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Recently, a post was published on Search Engine Journal, authored by Aysun Akarsu, on the notion of Harmonic Centrality – one of several measures of closeness, or centrality, to important nodes in graph theory.

The piece discussed the viability of this measure as a potential alternative ranking algorithm to PageRank – in that graph theory nodes and edges are like webpages and links.

Intriguing & Insightful

I thought the piece was excellent – very insightful, and thought-provoking.

The piece intrigued me, so I went off to Google Scholar to run some searches on “harmonic centrality” and find out more.

Other Papers Touching on Harmonic Centrality

I came across a few papers which seemed like they might also be relevant to it (one of which had been cited by Akarsu):

Some of these papers seem quite old and they don’t have a lot of citations (certainly not in the range of thousands), which made me think that this hadn’t been implemented at scale (i.e., adopted by major search engines as yet), since more would be referencing it, particularly as they are likening it to PageRank.

Axioms for Centrality

One of the results returned in Google Scholar had been cited in the piece by Akarsu – a 2013 research paper by Paolo Boldi and Sebastiano Vigna entitled ‘Axioms for centrality’.

Their work was undertaken as part of an analytical study of link graphs comparing various algorithmic methods and their output effectiveness when seeking to understand the most important nodes in a network, utilizing “centrality.”

A General-Purpose Centrality Index?

Whilst this study, in particular, was carried out on a social network, to identify the most important points in the network, according to Boldi and Vigna, they claimed in their findings that Harmonic Centrality could potentially be extended as a general-purpose centrality index for arbitrary directed graphs, and as Akarsu quoted:

“Our results suggest that centrality measures based on distances, which in the last years have been neglected in information retrieval in favour of spectral centrality measures, do provide high-quality signals; moreover, Harmonic Centrality pops up as an excellent general-purpose centrality index for arbitrary directed graphs.” (Boldi & Vigna, 2013).

Boldi and Vigna also find:

“Surprisingly, only a new simple measure based on distances, harmonic centrality, turns out to satisfy all axioms; essentially, harmonic centrality is a correction to Bavelas’s classic closeness centrality designed to take unreachable nodes into account in a natural way.”

Professor Ricardo Baeza-Yates

Intrigued further, I reached out to Professor Ricardo Baeza-Yates, to ask what his thoughts were on the notion of harmonic centrality as an alternative to PageRank, as I thought it would be useful to get additional informed opinions.

I asked Baeza-Yates because he is the author of ‘Modern Information Retrieval’, a core text-book on information retrieval (cited over 17,000 times by both academics and industry practitioners of the search-engineer world), and also ex-VP of Research at Yahoo Labs.

Computational Expense

Baeza-Yates’s initial thoughts were that, (with regards to the computational expense involved):

“My first issue would be that computing centrality measures in large graphs is VERY expensive as it is not a local linking measure.”

Therefore, his thoughts were that harmonic centrality would be slower to compute than PageRank.

I shared Akarsu’s article with him, to which he replied, after reading:

“Interesting article, according to this it is as easy as computing PageRank. I know Paolo (Boldi) and Sebastiano (Vigna). I will ask them first.”

Baeza-Yates was referring to ‘Axioms of Centrality’ research cited by Akarsu in the article. Since he knew the authors he was going to discuss the papers, theories, and experiments with Boldi and come back to me.

I also asked Baeza-Yates about the following in relation to the size of the dataset, because it seemed to make sense there could be value for smaller projects not as huge as the web itself – for example, within enterprise (or smaller) sites:

“How about within an individual site to e.g., compute something similar to PageRank within the domain itself? I am thinking from an internal equity perspective locally, say on a large site (e.g. 1 million+ pages), rather than the scale of the web. Presumably it could have some value for enterprise sites to get ideas of strengths in various site sections with this measure?”

Websites Are Trees

Baeza-Yates’s response:

“Websites are trees which are very different from typical web structures at the domain level. For websites it would be better to define a completely new measure which is not related to centrality but more about distance to the root, semantic cohesion, etc. For example, does anyone knows what exactly characterizes a good website? What link structure should it have?”

