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Looking for the Chromecast with Google TV (HD)? Google has released a cheaper, HD-only version of the Chromecast with Google TV. Check out

Google has released a cheaper, HD-only version of the Chromecast with Google TV. Check out our review for all the details.

About this Chromecast with Google TV review: I used the Chromecast with Google TV over a period of 30 days. It was running Android TV OS 10 on the August 5, 2023 security patch.

Update, April 2023: We’ve updated this review to reference the improvements to the UI that were introduced in 2023, as well as a few other minor changes.

Google TV is almost like its own streaming service since it breaks things up into subsections like “Comedies,” “Oscar-winning movies,” or “Movies about aliens.” The interface feels similar to something like Netflix, but the fact that it shows you content from all the most popular streaming services is great. It’s about time we had a good content aggregator. To take the personalization a step further, Google also added a Content Preferences option in the Settings menu in an update. This feature gives you a bunch of content suggestions which you can swipe left to give a thumbs down or right to give a thumbs up. This clearly Tinder-inspired option gives Google an idea of what type of content to suggest in the future. It’s pretty neat.

Elsewhere, if you have YouTube TV, there is also a Live tab in the main menu, which shows you what’s playing on YouTube TV now. You can jump in to get a channel guide or pick something from the list.

New hardware and a remote

David Imel / Android Authority

The Chromecast with Google TV looks quite a bit different than other Chromecasts from the past. It’s slimmer and longer, and uses a USB-C port for power instead of the outdated micro-USB it used to use. It also comes in three distinct colors: Snow, Sunrise, and Sky.

More than just streaming

Chromecast with Google TV review: The verdict

David Imel / Android Authority

The Chromecast with Google TV is easily one of the best Android TV devices on the market. There are only a few viable options, and our old favorite, the NVIDIA Shield TV costs around $150. This device is geared toward gaming, though, so it still has a market.

Away from the feature-packed world of Android TV, the Chromecast with Google TV has much competition to be the best overall streaming device. There are other options like the Roku Streaming Stick 4K or the Amazon Fire TV Stick 4K Max which cost around $50 as well. Neither matches the convenience of the Google device, but you get impressive app support for both and upgrades to the onboard storage and processing power.

If you want a great Android TV and Chromecast experience, this is the device to get, full stop.

If you don’t need the gaming and power users features that come with the Shield and want a great Android TV and Chromecast experience, this is the device to get, full stop, especially at $50. Of course, there’s another option — the Chromecast with Google TV (HD) ($29 at Amazon). If you have an older TV set that only hits 1080p, the HD version is cheaper and even has a nice upgrade with AV1 support. It’s technically not as powerful due to a fractionally weaker chipset, but thankfully we couldn’t tell the difference in our testing.

If you do want to get your hands on a Chromecast with Google TV for the full 4K experience, you can order it for $49.99 in the United States. It’s also available in various other markets including Australia, Canada, and across Europe.

If you don’t need a remote, don’t care about the user interface you get with the Chromecast with Google TV, and want to save some money, the classic Chromecast is still worth buying. However, we think that Chromecast with Google TV is a much better option for most people.

Yes, you can buy it on Google’s website for $19.99.

You need an internet connection to use Chromecast with Google TV. If you don’t have access to a Wi-Fi network, you can use your carrier’s cellular network, but you’ll need a secondary device like a smartphone or a tablet to get the job done.

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Google Pixel Buds Pro Review: Budding Stars


Superb, rounded sound

Great fit

Solid ANC

Wireless charging


No EQ options

No hi-res/aptX support

No iOS Pixel Buds app

Our Verdict

The Pixel Buds Pro are some of the best earbuds you can get for your Android phone. Excellent sound, fit, and ANC are wrapped into well-priced earbuds with great battery life.

Best Prices Today: Google Pixel Buds Pro




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Much like its Pixel phones, Google’s various versions of Pixel Buds earbuds have had their fair share of problems.

The 2023 originals had an uncomfortable design connected by a literal piece of string, while the follow up Pixel Buds 2 three years later had awful connectivity issues.

The cheaper Pixel Buds A from 2023 proved Google had learned from its mistakes, and sold at a competitive price.

