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Google has passed up a few potential buys that, as has been proven by history, it absolutely should not have passed up. Facebook, for example? And while Google has had some great success in certain purchases, such as AdMob and Android, it seems that “buy more” should be the rule of thumb for the company. One choice that may have cost them billions is not buying Sun Microsystems.
Sun would have cost Google big bucks. That’s $7.4 billion to be precise. But that cost would have given Google rights to a very important set of technology: Java. The coding language, especially in its more open sectors, is used extensively by Google – and having rights would have increased maneuverability while, you know, preventing the massive lawsuit from Sun’s current owner.
Oracle, who bought out Sun Microsystems when Google didn’t, is in the process of suing Google. While the case has been ongoing for just under a year, the exact scale became apparent when Google attempted to file the case “under seal” (preventing the records of the case and hearings from becoming public). Oracle responded by saying the information was something the public should know, especially since the figures Oracle was seeking in damages reached into the billions.
No, that wasn’t a typo. That’s a big, shiny B at the front there. So, while Sun Microsystems would have cost Google billions, it looks like not making the choice may end up costing about the same. The difference is that Google now has to struggle through future licensing issues, the court case itself, and they still don’t have the full strength of the technology at their disposal.
It may be that Google didn’t make the purchase because a $7.4 billion buy simply wouldn’t have been allowed after the inevitable anti-trust hearing. In any case, however, it looks like not owning Sun Microsystems costs just about as much as buying it.
[sources include: ZDNet]
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In a database management system (DBMS), the scheduler is responsible for managing the execution of concurrent transactions. The scheduler uses a schedule, which is a sequence of actions that the DBMS must execute, to ensure that the system remains in a consistent state and that concurrent transactions do not interfere with each other. There are two types of schedules: serial schedules and non-serial schedules. In this article, we will discuss the calculation of both types of schedules in a DBMS.Serial Schedules
A serial schedule is a schedule in which all transactions are executed one after another, without any concurrent execution. In other words, a serial schedule is a schedule in which transactions are executed in a single-threaded environment. The calculation of a serial schedule is straightforward, as there is no need to consider the execution order of transactions.Example
Here is an example of a serial schedule in SQL −
Here we are doing 2 updates, one is reducing the balance of account ‘A123’ by 100 and other is increasing the balance of account ‘B456’ by 100 in one transaction, this is called as debit-credit transaction where balance of one account is credited and other account is debited.Non-Serial Schedules
A non-serial schedule is a schedule in which transactions are executed concurrently. In other words, a non-serial schedule is a schedule in which transactions are executed in a multi-threaded environment. The calculation of a non-serial schedule is more complex than that of a serial schedule, as we must consider the execution order of transactions.
It is worth mentioning that when calculating non-serial schedule, it is important to ensure that the schedule is serializable, which means that it is equivalent to a serial schedule. A schedule is considered serializable if it preserves the isolation of transactions, that is, each transaction is executed as if it were the only transaction in the system.Example
Here is an example of a non-serial schedule in SQL −
Here we are doing 2 updates in two different transactions, one is reducing the balance of account ‘A123’ by 100 and other is increasing the balance of account ‘B456’ by 100.Calculation of Serial and Non-Serial Schedules in DBMS
In a DBMS, the scheduler is responsible for managing the execution of concurrent transactions. The scheduler uses schedules to ensure that the system remains in a consistent state and that concurrent transactions do not interfere with each other.
The calculation of a serial schedule is straightforward, as there is no need to consider the execution order of transactions. However, serial schedules can lead to poor performance if there are many transactions that could be executed concurrently. On the other hand, non-serial schedules can lead to better performance, as transactions can be executed concurrently. However, it can be difficult to understand and reason about non-serial schedules as it can be difficult to see how the system state changes as transactions are executed concurrently.
It is worth noting that when calculating non-serial schedules, it is important to ensure that the schedule is serializable, which means that it is equivalent to a serial schedule. A schedule is considered serializable if it preserves the isolation of transactions, that is, each transaction is executed as if it were the only transaction in the system. This can be achieved through various concurrency control techniques such as locking, timestamp ordering, and multi-version concurrency control.Points to be Noted
Deadlocks − Deadlocks are a common problem that can occur when transactions are executed concurrently. A deadlock occurs when two or more transactions are waiting for each other to release a resource they need. In order to avoid deadlocks, a DBMS can use a variety of techniques such as lock ordering and timeout-based protocols.