My response:

The Bow Tie of the Web

On the topic of the link graph of the web itself (and the structure of the web overall), I raised the question of whether Baeza-Yates considered the shape of the web still to be like a bowtie from the “The Bowtie of The Web”.

The “bowtie of the web” comes from a 2000 paper by Broder et al, Graph Structure in the Web (cited by thousands, and if you have not read this it is a recommended reading).

The central point on the bowtie is “the strongly connected component” (a central point with many links in and out).

Baeza-Yates made the point:

“It should still be a bow tie. There was a paper that shows that the IBM website which was very large also had this structure but also had other characteristics (and an old paper now, more than 10 years old). Today most websites are fully dynamic or a great percentage of it is dynamic and that also implies a different link structure., so the structure is not that important. What is important is findability!”

He also clarified my queries about Harmonic Centrality from a distance perspective:

My question:

“If I’m not mistaken harmonic centrality appears to simply be a measure of distance from a strongly connected component?”

His answer:

“It is a measure of ‘inverse distance’ (that is why it is called harmonious, as this comes from a harmonic average) from all other nodes connected to a node, so all of them have to be in a connected component. If the diameter is too large, the complete paths will be too long. On the other hand, as you are adding terms of weight proportional to 1/distance, the contributions are smaller each time (but not negligible as the sum of 1/i does not converge, as that grows like log(n)), where n is the number of terms in the sum. This is one main difference with PageRank, where each time you multiply by q and q^i decreases much faster than 1/i.”

An Experiment to Compare: Pagerank vs. Harmonic

In the meantime Baeza-Yates had raised the question of the computational expense on larger datasets with Boldi, believing that Harmonic Centrality would be slower to compute, who then carried out an experiment as a result of that discussion and reports as follows:

“Paolo Boldi and Sebastiano Vigna ran a brief experiment on a small web dataset (84M pages). PageRank with alpha=0.85 required 1h of computation to get a L1-norm of the difference smaller than 10-6), whereas harmonic centrality required 14h (for a standard deviation of 4.6 percent). Let’s say one order of magnitude more (although it may be the case that, a larger standard deviation can be as good).”

They continued:

“Whilst Harmonic Centrality seems better for the results, the computing time is much longer.”

Other Concerns

I asked Baeza-Yates if there were any other concerns and considerations with Harmonic Centrality versus PageRank, to which he replied:

“I think that is the main concern (computational expense). Another question would be which is easier to spam? I guess Harmonic centrality is more robust because it depends on longer paths (PageRank has an exponential decay while Harmonic Centrality has an harmonic decay).”

Link-Ranking Measures

Baeza-Yates also made the following interesting point:

Either way, Akarsu was correct in that Harmonic Centrality is certainly something worth learning more about. It is certainly a topic I will be exploring further.

Test for yourself PageRank versus Harmonic Centrality via comparisons with the experiment created by Boldi and Vigna on Web Data Commons.

Thanks to Ricardo Baeza-Yates, Paolo Boldi, Sebastiano Vigna, and Aysun Akarsu.

More Resources:

Image Credits

Screenshot taken by author, January 2023

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Inside Intel’s Arc Graphics Plans: “We’re Taking A Completely Different Approach”

In short, it’s a tough time to be the fresh face in discrete graphics. But Roger Chandler, vice president and general manager of Intel’s Graphics and Gaming team, thinks that’s exactly why Intel can succeed. He believes Arc can build on Intel’s history of strong partnerships with hardware OEMs and software developers to offer a unique alternative for both creators and gamers.

Whether Intel can deliver remains to be seen, but my time at Intel’s Jones Farm campus—where I benchmarked the company’s first Arc laptop GPU—made it clear the team doesn’t lack passion.

Where’s the hardware?

Intel’s Arc A370M can deliver performance competitive with AMD and Nvidia, but this isn’t worth much if the hardware isn’t available. This reality continues to loom over Intel, which just announced yet another delay of desktop availability.

I asked Chandler if 2023 is still the year Arc goes mainstream, or if that will be further delayed. “This is the year,” said Chandler boldly, before adding a catch. “This is the year our first generation of products hit the market.”