Thankfully, the new high-end Pixel Buds Pro pick up and run with this success and are Google’s best buds yet. You’ll pay for the privilege with a $199/£179/€219 price tag, but the Pros are finally worth recommending alongside earbud heavy hitters like Sony, Bose, and Apple.

Design & build

Good fit

Cool colour options

Great touch controls

Google hasn’t messed with its design language here, and the look is very similar to the Pixel Buds 2 and Buds A. The Buds Pro come nestled in a nice feeling matt white case with a thin black line hinting at where it flips open.

It’s black inside where the buds reside for charging, with a hidden LED on the front to indicate the case’s battery charge: green for good or orange to indicate it needs a top up via the USB-C port on the bottom.

Dominik Tomaszewski / Foundry

Like most wireless earbuds the design of the case is indebted to Apple’s original AirPods, but Google has forged its own path with the actual buds’ design.

I personally struggle with the fit of many wireless earbuds as I have small ear canals, but the Buds Pro fit me excellently with the smallest ear tips. As an aside, I like that the packaging is completely recyclable, and the alternative ear tips come in a tiny cute paper tube with caps – the cleverest way I’ve seen spare tips packaged.

Felt cute, might change tips later

Henry Burrell / Foundry

The buds are approaching bean-shaped and at first glance don’t look like they will be comfortable, but with a little push and twist they fit my ears well. I occasionally needed to adjust them, and I found they worked their way loose when I was eating, but not when talking on the phone or running.

This is great news particularly when the wing tips of the Pixel Buds A are not present. I’m confident that people with larger ears than me (which, I assure you, is most people) will have no issue with a snug fit. I struggled with the fit of the Sony WF-1000XM4, which are too big for me, and though I liked the Bose QuietComfort Earbuds their design is not as subtle or attractive as the Pixel Buds Pro.

Dominik Tomaszewski / Foundry

Against the ear when wearing the buds are the L and R indicators and the metal charging connectors while the outside is a matt plastic that houses the touch sensitive controls on both sides.

A tasteful ‘G’ logo is embossed on either bud, and I am a huge fan of the yellowy green ‘lemongrass’ colour of my review unit, though you can also choose from orange (‘coral’), blue grey (‘fog’), or grey black (‘charcoal’).

The earbuds are IPX4 rated, which means they’re good for use in the rain or if they get splashed, and the case is IPX2, which basically means don’t get it wet. Each earbud weighs 6.2g and the case with earbuds in is 62.4g – easy for any pocket to handle.

Sound quality

Very good bass

Well-tuned high ends

No hi-res codec support

Most importantly, the Pixel Buds Pro have outstanding sound quality that matches and sometimes surpasses that of Apple’s AirPods Pro.

The Buds Pro have better bass response and an overall better tuned soundscape when listening to most genres of music thanks to each bud’s impressively punchy single 11mm driver. Add to that Google’s digital signal processing and very good active noise cancellation (ANC) and you’re laughing.

Up front though – despite my ears not agreeing with the fit, the Sony WF-1000XM4 are still the best sounding wireless earbuds you can buy.

On the Pixel Buds Pro, Elliot Smith’s ‘Needle in the Hay’ is handled well with the acoustic guitar sounding as live as the recording intended and the close vocal is well rendered. There’s good separation, even when streaming from lower-than-CD-quality-sources such as Spotify. Using hi-res services like Tidal and Qobuz sound better but that’s down to the audio file itself. The Buds Pro don’t support hi-res audio.

Turnstile’s ‘Mystery’ packs a considerable punch and the Buds Pro kept up with very good low end bass guitar and kick drum snap that cheaper earphones simply can’t give you. The low end prowess means these are also great ‘phones for hip hop and rap playback. ‘Dr Dre’s ‘Forgot About Dre’ sounds huge with the bass, riff, and hi-hat all represented on a great level.

Dominik Tomaszewski / Foundry

Any genre I threw at the Buds them was pleasing to my ears though, and I have no complaints about the sound quality on offer for the asking price though there is one caveat here.