Isolation levels − Isolation levels define the degree to which the DBMS isolates transactions from each other. Different isolation levels, such as READ COMMITTED, REPEATABLE READ, and SERIALIZABLE, can have a significant impact on the calculation of schedules. A higher isolation level can increase the chances of conflicts between transactions, but it also increases the chances of preserving the consistency of data.
Two-phase locking − Two-phase locking is a concurrency control technique that is used to ensure that a schedule is serializable. Two-phase locking requires transactions to acquire and release locks on data items in two phases: an expanding phase and a shrinking phase. In the expanding phase, a transaction acquires locks on data items it needs to access. In the shrinking phase, the transaction releases locks on data items it no longer needs.
Rollbacks and recovery − Rollbacks and recovery are important mechanisms that are used to handle errors and failures in a DBMS. When a transaction fails, it must be rolled back so that it does not leave the system in an inconsistent state. Recovery mechanisms, such as the write-ahead logging and the deferred update technique, are used to ensure that transactions can be rolled back and the system can be restored to a consistent state.Conclusion
In conclusion, understanding the calculation of both serial and non-serial schedules in a DBMS is crucial for designing efficient and reliable database systems. It is important to choose the appropriate schedule based on the specific requirements of the system and to ensure that non-serial schedules are serializable to preserve the isolation of transactions.
SANTA CLARA, Calif. – Some of the top promoters and leaders of open source projects gathered at Sun Microsystems Monday to update press and analysts on the company’s growing list of projects and initiatives.
Long criticized as a company that benefited from many open source projects without giving back in kind, and hounded to make its Java language open source, Sun has abruptly shifted course in the last year under new CEO Jonathan Schwartz.
Now its Solaris operating system, Java language and even SPARC processors are open source and under the General Public License (GPL). Quite a change for the company that said there’s still a lot more it plans to do.
One of its To Do list items is to make Solaris easier to distribute. Linux has had packages for distributing bits of compiled code for years, first under the RPM technology developer by Red Hat Linux and then via Yum or App-Get.
Ian Murdock, who created the Debian Linux distribution back in the 1990s, was hired by Sun earlier this year to help with such an effort. He also told the assembly that his hiring was meant to send the message that Sun is Linux-friendly.
“There’s a broad perception that Sun is anti-Linux or competes with Linux, and that’s not true,” said Murdock, now chief operating systems platform strategist. “So to have someone with a broad Linux background come into Sun made sense.”
His project, called Project Indiana (a nod to his home state) will be an attempt to give OpenSolaris, and eventually the enterprise version of Solaris, a faster, easier and safer way to update the code. It’s also intended to lower the barriers to adoption so those familiar with Linux can move to OpenSolaris, said Murdock.
Murdock pointed out that Yum and App-Get are several years old now and have some shortcomings. Namely, they don’t allow you to rollback an installation if there is a problem. Sun’s solution is IPS, or Image Package System.
IPS will do exactly as RPM, Yum and App-Get do in that it will download updates to the operating system, thereby eliminating the need for updates via CD or having to download source code and compile it. It will update a Solaris installation with any new code, check for dependencies and download that code as well, and install it all for the user. It’s integrated with Sun’s ZFS file system to take snapshots of an installation and roll it back if necessary.
Next to speak was Josh Berkus, the project lead for PostgreSQL, an open source database that’s trying to catch up not only to the more established MySQL but commercial packages like SQL Server and Oracle as well. It’s updated annually, with beta 1 of version 8.3 released last week and the final version due in seven to nine weeks.
PostgreSQL can trace its roots back 21 years, to the POSTGRES project at the University of California, Berkeley. It was created as the successor to the Ingres database and commercialized in 1994 under the name Illustra, which later merged with Informix. It went open source in 1995.
Berkus said surveys found it wasn’t performance holding back PostgreSQL from taking more of the database market from packaged software firms, rather it was training and knowledge. There was a serious lack of support for the product, of tools to support it and knowledge out there for those interested in using it, he said.
Berkus identified the missing pieces as a lack of worldwide support, performance that was fast but not consistent and a lack of enterprise-quality scalability and reliability. So Sun’s efforts in that area have been to focus on high availability and improved performance, as well as ZFS integration.