“It really fits our strategy,” said Chandler. “We’re building on this basis of integrated graphics, which we’ve been steadily improving. That’s our foundation.” He also mentioned Intel’s long history of working with OEM laptop manufacturers.

Arc reference laptops at Intel’s Jones Farm Campus.

Matt Smith/IDG

Yet even mobile Arc continues to struggle with delays. Samsung’s Galaxy Book2 has a configuration with Intel Arc A350M, but this configuration is not yet available in North America. Lenovo Yoga 2-in-1s with Intel Arc are announced but won’t hit stores until June.

“I think we’re all eager to get the rest of the designs from our customers into the market,” said Chandler. “When you’re working on partners with notebooks, you’re really working on their schedule, and their calendar.” Chandler said supply chain issues remain a persistent obstacle for laptops.

Intel also wants to get the user experience right, especially for enthusiasts—whether they’re on mobile or desktop. The team doesn’t want to ship an underbaked experience just to get it on shelves.

“Desktop systems are really important. Just to be honest, about 80 percent of the people in the overall graphics world are hardcore gamers,” said Chandler. “The gaming experience has to be rock solid. Those are the products most heavily reviewed, and scrutinized. By staging it, this gives us a chance to really deliver on our software work.”

Intel wants to get gaming right the first time

Of course, delivering on the user experience is easier said than done, and Intel has to make up for lost time. AMD and Nvidia have decades of experience working with game developers to optimize for their discrete graphics.


Chandler said Arc’s software team is growing aggressively and that Intel has expanded its developer relation organization to include roughly twice the number of deep partnerships it had a few years ago.

“If I were to say this were to work flawlessly, and 100 percent of every game is going to be fantastic, that would be disingenuous,” said Chandler. “But I can say based on the testing we’re doing, it looks really good.”

A large portion of this workload falls on a team of roughly 50 led by Dave Astle, director of game enabling engineering. Astle, now going on seven years at Intel, has guided his team to a more consistent release schedule of game-specific driver optimizations – and Intel’s move into discrete graphics opens new possibilities.


“With integrated graphics, there’s always going to be super high-end games that are beyond what we can support,” said Astle. “With discrete graphics, that’s no longer the case. So we’re now engaging with pretty much every high-end game developer.” Astle highlighted Intel’s Xe Super Sampling (XESS), a feature similar to Nvidia DLSS that uses AI upscaling to render at a lower resolution and then upscale the result.

I pressed Astle on whether Intel would change its driver update cadence alongside Arc. He seemed confident the current cadence of releases for Intel integrated graphics can keep up with what gamers expect. He pointed out the current pace is about one driver optimization release per month and, given the work required for validation, increasing that wouldn’t necessarily improve game support or performance.

“The goal is to release at the cadence we need to to ensure a good experience,” said Astle.

Pitching Arc to modern creators

Delays aside, Intel Arc is likely to reach a wide swath of users, from content creators to hardcore gamers, through late 2023. Chandler spoke passionately about his belief these groups are not separate.


“We’re trying to build for this new generation of gamers and creators,” he said. “People are using games to connect with each other, and more people are building careers as streamers and creators.”

Chandler referenced Arc’s support for the AV1 video codec as a tangible benefit. Intel Arc provides both hardware decode and encode for AV1, a feature that could be useful for a variety of livestreamers and video creators.

Intel is also working with software vendors to make use of both integrated Iris Xe and Arc discrete graphics simultaneously for content creation tasks. This effectively turns a laptop into a dual-graphics platform, a series of features that Intel calls Deep Link.

“For the most part, in a laptop system, if you have a discrete graphics card the integrated graphics pretty much gets ignored,” said Chandler. “With our system engineering capabilities, we’ve discovered all these ways the discrete and integrated can work together.”


Gamers shouldn’t get too excited—this is not as simple as flipping a switch, and Intel does not expect games can use this feature. Still, it could let streamers use Arc discrete graphics to play a game while the Iris Xe graphics is used to accelerate streaming software.