To get technical, the Buds Pro only support the AAC and SBC audio codecs, not the popular aptX codec that it’s widely agree creates the best frequency responses of compressed audio files from Android devices and allows for hi-res compatibility.

In my testing AAC worked well (and is also there for iPhone compatibility), but it’s odd Google isn’t catering to aptX or aptX HD where rival products do.

Unlike other earbuds such as Sony’s WF-1000XM4, there’s no in-app EQ settings for the Pixel Buds Pro on the Pixel Buds app, aside from one toggle called volume EQ that boosts bass and treble frequencies at lower volumes. I found it didn’t make much difference.

Google told 9to5Google the Pixel Buds Pro will get a “full 5-band EQ” setting by the end of 2023, but do not buy the Buds on a software promise if this is important to you. Wait, or buy the Sonys.

The Buds Pro are good for voice and video calls, though the microphone quality isn’t as clear as AirPods Pro and doesn’t cancel out as much background noise as Apple’s buds for the person on the other end to hear you better.

Noise cancelling & smart features

Excellent ANC

Bluetooth Multipoint

No EQ options

One of the best things about the buds is their touch controls. Many great sounding earbuds ruin their good fit by having physical buttons on the outside that when pressed shove the bud painfully into your ear.

Not so with the Buds Pro, whose touch controls only need one feather-tap to play or pause on each bud, with a double tap skipping track and a triple tap going back a track. Swiping back to front turns volume up, and the opposite turns it down, while a press and hold can be configured for either bud to invoke Assistant or switch between ANC and transparency modes.

A great Fair Pair feature also means pairing to any Android phone is a breeze, with a notification on the screen when you open the buds near a phone.

Dominik Tomaszewski / Foundry

As for the ANC, it is very good if you can find a good seal with the three sizes of ear tip. I used the Buds to listen to podcasts on a transatlantic flight and they easily tuned out the engine roar, though the AirPods Pro’s ANC has less static sound when nothing is playing than the Buds Pro.  

Transparency is also great, letting in outside sound so you can talk to people or stay safe by being aware of traffic, for example.

Also very good is the Bluetooth Multipoint support that allows the Buds Pro to connect to two audio sources at the same time. Paired to a Pixel 6a and MacBook Air, the buds easily played audio from each with no hitch. To change an audio source, you just connect another device and one drops out, you can’t select within the app.

The Adaptive Sound software feature seen on the Pixel Buds A is not here, likely because the Buds Pro’s ANC means the software doesn’t have to level out the audio according to your ambient surrounding sound anymore. Additionally, the old Bass Boost option has been removed from the Pixel Buds app, which is integrated into Pixel phones as a searchable audio setting but must be downloaded as a standalone app on any other Android phone.

There’s no Pixel Buds app for iOS, so I wouldn’t recommend the Buds Pro if you have an iPhone because you lose a few smart features Android users can enjoy here, such as Google Assistant for notification reading and hands-free invoking of the digital assistant, but for audio playback they do sound good connected to an iPhone.

Battery life & charging

11 hours with ANC

Case holds up to 31 hours

Wireless charging

Pixel Buds Pro also hit it out the part with their battery life, which is excellent. With ANC on, I found Google’s promise of 7 hours of playback on a full charge to be accurate, not having to put them in the case to charge for a whole near-eight-hour flight.

A fully charged case will also give 20 hours of playback with the power it can expel. Google also says without ANC the figures go up to 11 hours of playback and 31 hours of charge.

Charging via USB-C is easy though there is notably no cable included in the box. The case also supports wireless charging, so you can charge using any Qi charging pad or even off the back of a modern phone that supports reverse wireless charging like Google’s Pixel 6 or the Samsung Galaxy S22 Ultra.


Price & availability

The Google Pixel Buds Pro cost $199/£179/€219, which is excellent value for the quality of the product.

It is cheaper than the $249/£239/€279 Apple AirPods Pro, $279/£249/€279 Bose QuietComfort Earbuds, $280/£250/€280 Sony WF-1000XM4, and $199/£219/€229 Samsung Galaxy Buds Pro. though the Bose and Sony can be found for less if you shop around.