The third briefing came from Mark Reinhold, chief engineer for the Java SE platform and a lead engineer for OpenJDK, the open source Java Development Kit being used to port Java to numerous platforms.
He said the interim governance board for the OpenJDK community has met three times so far and is making good progress. They would like to get a constitution for the OpenJDK community out for review later this year and ratified some time next year.
One of the problems slowing down the complete availability of Java as open source is that some pieces of code are not owned by Sun and could not be released. Therefore, Sun and the community had to develop its own replacements, and those are not trivial tasks. Reinhold said Sun currently has early versions of the font rasterizer done, a cryptography component and the graphics rasterizer, which is in a pretty raw state.
Planning and carrying out a marketing strategy can be difficult for non−profit organisations since they frequently have small teams and limited resources. This tutorial offers instructions on how to design a non-profit’s digital marketing strategy and a summary of the digital tactics that will enable the non-profit organization to connect with more people.Digital Marketing Strategy for Charity and Non-Profit Organizations
Though a large portion of a non-profit organization’s work is carried out physically in the areas it supports, digital platforms are frequently the first point of contact for those who are interested in learning more about a non−profit or cause. Beyond the first point of contact, an increasing number of charity organisations now provide comprehensive programming via digital channels, enabling them to reach more people and connect with participants on their chosen channels.Social Media
Your campaigns may be strengthened by using social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, or Instagram. It’s the simplest approach to provide information, news, programme announcements, and social responsibility initiatives to both supporters and recipients.
When making a social media strategy, make sure to include the platform you’ll be utilising, the date, and the timetable. It’s crucial to choose the information that will be most appropriate for the situation. Which format will you choose−a movie or an infographic? When you have everything in order, it’s time to publish your material. To determine which campaign is more effective for your company, you may also do an A/B split test.Email Marketing
In the meanwhile, you may customise or customise the material for your customers using email marketing. Your clients are sure to take notice if you continually write well-written copy. Add a call−to−action button to encourage potential customers to visit your website or tell their friends and family about your good news.Video Campaign
A 30-second video may do better than a five−minute video in terms of distance. Even better, you can use these films as brief teasers to get more users to your platforms. The objective is to use dynamic graphics to evoke emotions in your audience.Non-profit Marketing Issues
A non-profit organisation is the best at comprehending the difficulties of efficient marketing on a tight budget. Non-profits want as much money as possible to go toward their mission rather than marketing. But raising money without spending money is difficult.
Non-profits are particularly impacted, even though they face some of the same general marketing issues as other enterprises. Other difficulties are wholly unique to non-profits.Nonprofit’s Intended Audience is Too Big
It might be difficult to convince people of the urgency of your cause in the current atmosphere of nonstop news about conflicts and natural catastrophes. Consider that not
Making a plan for your market research is the first step in reducing the size of your target market.
Targeting everyone as a prospective donor or supporter is a serious error that many charitable organizations make. Find out who, how much they earn, where they hang out, and why your ideal fans and contributors would be interested in sponsoring you.
You may adjust your marketing messaging by focusing more narrowly on the people who will most likely identify with your cause and contribute to it.Challenge for Non-Profits to Persuade Individuals to Donate Money
All businesses find it tough to persuade customers to leave with their cash, but non-profit organisations find it extremely difficult. People don’t feel immediate satisfaction when they give money to non-profit organisations.
Additionally, if the non-profit is new, donors can be unwilling to give anything at all since they are unsure of where their money is going.
Try these suggestions to persuade others that parting with their money is the proper thing to do −
Tell your narrative with video marketing.
Make sure contributors understand exactly where their money is going.
Display a rating from a charity evaluator. To reassure individuals that they are working with trustworthy non-profits, organisations like Charity Navigator assess and rank non-profits.
To increase your organization’s reputation and donor confidence, collect testimonials from those who have benefited from it.Non-Profits Depend On Volunteers
Non−profits gain from the free labour of volunteers, but because they participate on their own time and schedule, volunteers are less dependable than paid staff. Additionally, there is no assurance that volunteers will have an extensive marketing background.