Priya Pulluru, a software enabling and optimization engineer, is working with partners like Topaz and BlackMagic to enable simultaneous use of integrated and discrete graphics in their software. Topaz already offers an experimental feature that supports this. In one test, an Intel Arc A370M paired with Intel Iris Xe graphics delivered a roughly 40 percent improvement over a laptop with Nvidia’s RTX 3050.

A laptop with Arc A370M graphics may not work for all content creators, and especially for those doing extensive work in Topaz’s AI software or DaVinci Resolve. Still, Pulluru believes Arc can expand the definition of a laptop suited for content creation. This could help experienced creators work on the go – or make high-end content creation possible at a mid-range price point.

“Now, content creation is everywhere,” said Pulluru. “And any laptop, mid-range laptop, can now run Resolve. My daughter did it for a school project.”

Arc has sets its sights on the horizon

Even more Arc laptops at Intel’s Jones Farm Campus.

Matt Smith/IDG

That theme—“content creation is everywhere”—feels like a guiding light for the Arc team. It will, of course, compete for the attention of hardcore gamers, but it’s clearly positioned to do far more than accelerate 3D games. Instead, Arc seems uniquely positioned as the final step in a broad, system-level strategy.

I left Jones Farm feeling Intel is not interested in discrete GPUs to sell Arc graphics specifically, but rather in selling Intel hardware as a complete platform for modern PC users—many of which game, create content, and browse YouTube on the same machine. Intel might be new to mainstream discrete graphics, but Chandler seems to think this fresh-faced approach is exactly why Intel can get it right with Arc. “We can take a completely different approach,” he said. “The world is different than it was 20 years ago.”

Further Intel Arc reading:

Can Google Pagerank Be Manipulated For Better Rankings?

I saw a discussion on Facebook about manipulating website linking patterns to focus PageRank to important pages. The idea was that linking to “useless” pages is a waste of PageRank and a diminution of a website’s ranking power.

SEO 101 – Site Architecture

One of the most fundamental understandings about how to create a website is creating a meaningful site architecture. That means creating a menu and site structure that makes it easy for a site visitor to reach all the important pages of a website.

That’s newbie level SEO but it’s a goodie.

PageRank Sculpting

The strategy of stopping PageRank from flowing to “useless pages” is called PageRank Sculpting.

My understanding about PageRank sculpting is that this is something people were talking about in the SEO forums in the mid-2000’s and later popularized on the Moz website to the wider world.

In 2009 Google engineer Matt Cutts said that Google uses nofollowed links as part of the calculation of how much PageRank to send to other pages.

So if a page has ten links and one is nofollowed, the flow of PageRank to the nine normal links is as if there are ten links on the page, regardless if one of those links is nofollowed.

what that means is that there is no benefit to PageRank sculpting by using the nofollow link for that practice.

Related: Google PageRank, Simplified: A Guide for SEO Beginners

Cloaking Links Method

Another method to achieve the PageRank sculpting goal is to hide the links from Google. That means showing one page to Google and another page to users.

Under that definition then cloaking for PR sculpting isn’t spam.

But… My opinion is I would hesitate to roll the dice on the rankings of a well ranking site by splitting hairs about what a Googler said

Nobody can really say at what point they crossed the line until the line was crossed and the site is banned for crossing over it.

And of course there is always that one person who will pop up to say they did the same thing and got away with it.

I get it that it’s good to squeeze maximum performance from a site. But good site architecture, SEO 101, will get your players down the field and within scoring distance to the goal.

From there it’s up to your web pages to score the goal.

It’s not the job of the goalkeeper or the home page to score the goal.

It’s good to link to about us pages. It’s good to link to contact us page (if you have one).

It doesn’t matter if PageRank flows to those pages because it’s up to the individual web pages to rank. It’s not the responsibility of the home page to trickle down PageRank to make inner pages rank.

We used to be able to SEE how much PageRank flows from page to page with Google’s toolbar, so maybe it’s easier for someone like myself to visualize or conceptualize it? It basically just starts at the home page then steps down one point from link to link through the site (on the general scale shown to us by Google).

Except for inner pages that attain links.

The inner pages that attain links have higher PageRank than other pages.

But the idea of the home page being the mother of the all the web pages beneath it, with all the sub-pages sucking on it’s PageRank teat for PageRank nourishment is outdated.