Much like AirPods with iPhones, the Pixel Buds Pro are the best choice of wireless earbuds if you have a Pixel phone, but I also recommend them over the Galaxy Buds Pro, which have annoying touch controls in comparison.

The Buds Pro have the best touch controls of any earbuds on the market, superb bass and treble response, a snug fit, solid ANC, and very good battery life. Add to that the tight Google integration of Assistant and you’ve got Google’s best buds yet at a price that should be attractive to any Android customer.


11mm dynamic drivers

Bluetooth 5.0

Three microphones

11-hour battery life (31 with case)

7-hour battery life with ANC on (20 with case)


Google Assistant Support

Bluetooth Multipoint

Touch controls

IR sensors for in-ear detection

Google Translate support

IPX4 sweat- and water-resistance

22.33 x 22.03 x 23.72 mm, 6.2g (earbuds)

25 x 50 x 63.2 mm, 62.4g (case)

Lemongrass, Coral, Fog, Charcoal

Google On Dealing With Low Traffic Pages

Is Pruning Content a Good SEO Strategy?

The question asked was whether it was worth it in terms of SEO to prune content that was not performing. By “performing,” the questioner clarified that he meant content that was not receiving traffic. He also clarified that it was research content that was not adding value to site visitors.

The person asking the question did not mention the concept of content cannibalization. But the outlines of what he was asking conforms to the theory. More on that below.

John Mueller suggested that pruning content was just one approach. There are other strategies to use as well.

How to Deal with Low Traffic Web Pages

John Mueller offered two strategies. He said that the first option was to remove the content. The other option was to improve the content. Either approach could be satisfactory. He then cautioned that it may not be a good approach to use Page Views as a metric for determining what is good or bad content.

The second approach, to improve the content, contradicts the long held rote solution to remove non-preforming content. We’ll get back to that later. Let’s see what John Mueller actually said.

John Mueller had this to say about content pruning:

Like, if they have this content on the website and it was initially there for a reason; and maybe it’s not great content, maybe it’s even bad content… one approach is really just to say ok, we will spend time to improve this content.

And the other approach might be from a practical point of view where you say… I know this content is there and I put it out there for a reason but it’s really terrible content and I don’t have time to kind of improve this, I don’t have time to focus on this. Then maybe removing it is a good idea.

Ultimately it’s something where the content that you have available on your website is how you present yourself to search engines. So if you’re aware that this content is bad or low quality or thin, then that’s still how you’re presenting yourself to search engines.

And you can say I can handle that by removing the bad content or I can handle that by improving the bad content. And both are appropriate responses that you can take.

Sometimes there are practical reasons to go one way or the other way. For example if you have millions and millions of pages that are really thin content then maybe it’s not practical to improve all of those. Then maybe it’s something where you say well in the long run I’ll make sure that my new content is good and then you take all of those out. Or it might be that you find a middle ground and say well I’ll improve some but I’ll also take a bunch out that I don’t have time for or I don’t want to have it at all on my website.”

Page Views Can Be an Unreliable Performance Metric

Another participant then brought up the example of a web page containing important and accurate content that didn’t receive traffic because it wasn’t a popular topic at this particular time. In other words, the topic was not trending in any way.

John Mueller responded that this was an important nuance.

“I would not use a metric like page views as the only way of recognizing low-quality content. You’re kind of the expert of your website, you know what’s good and what’s bad. Sometimes a metric like page views helps you to find low quality content.

But I would not blindly say everything that gets few page views is bad content, I need to remove it. …Our algorithms do not look at the number of page views. They try to understand the value of the content…

Just because it’s rarely viewed doesn’t mean it’s a bad piece of content.“

What is Content Cannibalization/Keyword Cannibalization?

The problem with the theory is that the phrase, Content Cannibalization, is just a label that does not describe the actual issue.

It’s like if your mechanic tells you that your car doesn’t run because it has engine trouble. How does that help you?

The phrase “engine trouble” is just a label that can describe anything from a blown gasket to an alternator that needs replacing. Similarly, the phrase “Content Cannibalization” does not tell you what is wrong. An alternator that needs replacing is more specific and gives you an idea of possible solutions.

