth $2-3 billion in 2023:
RPA including AI enabled RPA applications: Current market size is expected to be $1.9bn by Gartner
Process mining: Less than $1 billion since in 2023 this market was still estimated to be ±160 million.
We did not estimate the market potential since it not a measurable figure.
Before new companies adopt RPA, there will be alternatives to RPA which will be preferred by some of these companies.
The companies that have the potential to implement RPA will also be growing along with the overall economy.
Due to the dynamic nature of this, we do not find market potential to be informative. Market size and estimated growth rates are more relevant for estimating growth of industry participants. While the market growth is harder to estimate, UiPath grew its total revenue from $336M in 2023 to $608M in 2023, achieving 81% annual growth*.Financials Profitability
The company significantly reduced its operating loss from $517M to $110M in 2023*. Keeping losses at these levels, the $1 bn that is planned to be raised would give them a 10 year runway. However, the company will probably want to increase its losses and expand its revenues since it can raise funds relatively easily as a public company.
The reduction in operating loss was mostly driven by
$272M increase in revenues
$103M reduction in sales & marketing spend mainly due to reducing headcount via restructuring and limited conference related costs
$21M reduction in R&D
$18M reduction in G&ARevenue growth
UiPath is one of the fastest growing companies in the history of enterprise software. It took them ±13 years to reach 1M ARR and just 2 years to reach 100M ARR.Future
UiPath has been expanding the scope of its offering while other players have been making acquisitions. We expect more activity in the industry since this is still a fast growing industry which attracts the interest of numerous tech giants
UiPath has made acquisitions including these:
Cloud Elements, an API integration platform in 2023.
Process Gold a process mining platform in 2023.
Other acquisitions & partnerships in the RPA space include but are not limited to:
Service Now’s acquisition of Intellibot in 2023
Microsoft’s acquisition of Softomotive in 2023 and its launch of Power Automate as part of its Office 365 offering
Google Cloud & Automation Anywhere partnership
SAP’s acquisition of Contextor in 2023Impact of Covid-19
As any other automation company, UiPath claims that the pandemic accelerated the adoption of automation and created more opportunity for RPA market. This is hard to confirm quantitatively because the company
was already in a high growth phase at the time of the pandemic. In such cases, impact of events like pandemics are harder to observe when compared to companies more stagnant financial growth.
did not share quarterly revenues before 2023 Q4.
SOURCE: UIPATH s-1
However, based on the available data, it seems that pandemic has not significantly accelerated UiPath’s already impressive growth. As seen above from their S-1, they have quadrupled (i.e. from 700+ to 2,800+) their number of customers in a year (2023-2023) before COVID-19. However, post-pandemic, they have doubled their number of customers in a similar timespan (from 2023 to 2023). However, it is also worth noting that as companies get larger, their growth rates dwindle as it is harder to grow a larger company. Therefore, it is not clear whether the pandemic had a positive or negative impact on UiPath’s growth.
To see all RPA companies, feel free to check out our prioritized, data driven list of RPA companies.
For more info on RPA:
* These are 2023 and 2023 fiscal year figures. Their fiscal year ends in January 2023 and they call that as fiscal year 2023 revenue. We simply called it as 2023 revenue since 11 months of that fiscal year was in 2023.
Cem regularly speaks at international technology conferences. He graduated from Bogazici University as a computer engineer and holds an MBA from Columbia Business School.
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Undoubtedly Microsoft Outlook is a great email client application that is used to manage various types of personal data included with the Microsoft Office suite. But at times you may encounter errors while working on Outlook. One such error code 0x800CCC0E users encountered when they find an issue while sending or receiving email messages on Outlook. With this error code, you could see the following error message:
Outlook cannot download folder Inbox from the IMAP email server, Error 0x800CCC0E
So if you have also faced Outlook Error 0x800CCC0E on your Windows device, then this guide will help you to resolve the problem.Fix Outlook cannot download folder Inbox from the IMAP email server, Error 0x800CCC0E
The Outlook cannot download folder Inbox from the IMAP email server, Error 0x800CCC0E is a common situation when your emails stop working in Outlook however it keeps working on the other devices at the same time. To resolve such type of problem, follow the below suggestions:
Check server requirement from settings
Delete duplicate accounts
Change server port number
Let us see them in details:1] Check server requirement from settings
Another possible solution is to check the server requirement from settings.
To get it started, open Microsoft Outlook first.