Every web page that matters should attract links from outside the site and stand on its own two feet like a grown up who leaves their parents home and feeds themselves.

Every page that matters will feed itself and stand on its own.

The idea that every page is dependent on the home page for links is outdated.

It comes from the idea that links should point to the home page and trickle down to the inner pages. That doesn’t work anymore.

Worrying about how much PageRank flows to your contact page is like ripping out the back seats of your car in order to make it lighter and save five cents a mile on gas.

The whole idea about manipulating PageRank was settled eleven years ago in 2009.

What should sink in, what’s most important, is that Web pages that tend to attract links are the web pages that rank.

Worrying about how PageRank is flowing is a waste of time that could be better spend creating or promoting web pages.

Matt Cutts put a fork in the idea of manipulating  PageRank in 2009. Nobody should be jumping up and down about the idea as if it’s something new in 2023.

Related: Google: Different Content for Googlebot & Users Can Be OK

#Askanseo: Rapid Fire On Pagerank, Keyword Density And More

Want to ask Jenny an SEO question for her bi-weekly column? Fill out our form or use #AskAnSEO on social media.

Welcome back to Ask an SEO! We’re back to rapid fire questions this week, so let’s see how many I can fit into 2000 words or so…

We are a company in a highly niche industry with highly niche products. Keywords searched however would be hard to put into one single product page. I fear the “keyword stuffing” practice. As an example: we have a product that has multiple keywords to describe that specific product. Example: Main product with alternate keyword 1, alternate keyword 2, alternate keyword 3. Is it a best practice to create a unique landing page for each keyword, where the content for each page is primarily the same with the difference being the URL, the Page Title, Page Description and H1/H2 tags, and alt descriptions of images, all containing the alternate keyword?     – Jason D., Mandeville, Louisiana

This long explanation is my way of saying, no, this isn’t a best practice anymore, but if you’re in a very niche market without a lot of competition, you may still want to try and break keywords apart into pages. You don’t need a separate page for each permutation of a keyword, but if you have a number of keywords that have the same meaning, you may want to do 1-2 related keywords per page.

That being said, you always want to focus on doing what is right for users. So if most of your users already know that all these keywords are closely related, it’s probably not necessary to do more than define them each in context. If users would be confused, it may be worthwhile to create a “glossary” of sorts that explains the similarities and differences.

One problem that I am facing in SEO is that rankings of most of my projects is static for almost a year with not much substantial change. Can you please share most important ranking factors which I should keep my focus on and optimize so that I can gain ranking improvement.      – Azhar K., Madhya Pradesh, India

It really depends on whether your rankings are static at a high level (3 or 4 but you just can’t get to #1) or static at a low level (50 or 60 and you can’t seem to move off page 5 or 6). Let’s take the first one first, because the answer to the question is easy. Be grateful for what you’ve achieved, and work hard to stay relevant and valuable so that you don’t lose your position. Accept that you may never outrank Amazon or eBay or Wikipedia or whoever is in the top spot.

I suspect, however, that you are probably in the second group. And here the answer varies too. If you are stuck at 50+ and can’t move from there, you probably have some kind of penalty in play. There are lots of other penalties (or “filters”) other than Panda and Penguin – they just don’t have fancy names. There’s a good chance you’ve got a deeper problem, so hire a skilled SEO to do a thorough audit and look for the cause.

If you’re just ranking so-so (above 50, but below 10 – or thereabouts), then you’re probably facing what everyone else faces, which is how to make your voice heard in a crowded and over saturated environment. The answer is everything that you read online. Make something great. Have an independent and interesting voice. Build a following and loyal “customers”. Be awesome. It isn’t easy; it’s really hard work. And you have to invest in it and sustain that investment. Anyone who offers you shortcuts is not to be trusted.

Yoast plugin makes our SEO job easy but it can get difficult at time to follow everything to the tee… Can we skip some the long list and focus on keywords in the title, body,  H2,  meta des, url and image alts?