And that’s why the person in the Webmaster Hangout had the question. He didn’t know what he should do because he didn’t understand the problem. You can’t find a solution to a problem you don’t understand. Calling it Keyword Cannibalization does not help anyone.

What Content Cannibalization Really Is

What’s really the problem is usually pages that are thin content, irrelevant content, duplicate content, outdated content and content that is simply long tail.

As John Mueller stated, using page views as a metric will get you in trouble because you’ll remove perfectly good content.

The other issue that is being fixed is site architecture. A good site architecture helps the different sections of a site snap into focus in terms of what the topic is about. Those might not be the only issues, but those are the ones that immediately come to mind.

It is unhelpful to discuss these issues under the label of Content/Keyword Cannibalization. It’s more helpful to specifically identify what is going on:

Duplicate content

Thin content

Irrelevant content

Outdated content

Long tail content

Site architecture

Those are six different issues. Most importantly, they are not issues because they are “cannibalizing” keywords or content.

They are problems for very different reasons. Each problem demands a different solution and “pruning” the content is not the only solution. As John Mueller suggested, you can remove the content, you can update the content or you could leave the content alone.

Watch John Mueller discuss content pruning in the webmaster hangout.

Screenshots by Author, Modified by Author

Google Books Wins Court Case With “Fair Use”

Google Books wins court case with “fair use”

The lawsuit filed by the Authors’ Guild directed towards Google and their project Google Books has ended with Google the victor. According to US District Judge Denny Chin, the plaintiffs’ suggestions that Google Books would hurt the market for the original work did not add up against what the project is actually capable of doing. The case ended up centering around “snippets” of books and the idea that Google Books search abilities would or would not result in prospective consumers of these books downloading rather than purchasing books in the Google Books collection.

The Google Books program allows users to search through literature and find snippets of books – and in some cases full books as such. US District Judge Denny Chin found the plaintiffs’ accusations of Google Books taking a swipe at copyright law to be less than impressive.

“[P]laintiffs argue that Google Books will negatively impact the market for books and that Google’s scans will serve as a “market replacement” for books. [The complaint] also argues that users could put in multiple searches, varying slightly the search terms, to access an entire book.

Neither suggestion makes sense. Google does not sell its scans, and the scans do not replace the books. While partner libraries have the ability to download a scan of a book from their collections, they owned the books already—they provided the original book to Google to scan. Nor is it likely that someone would take the time and energy to input countless searches to try and get enough snippets to comprise an entire book.” – US District Judge Denny Chin

The Google Books program allows users to search through books and offers bibliographic information, information about the author, references, editions released to the public, chapter contents, related books, and reviews. Users are also able to buy the book straight through Google Play and access the book from the same console from that point forward in full.

There are also links to retailers with each book that’s still in print, these including such names as Macmillan, Amazon, Barnes & Noble, Books-A-Million, and IndieBound. Google Books also provides connections to libraries where users will be able to check the book out at their leisure.

“This has been a long road and we are absolutely delighted with today’s judgement. As we have long said Google Books is in compliance with copyright law and acts like a card catalog for the digital age — giving users the ability to find books to buy or borrow.” – Google Statement

While Google suggests that they’re encouraged by the ruling, saying in a statement that they’ve been on this road for quite a while at this point.

“Google made unauthorized digital editions of nearly all of the world’s valuable copyright-protected literature and profits from displaying those works. In our view, such mass digitization and exploitation far exceeds the bounds of the fair use defense” – Paul Aiken, Authors Guild Executive Director

Meanwhile the Guild is not quite so happy. They’ve made clear that they intend to appeal the point and will be back in court as soon as possible. Have a peek at the timeline below to see additional points along the path that’s lead the court to this – perhaps final – resting place.

How To Lock Google Chrome With Password? – Webnots

Google Chrome is a powerful browser. However, you should be careful in protecting your data especially when you are using shared computer for browsing. Chrome offers an in-built password manager to save login passwords/usernames for websites. You have an option to lock incognito tabs in Chrome on iOS and Android apps. However, there are no options to lock Chrome browser app in desktop. In this article, let us discuss how you can lock Google Chrome with to password protect your data. 