When it comes to marketing, relying only on volunteers might lead to inconsistency or even stagnation. It’s difficult to criticise or place more demands on someone who feels strongly enough about your cause to give their time, though. To get beyond this obstacle, use these tactics:
If at all feasible, employ qualified marketing assistance, even part-time. Select a person based on their area of expertise, but more importantly, make sure they share your purpose and guiding principles.
Schedule frequent meetings with your volunteers to keep them informed, up to date, and educated in marketing techniques. They will continue to be vital team members if they feel valued and understand that their job has a larger purpose.
Use the free marketing assistance available. There are several good ones that can guide you in developing a marketing plan, direct you to marketing tools, and act as a sounding board when you’re stuck.People May Not Be Aware of Your Non-Profit
Even if you employ email, direct mail, and digital promotion, you can still be excluding potential donors. It’s important to make sure that there is lots of information about your organisation online since people who are contemplating giving to a cause frequently utilise the internet to learn more.
To attract their attention and enlighten them about your cause, you should be present everywhere possible donations could be. In addition to your website, keep in mind the value of social networking sites like Facebook, YouTube, and LinkedIn.
Show prospective contributors that you value their trust and your cause. To stay in compliance, it’s essential to follow all laws and rules pertaining to non-profits, particularly those governing non-profit accounting.Conclusion
In the twenty−first century, digital marketing has developed into a potent instrument. Nowadays, almost everyone has access to the internet, making digital marketing an essential tool for disseminating information. Digital marketing is a cost−effective tool for NGOs to connect with internet users, funders, and donations.
How two colleagues went from whiteboard to 25 countries with their sunscreen beauty brand Ultra Violette
So what do you do when you’ve got an idea for a new business, but the one person in the world you’d want to start that business with is your boss?
Ava Matthews says she doesn’t have much of a filter, but she knew enough not just to blurt out the idea to Bec Jefferd, her supervisor at beauty products retailer Mecca Brands.
“Why don’t we go out for dinner?” she said instead. “I think I can see an opportunity.”
And so it was that, in 2023, they sat down for a meal and a nice wine before Matthews told her boss about the gap she saw in the market – a high-end sunscreen that was loaded with skincare products, as opposed to the more conventional beauty products with a bit of sunscreen thrown in.
The idea wasn’t well-formed, and if Jefferd had told Matthews that it sucked, she probably would have dropped it right there. But Jefferd didn’t think it sucked. They talked.
“We quickly realised we were actually on the same page,” recalls Jefferd. “Our vision, very loosely, was prestige skincare, beauty, beautiful formulations, a fun brand and fun education. That was as much of a concept as we agreed on that night. And we agreed to keep talking.”
Their first purchase was a whiteboard from OfficeWorks, which they erected in Jefferd’s living room, where they agreed they wouldn’t pay themselves. They worked out they’d need to make 10,000 units of each product. And that they’d need to put in $200,000 each to fund it all. They thrashed out a business plan over six months of weekends while Jefferd’s busy sons traipsed through the place.
Having worked for Mecca on all its private-label products, the two women knew something about the manufacturing process. They knew they needed to put together a clear brief for potential manufacturers. “You can waste a lot of time and money if you’re unclear about what you need,” says Jefferd.
And before they started shopping that brief around to manufacturers, they knew they had to resign from Mecca.
“We found some interesting formulations owned by the manufacturers, and then we started tinkering with them,” says Matthews, “and by tinkering, I mean adding skincare ingredients, changing colours, textures, fragrances.”
Jefferd: “The plan was always to launch with those types of formulations and then, over time, evolve into formulations where we owned everything from the beginning. So literally working with a lab chemist on every ingredient.”
As they took delivery of the prototypes, they tested them on themselves,” says Jefferd.
“We were really particular about not just wearing it for a day, but wearing it for a week, wearing it under makeup, wearing it over skincare, getting people with different coloured skins to wear it … We really put a lot of effort into that testing, not just, ‘Oh, that’ll do. It looks like it fits the brief.’”
They launched in 2023, and their Ultra Violette brand of sunscreens took off from the beginning. They’re now in 20 countries, soon to be 25. Turnover doubled to $12 million last financial year.
And it’s all down to the care they took getting the product right, says Matthews.
“Product is everything. Marketing can get you so far, and spending a whole bunch on influencer activity can get that first purchase, but then people aren’t going to come back to you. If you don’t have a good product, you don’t have a brand.”