Then go to the top menu bar select File.
This will open a new wizard named Internet E-mail Settings.
Switch to the Outgoing Server tab and mark the checkbox next to My outgoing server (SMTP) required authentication.
Once you complete the procedure, restart the application and see if it works.3] Delete duplicate accounts
Duplicate accounts are also one of the reasons for the occurrences of this error. So, if you have also a duplicate account, delete it and check if it helps you to get rid of this issue.
Inside the Account Settings window, make sure you’re on the E-mail tab.
Now select the duplicate account from the list and hit the Remove button.
After following steps properly, restart Outlook and check if the problem is solved now.4] Change server port number
It is suggested that whenever you encounter this kind of problem you should change the server port number. Here are the steps to get you started:
Once the Change Account window opens, go to the bottom-right corner and hit the More Settings button.
Under Server Port Numbers, change the Outgoing server (SMTP) port number to 587.
Once you complete the steps, restart the application and check if it resolved the problem.4] Repair Outlook
Sometimes this type of problem is temporary and only restarting it will fix the problem. Although, if it doesn’t work, try to repair the application using the below instructions:
Open the Windows Settings using the Win+I keyboard shortcut.
Under Apps & features, scroll through the list and select the Office Product you want to repair.
On the next page, select the radio button next to the Repair button and then hit Continue.
Now follow the on-screen instructions to proceed with the repair process.
Once you complete it successfully, restart Outlook and try to send the email again.
Read: Repair corrupt Outlook PST & OST personal data files with Inbox Repair Tool, etc.5] Re-install Outlook to fix Error 0x800ccc0e
If the problem is still persevering, in such a case reinstallation of the Outlook can possibly resolve the error.
To do so, open the Control Panel first and then go to Programs and Features.
Select the Uninstall button from the context menu.
Now follow the on-screen instructions to complete the uninstallation process.
This will successfully remove the Office app from your device.
Now it’s time to install Office 365 on Windows PC again.
When you complete the steps, check if you’re now able to send and receive the email again.
Unfortunately, if none of the above solutions worked here, try to contact the Office Support.
That’s it. Let us know which method you find helpful to fix this Outlook error.
CBD has made a huge splash in the market recently, with sales expected to reach over $800 million this year alone. But with a newer marketplace comes a lack of consumer understanding around the products and marketing challenges for CBD consumer packaged goods companies.
Our team, led by Anthony Bratti, Western Region President & Head of National Cannabis Industry for USA TODAY NETWORK, understands the unique challenges that come from marketing a CBD brand. He and his team work firsthand with CBD businesses to help them reach the right audience in the right ways. And, with a CBD marketing study about to be released that goes into detail about who’s using CBD, what makes them unique, and the best ways to connect with them, we wanted to get more information from Anthony about the study, what it’s like working with CBD brands, and some teasers.Tell me a little about the study itself?
So, one, it’s the largest CBD study ever conducted in the U.S. We’re excited about that and about what that means for the data we were able to collect. Two, the findings from the study enable us to be able to understand the buyer’s journey based on their demographics and where they are relative to education and use of the products as they come out into market.
There are so many different types of CBD right now. There’s the CBD oils and edibles, then there’s makeup, there are pet products, and more. And each of these types of CBD products have their own target audiences and ways they should be reaching those audiences. This study allows us to understand those people and better equip our CBD clients to reach them.It sounds like there are a lot of opportunities when it comes to marketing CBD right now.
Yes, so many opportunities. There are opportunities to break into the different product lines I outlined, connect with your audience, and really stand out in those spaces.
For example, we’re working with a brand that has CBD makeup. I had no idea there was a makeup line that incorporated CBD and all the benefits that come with that. And I know a lot of other people are the same way. So, we can create awareness and education around this product line for this brand, which will bring in new customers.
Another thing is educating on what your brand is doing to stand out or go above and beyond. The CBD brands we work with do a lot of independent testing done beyond the regular product testing, and that’s something we found that consumers are interested in. You can get CBD at pretty much any grocery store or Amazon right now, and there’s not really any regulation. So, by getting independent testing done and further verifying you have a trusted product, you can attract consumers and set yourself apart in a crowded marketplace.You briefly mentioned the benefits of CBD ““ what are some of the misconceptions around CBD?