– Badal N., Meghalaya, India

Plugins like Yoast are awesome for helping people adjust key elements in do-it-yourself programs like WordPress. I personally use Yoast SEO on all my sites and recommend it to my customers that use WordPress. But like everything else in SEO, it’s not a fix-all. All plugins have issues in that they attempt to machinate what is essentially a human-edited process. Sure, you can template your tags using the handy tools in Yoast.

But will you have more success if you write each one independently? Probably. Will you have enough success to justify the time it takes to do each one individually? Probably not, except on key pages. Have I achieved terrific rankings on pages where the “focus keyword” in Yoast has a red rating? Yes, I have. It’s not the be-all, end-all.

So to answer your question, feel free to skip anything in Yoast or any other plugin. Just make sure that you’re following SEO best practices and creating a great user experience. The Yoast plugin is designed to help you make sure all your I’s are dotted and your T’s are crossed, so think carefully before you ignore its suggestions.

Having your website built with AngularJS – do you see a large-scale implication on SEO to the existing website. In short our new version of the website is built on AngularJS and we want to ensure we cover all bases before we relaunch the website.    – Dinesh K., Melbourne, Australia

If you haven’t done it yet, stop. Don’t build your website in Angular JS.

There’s no problem with Angular JS on the face of it. You can optimize it for search; people do it every day. Google even recommends it. It’s super-fast, agile technology. However, the number of SEOs I know who actually know how to optimize for it? 1. And it’s not me. There’s a striking lack of people who know about this technology; both how to build it properly and how to optimize it for search. It’s not plug n’ play just because Google recommends it. Everything with it is harder; from how to tag it for Analytics to how to layer the content. It’s the future of the web, make no mistake about that. I’m trying desperately to learn as much as I can about it. But I know literally thousands of SEOs who admit they know nothing about it.

So the reason I say “Stop, don’t do it” is because if you’re asking the question, you may have a limited number of resources to implement and optimize it. Unless you have an Angular developer ON STAFF who will NEVER LEAVE and an SEO who knows what they are doing with Angular JS, just don’t do it. Yet.

If you feel confident that you know what you are doing and you have the support you need, the rules for building a site with Angular are the same as any other site. Make sure your redirects are in place. Map everything from old to new. Make sure the main content and navigation is accessible via links and not hidden inside JavaScript calls.

How important is Domain Authority and why?     – Ket P., Washington DC

It depends on what you mean by “domain authority”. If you mean PageRank (measured by the quality and quantity of links), it’s hugely important for Google – it’s part of the core of their algorithm. If you mean domain authority by the age of the domain, that’s a more difficult question. Some people refer to domain authority as a core aspect of ranking ability, but the truth is that how old your domain is doesn’t matter nearly as much as its history. If an older domain has a history of doing spammy things, then age isn’t going to override that. If a newer domain is home to a company that is doing awesome things, then age isn’t going to matter. If an older domain has a better reputation and lots of quality links achieved over a period of many years, this helps Google determine that the domain/company is highly trustworthy, which is a factor, but again not the most important factor.

Getting hung up on things like domain authority is pretty unproductive, really. It’s not something you can change, or buy your way into. It’s much more important to focus your energy on generating a quality business with loyal and engaged customers.

What is the exact impact of internal links coming to a page? Does it have to do with ease of crawlability alone, or are there other factors as well? Does a greater number of internal links to a page necessarily imply greater SEO value? Does providing internal links from low authority pages to high authority pages reduce the authority of high authority pages?     – Srinath R., Maharashtra, India

There are a lot of questions here, so first: It helps connect pages and concepts. There are other factors, although it helps crawlability. Sometimes, not always. No.

The exact impact of internal links is impossible to measure for anyone other than a Google engineer with keys to the algorithm. Internal links help connect pages for crawability, and they also help connect concepts, which is why lots of internal links at the bottom of every page (a “fat footer”) is pretty useless for SEO, unless those concepts are connected. A greater number of internal links doesn’t really help imply greater SEO value. If you have a million pages, and you choose to connect each of those pages to each other, you’re not telling Google anything useful about the importance of those pages and your internal linking efforts are likely to be ignored. If on the other hand, you have a few very important pages that are consistently linked to in the context of the site, you’re sending Google a clear signal that this page is important.