Why You Need to Protect Browser and Tabs?

You may want to block other users from accessing your personal browsing information like browsing history. While you can set different profiles for every user or setup a guest profile for others, you cannot be confident that your information is safe. Some users will still switch account and view your browsing data or even change your Chrome settings.

It is also essential to keep your data safe and private from your kids when using the same computer. Previously, Google Chrome supported the Parental Control feature but the feature was removed in later versions. Now you can lock incognito tabs in mobile apps and need to use extensions to lock Chrome on desktop devices.

Lock Chrome Incognito Tabs in iOS and Android

On iPhone, you can lock incognito tabs with Face or Touch ID. Though the process is same on Android, you need to use PIN or fingerprint for locking.

Open Chrome app, tap on three dots icon showing on bottom corner of the app and select “Settings”.

Chrome App Settings in iPhone

When you are on the settings page, tap on “Privacy and Security” option.

Open Privacy and Security Settings in Chrome App

On the next page, enable “Lock Incognito Tabs When You Close Chrome” option.

Lock Incognito Tabs When Close Chrome

Chrome will prompt you to confirm the Face ID / Touch ID / fingerprint or PIN depending upon the one you use to unlock your phone.

Confirm Face ID or Touch ID or PIN

After that whenever you open the app and want to access the incognito tabs, you should unlock the screen to view open incognito tabs.

Unlock Incognito Tabs in Chrome with Face IDView Open Incognito Tabs in Chrome

Lock Chrome Desktop App with Password

As mentioned, there are no default Chrome settings available for locking Chrome desktop app. You can use one of the following free extensions from Chrome Web Store.

1. Password Protect Chrome with LockPW Extension

The LockPW is an extension for Chrome that allows you to set up password and prompts you to enter the password whenever you open the browser.

Add LockPW Extension

LockPW Extension Settings

On the left panel of the settings page, switch on your preferred lock option and on the right side type and confirm your password.

The extension also allows you to add a password hint and limit the number of password attempts.

Set Password

The power button next allows you to turn off the password protection.

Whenever you open Chrome, the extension will prompt you to login with a password.

Password Prompt

Related: How to import and export password in Google Chrome?

2. Set Password for Chrome with Chrome Lock

This extension helps you to lock your browser with a password to prevent unauthorized access, keeping your private browsing data safe. Once installed, the extension prompts for a password whenever you launch Google Chrome locking out others users from your Chrome profile.

Go to the Chrome Web Store and add the Chrome lock extension to Chrome.

Add Chrome Lock Extension

Setting Password

Closing Chrome

Login to Chrome

You may also enable the “Dynamic Password” feature by checking the box.

3. Protecting Chrome with Lock for Google Chrome

Unlike the above two options which prompts for password when launching Google Chrome, this extension allows you to lock a page in Chrome after a specified time interval. For instance, you can set the extension to lock the browser after 1 to 90 minutes.

Install the “Lock for Google Chrome” from Chrome Web Store.

Install Lock 4 Chrome

A pop up will appear prompting you to enter the password that you will use to unlock the page.

Start Lock

Once your set time interval is up, the extension will lock the page and an authentication dialog will pop up. You can enter the password to unlock the page.

Unlock Chrome

Remember, this extension will not prevent users from launching Chrome. Lock for Google Chrome extension can be useful when you want to leave Chrome browser running for sometimes but you would like to block access after a specific time interval.

Related: How to block websites in Google Chrome?

Wrapping Up

If you are sharing Chrome on a family computer or when you lend your PC to a friend, you may need to block other users from accessing your browsing data. Even though you trust your family members or friend, they may be tempted to check on your browsing history or change your browser settings. To prevent this, you can password protect your Chrome profile or the entire browser to block unauthorized users from viewing your personal information. You can use one of the above extensions to achieve this on desktop. For mobile apps, it’s a good idea to use incognito tabs and lock them with the default settings.

Google Sheets Basics – A Guide On How To Use Google Sheets

In this guide, we’ll teach you how to use all the essential features of Google Sheets so that you can organize your digital marketing efforts, collaborate with teammates, and more (you can even use Google Sheets for tracking with Google Tag Manager).