They’ve split the business, so Jefferd looks after finance, operations, legal and HR, and Matthews takes care of branding, marketing and education. Product development, however, is different.
“It’s not only the most widely resourced department in our team. It’s the only department that we both overlap on. So, we both look after product development from different angles.
“We know how important a product is to a brand, and you really have nothing without it. You know, it’s the epicentre of our brand. We invest a lot in product development. Our team, internally, is probably one of the most widely resourced in the business. We invest significantly in chemists.
“It’s so important to us that we have to pay our full attention to it. We’ll never take our eyes off that.”
Bec Jefferd and Ava Matthews will be speaking on the Power of Product at the inaugural Forbes Australia Women’s Summit on the 22nd of March, presented by NAB Private Wealth. They’ll be joined by other influential women, including Miranda Kerr, Christine Holgate, Natasha Oakley and more, discussing how to: break barriers in business, build wealth and make industry connections. You can see the full lineup and get your tickets at Women’s Summit 2023 – Forbes Australia.
While the pros and cons are endless, the fact that the iPhone is the best-selling smartphone brand in the world is beyond question. So, what makes an iPhone so high-priced. Reasons are simple yet hidden from plain view.
iPhones are Not Built On a Penny
When Apple launched the iPhone, it set out to create a premium smartphone that did not compromise on quality. Having positioned the product in this manner, Apple cannot afford to not use premium components within an iPhone. Setting aside Apple’s huge profit margins, the components inside iPhone still cost a lot more than most Android competitors.
Analyst firm IHS iSuppli has calculated the price of components used in smartphones in a detailed manner. To consider a simple example, if a Moto G and an iPhone are compared, then aside from the battery, almost every other component of the former costs less than the ones present in the latter.
Some of Moto G’s components cost about half of the iPhone’s. These include the NAND flash, the display, the memory, the interface, and the sensors. The box contents provided with Moto G also cost much less than those provided with the iPhone.
Rough estimates by iSuppli put a Moto G’s components and assembly cost at around $110 while that of an iPhone at around $200.
It shows that Apple does have a high manufacturing cost for an iPhone, but it certainly does not explain the final retail cost of it, which exceeds $600.
The Apple Ecosystem
When you purchase the iPhone, you buy into the Apple ecosystem that allows access to more than a million apps and features like iMessage, FaceTime, and iCloud services that are bundled free. Above everything, the proprietary iOS platform and periodic updates and upgrades are included with it.
The development costs for all these ecosystem elements, especially iOS, are woven into the device’s retail price. Such a uniform ecosystem helps avoid compatibility conflicts throughout the iPhone and iOS universe.
The actual price calculation for this premium ecosystem is difficult to arrive at. Still, it’s safe to say that the wages of Apple’s software developers, designers, and other technical personnel make their way into every iPhone’s cost.
The Apple-comics Factor
Another important factor that adds to the price of the iPhone is the unique economics in play compared to the Android smartphones. As discussed above, Apple does pay more than the competition to build iPhones. Due to this lofty base cost, the supply of iPhones is comparatively lesser than the premium Android competitors.
Since the iPhones enjoy incredible popularity, the demand is tremendously high concerning the supply quantity; as any economics rookie understands, low supply and huge demand equal premium pricing.
It is exactly the case with iPhones, as the need for these devices, compared to their availability, is steep, leading to an inflated price influenced by these economics.
The iBuzz Wave
The company has been extremely effective in getting its pre-existing customers on board to buy any of its new product launches. It results in a massive sellout as soon as a new product hits the stores. The primary appeal that causes this kind of wildfire is that it’s a one-brand product; therefore, there is just one release of a new iteration every year. The expense needed to create this near-constant buzz to ‘maintain the herd,’ so to speak, gets added into the iPhone’s retail cost.
Add it all up, Apple’s business is based on an increased profit margin model that is in direct contrast to most of its Android competitors who work on a high volume business model. Apple can sustain such high pricing for iPhone due to the supply-demand economics and its enviable brand following.
These reasons give a clear idea of how and why iPhones are pricey. Whether the device justifies its elevated price is entirely another debate, however.
Jignesh Padhiyar is the co-founder of chúng tôi who has a keen eye for news, rumors, and all the unusual stuff around Apple products. During his tight schedule, Jignesh finds some moments of respite to share side-splitting content on social media.
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