Providing links from high authority to low authority pages is not damaging in the least. Some people call this “nofollow sculpting”. Some SEOs with too much time on their hands decided to try and control the “flow of PageRank” by adding the nofollow command to pages with low quality like privacy policy pages or shipping information pages. Google explained in detail why this doesn’t work back in 2009, and confirmed it again recently.

In essence, PageRank flows equally to all pages. If you cut one off with nofollow, you just cut off the potential PageRank you have available.

Why Page Rank is dead? Any other way to judge website is authoritative except domain authority?

– Manish Singh R. 

PageRank isn’t dead; it’s still alive and well and a core facet of Google’s algorithm. Toolbar PageRank is dead – and really was never alive to begin with – it was updated in the Google Toolbar periodically, but always was marked “for entertainment purposes only”. The best way to judge a website’s authority is to download records of their backlinks.

Use tools like Majestic, AHrefs, and Moz to get as complete a picture as possible. If you see a lot of questionable links, it may be a domain purchase you want to pass on, or at least one where you want to hire a reputable penalty expert to review it first. Honestly, if you’re thinking about spending money on a domain, you should probably hire someone to review it anyway.

Keyword density in a product page is still important. And what is the right density in %     – Marius M.

Keyword density is an outdated concept. It’s not important anymore. And there is no ideal percentage. Use keywords as it makes sense in the content (if you’re unsure, try reading it out loud) and don’t worry about density. Also keep in mind that Google’s more interested in topical relevance than keyword relevance these days, and as you can see from the first answer in this series, it’s not a perfect implementation, but the days of exact matching keywords are long gone.

Whew, that was a lot of questions! Next time we’ll revisit the long form – with this question:

I wanted to know a checklist sort of document for SEO on-page, what factors to be considered as our new website is under development, so what are the key elements I need to look at this point & ask developer to do before they handover the website. Would love if you can help in On-Page as well. Thanks!   -F., Dubai

While I don’t offer free consulting, we’ll break this question down and talk about some of the most important things to think about during redesign.

Image Credits

Oppo Reno Ace Review: Taking Charge

About our OPPO Reno Ace review: I tested the OPPO Reno Ace over a period of seven days. The device was running Color OS 6, based on Android 9 Pie, and updated to Color OS 6.1 while I was testing it. OPPO supplied the review unit to Android Authority.

OPPO Reno Ace review: The big picture

65W charger

USB-C cable

TPU case

SIM tool

Just the essentials, nothing more. No earbuds, but I’m sure that’s because OPPO expects gamers to use their preferred headphones.


161 x 75 x 8.7mm



3.5mm headphone jack

The Ace has a fairly standard set of controls along the outer edges. Separate volume buttons are positioned about two-thirds of the way up the left side. The space between them is negligible, meaning it’s hard to tell up from down by feel. A power button sits on the right edge, opposite the volume keys. I really like that the button has a slim green accent, which helps it stand out visually.

The dual SIM card tray is above the power button. Sadly, there’s no memory card support to be found here. On the bottom, you’ll note the 3.5mm headphone jack, USB-C port, and bottom-firing speaker.

See also: Best waterproof phones you can buy


6.5-inch AMOLED

2,400 x 1,080 resolution

90Hz refresh rate

1,000 nit peak brightness


Snapdragon 855 Plus

8/12GB of RAM, 128/256GB storage

Adreno 640

UFS 3.0

In day-to-day performance, the phone always felt swift and fluid. Nothing slowed the Reno Ace down, not even a little bit. Not only is the Ace a good gaming phone, it’s a good everyday phone.

Read also: Snapdragon 855 and 855 Plus vs Kirin 990


4,000mAh lithium-ion

65W SuperVOOC 2.0 charging

No wireless charging

Ultra-rapid charging is the Reno Ace’s superpower.

OPPO achieved this by separating the charge circuit from the discharge circuit inside the two halves of the battery. This shortens the charge path and reduces resistance inside the battery, which results in a 2x improvement in charging speed. Moreover, OPPO is able to keep the Reno Ace charging at a high rate even during the last 10% of battery capacity, when most chargers and batteries reduce to a trickling charge rate. In our tests, the phone took 32 minutes to go from 0% to 100% — close enough to OPPO’s claim for me.