So let’s dive in!

🚨 Note: To use Google Sheets, you’ll need an active Google account. Make sure your account is set up before getting started!

If you already know that there’s a particular template you want to use, you can select one from the Google templates gallery. You can also create and upload your own templates as you get more familiar with Google Sheets.

You can name the sheet in the top left corner. Just like any local file on your computer, you should give this sheet an informative name that will help you find it in your Google Drive.

Convert and Import Other File Types into Google Sheets

You can simply drag-and-drop or upload files such as Excel or CSV to Google Drive, but you would then need to make a converted copy if you wanted to edit them as a Google Sheet.

To avoid converting each file manually:

2. Then, tick the box next to Convert uploaded files to Google Docs editor format. 

Now, any file added to Google Drive will now be automatically converted to Google format without filling your Drive space with copies.

A sheet copy will be created in the same folder with the same title, but with the Google Sheets file type.

Making edits in Google Sheets is really simple, and you don’t have to worry about losing data if something unexpected happens.

All changes will be saved automatically while your computer is connected to the internet, and you can even enable offline editing that will update the Cloud file once your computer reconnects to the internet.

You’ll always know how recently your edits were saved by checking the top bar. We can see here that the last save was made recently.

If you see this message, you don’t have to worry about saving.

Then, you can select any color swatch to help highlight the sheet tab at the bottom of your screen.

Navigate and Organize Data with Columns and Rows

Each sheet is just a grid of cells organized by columns and rows. Columns are labeled alphabetically, and rows are labeled numerically.

In each cell, you can input data or calculations. Each cell is labeled with an index to identify it separately from the data it contains. The cell index is a combination of the indexes of columns and rows.

For example, the cell below is indexed as B2.

A cell’s index is important for formulas and functions, which can automatically make calculations with cell data, even if that data changes (since the index will remain the same) — more on this later.

Hiding a row can be useful if you have lots of data that you need to keep but isn’t always relevant or useful. This can help you skip old data entries whenever you open the sheet if you only need to check newer data.

Grouping rows or columns can serve a similar purpose as the hiding option.

Create a Database with Google Sheets

There are two ways of inputting data into an individual cell. Simply type into the cell directly, or select the cell and type in the function field (labeled fx).

The function field is especially useful when you want to use either long strings of text or formulas.

Let’s demonstrate with some basic data for a clothing store. (I find it helpful to bold the headers across the top of each column.)

You can freeze the first row by pulling the horizontal marker down from the top left corner. You’ll know that the row is frozen because of the bold marker in between the first and second rows.

You can also add a background color to cells. This doesn’t affect the data at all, but colors can be visually helpful when reading data.

Some Useful Shortcuts, Navigation, and Selection Hotkeys

Wanna go fast? Here are some of the most common and useful shortcuts in Google Sheets:

For Mac:

For Windows:

Note that if you copy more than one cell, those cells will keep their formatting when pasted. (More on this in the Special Paste Functions section of this guide.)

As you can see, it has the same structure and format. 

If you want to paste as plain text, you can use ⌘ / Ctrl + Shift + V.

Format Data and Cells

You can adjust the data formatting of selected cells by using the Format menu. This is useful if you want to consistently present a column as currency or date, or if you want to apply dynamic colors or font effects. 

For example, let’s say that in this clothing shop’s database we want to format all prices to display as dollar values. Under Format → Number, select the Currency option to display the value in dollars and cents.

Note that you can also increase or decrease the number of decimal places in the menu bar. However, for currency, you’ll probably want to leave this at its default.

Basic Organization Features in Google Sheets Text Wrapping

In some situations, your data entries are so large that they don’t fit inside individual cells.

Sometimes you’ll just expand your column width to accommodate this, but sometimes you’ll want to keep narrower columns. In this case, you have a couple of options to make your data easier to use depending on your situation.

Overflow is pictured above, where the data string will continue past the column border into adjacent empty columns (until it runs into a column that contains data, where it will stop).

Wrap will expand the cell vertically to accommodate the data string. In other words, it will respect the column borders and continue the data string on a new line, making the entire row taller.