Consumers are very new to CBD ““ they want to know is it legal or is it illegal? It is cannabis or is it not? So, that’s always the first question: is it legal. Second, they want to know if it’s legal everywhere. Can they take it on a plane?
And then beyond that, they truly don’t understand the true health benefits.
So, going back to opportunity ““ this is the chance for brands to tell their story and communicate the clear benefits. I think the key with CBD marketing is education because consumers aren’t sure what CBD can do. They don’t know how to buy it and what to buy it for.
Once brands provide that education, there’s a chance to build their brand and really hone in on the audiences they want to target.
That’s one of the reasons I’m excited about this study. We really outline the audiences that are using CBD and the best ways to reach them.Speaking of the study, what teasers can you give us?
So, we had over 10,000 respondents, and over 20% of respondents said they saw a significant reduction in alcohol use once they started using CBD. The eye-opening data that came from this study is pretty amazing, not only to help us better hone in on marketing strategies for our clients ““ but also to help our clients get the word out there on the positive impact CBD is having on the lives of the consumers across the country. We also examined consumer behavior as it relates to what consumers think about CBD in a traditional retail space, how to drive trial, brand loyalty, and ultimately basket size. Last but not least ““ we have found that each CBD brand has its own unique attributes and appeal to different consumer groups. Because of that, we took a more granular approach with how we looked at audience segmentation so we could assist our partners with creating brand strategies that make them stand out in a crowded marketplace. And that’s the power of the USA TODAY NETWORK’s network of consumers coupled with our data and intelligence capabilities.
I think this study allows us to see a direct result of our data and intelligence in how we deliver marketing solutions for our partners. That’s the most important thing for me.How can people find out more about this report?
We’d love to share it with them. Just email Jennifer Metzger at [email protected], and one of our experts will get back with you.Stephanie Heitman
Stephanie is the Associate Director of Content for LocaliQ and WordStream. She has over 10 years of experience in content and social media marketing and loves writing about all things digital marketing. When she’s not researching the latest and greatest marketing news and updates, she’s probably watching reality TV with her husband, reading, or playing with her two pups.
Other posts by Stephanie Heitman
As consumers, we often face various challenges that make making informed decisions about products and services difficult. Whether dealing with information overload, coping with negative experiences, or navigating complex purchasing decisions, consumers need effective coping strategies to manage these challenges. This is where consumer coping research comes in – a field of study that aims to understand how consumers cope with various challenges and to develop strategies to help them make better choices.State of Consumer Coping Research
In contrast, emotion-focused coping involves managing the emotions that arise from the problem, such as seeking social support or engaging in distraction. Researchers have used this framework to investigate various aspects of consumer coping, such as how consumers cope with product failures, service failures, and negative feedback.
Consumer coping research has been a significant area of study for several decades. Early research focused on how consumers cope with negative experiences, such as product failures or service disruptions. This research identified a range of coping strategies, including seeking social support, taking action to address the problem, and avoiding the situation altogether.
More recent research has expanded the focus of consumer coping research to include a broader range of challenges consumers face. For example, researchers have examined consumer coping strategies to deal with information overload, uncertainty, and complexity. This research has identified coping strategies, such as seeking additional information, relying on heuristics, and simplifying decision-making processes. Despite the progress made in consumer coping research, there still needs to be significant gaps in our understanding of how consumers cope with various challenges. For example, research on information overload has primarily focused on using search engines and other online tools, leaving unanswered questions about how consumers cope with information overload in other contexts.A Historical Context for Modern Coping Scholarship
One source of coping knowledge is the prominent writings of early psychoanalysts, arguably none more significant than Freud. Freud imagined a more extensive process of adaptation and motivation that included hidden subconscious processes, subsequently called defensive mechanisms. Although many of these subconscious processes mirror modern-day “coping techniques,” Freud did not believe these processes to be volitionally performed. He did not hypothesize an emotional-cognitive evaluation network, the foundation of contemporary coping theories. Despite these modest beginnings, the psychoanalytic method has tremendously impacted the development of coping studies.
An alternative classical perspective on coping emerged from a humanistic psychology approach, best articulated by Maslow. Maslow recognized two types of human behavior: coping and expressing. Coping behaviors include all purposeful, motivated activities that respond to external environmental and cultural factors, whereas expressive behaviors are unmotivated, noninstrumental, and performed to reflect internal moods.
According to Maslow, the same activity might be classified as coping or expressive, depending on the individual’s reasons. For example, a customer may shop for new clothes to meet demand, such as looking great at work or impressing others. Alternatively, if the same customer found such encounters pleasurable, their buying may be considered expressive.
Maslow’s definition of coping contains many conceptual connections with contemporary coping theories that will be discussed shortly. Like the present transactional model, Maslow’s concept of coping behaviors believes that such actions often originate from modifying need states and being effortful, aware, and learned. He defined coping behaviors as attempts to influence the world, automatic reactions humans use to exert control over their surroundings. On the other hand, he thought that expressive actions indicated something more profound about the one expressing them.
Clinical psychology study on adaptation was the source of a second classic method that substantially influenced modern coping research. Adaptive activity in response to environmental stress was observed in all living species, according to this viewpoint. This comprehensive concept of stress included all environmental changes influencing the organism.
These adaptive processes were distinguished by the promotion of two basic stress orientations: one directed at impelling the organism towards a perceived source of stress (a vigilance or approach orientation) and one directed at impelling the organism away from a perceived source of stress (an aversive orientation). This traditional motivational difference can still be seen in current coping theories, and more will be said about it later.Prospects of Consumer Coping Research
Consumer coping research has the potential to contribute significantly to our understanding of consumer behavior. For example, by identifying the coping strategies that are most effective in particular contexts, researchers can develop interventions that help consumers cope with stress and uncertainty more effectively. Moreover, by investigating the antecedents and consequences of coping, researchers can identify the factors influencing coping and the outcomes resulting from effective and ineffective coping.
One promising area of research in consumer coping is the investigation of coping in the context of online shopping. As e-commerce grows in popularity, consumers are increasingly exposed to various stressors, such as uncertainty about product quality, security concerns, and delivery issues. Researchers have begun investigating how consumers cope with these stressors and have identified various coping strategies, such as seeking information from multiple sources, using third-party payment services, and engaging in online communities.Prescriptions for Consumer Coping Research
Moreover, to ensure that research in this area is relevant and valuable, researchers should aim to collaborate with practitioners and policymakers. Researchers and practitioners can develop interventions that help consumers cope with stress and uncertainty more effectively by working together. Policymakers can use the insights generated by research to develop policies that support consumers in coping with consumption challenges.
There is tremendous potential for future research in the field of consumer coping. As consumer behavior becomes increasingly complex, the need for effective coping strategies will only continue to grow. Researchers can help address this need by developing new strategies to help consumers cope with various challenges. One promising area of research is using technology to help consumers cope with challenges.
For example, researchers have explored using chatbots to provide consumers with real-time support and guidance. This technology has the potential to help consumers navigate complex purchasing decisions, cope with negative experiences, and manage information overload. Another area of research with significant potential is using mindfulness techniques to help consumers cope with stress and anxiety related to consumer decision-making. Mindfulness-based interventions effectively reduce stress and anxiety in various contexts and could be adapted to help consumers cope with decision-making stress.Prescriptions for Consumer Coping
While there is still much to learn about how consumers cope with various challenges, several strategies have already been shown to be effective. Consumers can use these strategies to improve their coping skills and make better decisions. One effective coping strategy is seeking social support. Consumers with a strong support network can better cope with negative experiences and make informed decisions. This support network can be made up of friends, family members, or online communities. Another effective coping strategy is seeking out additional information.
Consumers who take the time to research products and services before making a decision are more likely to make informed choices. This can involve reading reviews, comparing prices, and talking to experts. Simplifying decision-making processes is also an effective coping strategy. Consumers who break down complex decisions into smaller, more manageable steps can better cope with decision-making stress. This can involve creating a list of pros and cons, prioritizing decision criteria, and setting realistic goals.Conclusion
Consumer coping research is an important area of study that has the potential to contribute significantly to our understanding of consumer behavior. By investigating the coping strategies that consumers use, the factors that influence their coping, and the outcomes that result from effective and ineffective coping, researchers can develop interventions that help consumers cope with stress and uncertainty more effectively.
To achieve this, researchers need to adopt various approaches, collaborate with practitioners and policymakers, and continue to investigate emerging areas of interest, such as coping in online shopping. Consumer coping research is a critical field of study that can help consumers navigate the challenges of modern consumer behavior.
While there is still much to learn about how consumers cope with various challenges, researchers and consumers alike can use existing strategies to make better decisions and cope with the stress of decision-making by continuing to explore new coping strategies and technologies.
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