Special Paste Functions

As mentioned before, Google Sheets will copy both data fields and formatting by default.

As you can see, there are different ways of pasting. Some of these are relatively self explanatory. Paste values only will paste only the displayed value from the copied cell, regardless of any functions or formulas used in the copied cell.

Paste format only will paste only the formatting rules without the data, while Paste all except borders pastes, data, and all formatting that excludes cell borders (which can include line widths and colors). Finally, Paste column widths only is useful for making the grid more spatially uniform.

However, some of these paste functions are less intuitive. For example, Paste transposed will switch the columns and rows of the data.

Organize and Merge Cells

You can rearrange entire rows and columns that are already populated with data.

You can select whether you want to merge a whole block of cells both vertically and horizontally, or choose a group of cells to merge only by row or column.

Once the cells have been merged, you’ll notice that there are no more lines between them. The data is shared in that cell between rows or columns.

Google Sheets aligns numbers on the right and text on the left on its own, but you can change the alignment of the cells if you’d like.

Sort and Organize Data by Values

To analyze or summarize your data, it’s useful to be able to see it sorted by the actual data values. For example, you might want it in chronological order, or descending price order, or alphabetical order.

To do this, select the column by which you would like to sort. Then, under the Data menu, you can choose to sort either ascending or descending, and either the whole sheet or just the selected range.

So what’s the difference?

In the example below, the sheet below was sorted alphabetically by column A. This pulled the header down into the data (although you can avoid this by freezing the top row). Sorting the whole sheet is useful when you want all of your data organized in a particular way.

If you only want to sort part of your data, then you can Sort range instead of Sort sheet. This will sort only your selected range, which is useful if you have subheadings throughout your sheet for groups of related items.

Calculations and Data Analysis in Google Sheets Basic Math Operations

In Google Sheets, you can use all regular math operators in the function field: addition + , subtraction – , multiplication * , and division / .

These math operations will update the value of a cell automatically if the data in related cells changes, which makes them great for automating data like revenue totals.

To demonstrate, let’s calculate the total revenue for each product at our sample clothing store by multiplying each product’s price with the quantity sold. 

In this case, we want the final formula to read =B2*C2, using a star ( * ) as the multiplication operator. This will multiply the value in cell B2 by the value in cell C2, displaying the product in our selected formula cell E2.

This means that the formula in cell E3 will read =B3*C3, the formula in cell E4 will be =B4*C4, and so on.

💡 Top Tip: Don’t want to transpose part of the formula? Add a dollar sign ( $ ) before the column index, row index, or both to freeze that index value. For example, the formula =F2*$G$2 would transpose the F2 index when pasted to another cell, but not the G2 index.

You can combine numerical values with cell indices in your calculations.

Let’s say that you want to add a shipping cost to each order of products in a separate column. You can select the cell index for the product order total (E2) and add it to a numeric value.

Use Functions to Analyze Data

Some of the most commonly useful functions include SUM, AVERAGE, COUNT, MAX, and MIN. Once you understand how these work, you should be able to figure out how to use other functions, too.

Let’s try using the AVERAGE function for the same cells. You can select AVERAGE from the Functions menu, or you can simply type =AVERAGE(E2:E5).

The process is essentially the same for all functions — start with an equal sign and the function name, then simply use a colon to denote the range between two cells (and remember to include parentheses around the range).

💡 Top Tip: Want to use an entire column in your calculation? Use just the column index on either side of the colon. For example, to sum all values in column A, use the formula =SUM(A:A)

A small pop-up will open and there you can write your note, which can provide additional detail or context for data.

You’ll know that a cell has a note attached to it by the small black triangle that appears in the upper right corner. If you hover over that cell, the note will appear.

Under File, select Download and choose your desired format. Your browser will do the rest and present you with a file in your selected file type. Easy!

If you have a Google Workspace (formerly G Suite) domain, you will also have the option to specify sharing permissions for other users inside your group.

FAQ What are some useful shortcuts and hotkeys in Google Sheets? How can I create a database with Google Sheets?

You can input data into individual cells by typing directly or using the function field. You can format cells and columns, freeze rows, and apply various formatting options.


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