Bottom line, you hardly need to worry about battery life at all. With a phone that sucks in a 25% charge in just 5 minutes, you can score hours of up time in mere minutes.

See also: The best portable battery chargers



Standard 48MP

Wide angle: 8MP

Long focus: 13MP

Depth: 2MP




4K @ 60fps

Full HD slow-motion

A quad-camera setup has become commonplace for phones in this price range. The main shooter may have a huge pixel count, but it bins down to 12MP for standard shots. You can elect to use the full resolution, but I found the results to be a bit noisy. It’s most useful when zooming way in.

In basic use, the camera offers four levels of zoom: super-wide, 1x, 3x, and 5x. These are all simple to jump to thanks to a button placed near the shutter key. The super-wide also doubles as a macro lens of sorts, meaning it can capture super close-ups. It’s a versatile arrangement, particularly if you enjoy tweaking the perspective.

Most of the images I captured with the phone looked sharp and clean. Colors were good, white balance was on point, and exposure was mostly where it should be. I saw some overblown highlights here and there, but under a cloudless sunny sky that’s not unheard of.

The 5x zoom relies on the telephoto lens and 48MP sensor working together. This is often referred to as hybrid zoom. I was surprised with the sharpness of shots zoomed so far in.


3.5mm headphone jack

Stereo speakers

Dolby Atmos

Bluetooth 5.0 aptX

Color OS 6.1

Color OS 6.1 is based on Android 9 Pie, but it is a non-Play Store skin. In other words, the Google Play Store and Google apps are not available out of the box. The phone is absolutely loaded with OPPO’s own apps and a multitude of grating third-party junk.

Functionality of the OS is not an issue. You have all the standard UI options available to most Android phones. That means you can adjust the home screen to include an app drawer or not, organize apps into folders, drop widgets onto the home screen, and set your preferred feed to fill the left-most home screen panel. The Quick Settings drop-down menu, full system settings menu, and other typical Android functions are all here.

Importantly, the OS flies. The processor/RAM combo serves the phone well and it never felt slow.

You can get Google (and other) apps onto the phone as long as you don’t mind side-loading the APKs directly.


OPPO Reno Ace: 8GB/128GB


3,199 yuan (~$450)

OPPO Reno Ace: 8GB/256GB — 3,399 yuan (~$478)

OPPO Reno Ace: 12GB/256GB — 3,799 yuan (~$534)

OPPO Reno Ace review: The verdict

Making Ethical Decisions And Taking Action

Recent years have seen much interest in how humans make judgments. Such interest focuses exclusively on the prevalence of dubious decisions and the reasons why people who ought to stay informed execute them. The main goal is to pinpoint the origins of erroneous conclusions that could endanger our clients and us. If we have been working as mental health professionals for any time, we have almost likely encountered at least one ethical challenge that either directly affected us or concerned a colleague we know well.

Self-Deception Red Flags

This somewhat new interest in the decider rather than just the choice aids in explaining a behavior we frequently noticed while sitting on ethics committees. Many of the psychologists who appeared before the committee seemed to be improbable ethical breakers, even if some of them merited to be criminally prosecuted. Warning indicators frequently remained unnoticed because of justifications, intense stress, incapacity in a particular circumstance, or negligence. Therefore, we are likely to act by forces we need not entirely recognize if we digest important information without clear recognition. However, if a situation indicating possible risk is obvious, it is vital to consider it carefully and make necessary adjustments in the following phase.

Making Role-Blending Decisions

A significant fraction of therapists’ worst or most careless decisions result from role mixing. Amid self-serving conditions, frontiers become flimsy and cross a line if not recognized and corrected promptly. Roles become incongruous when one role’s expectations call for actions or behavior that conflicts with another. There are three criteria to measure the harm caused by role merging. First, there is a greater chance of harm as the ideals of professionals and individuals they serve diverge. Second, there is a greater chance of losing objectivity and having divided loyalties as job responsibilities diverge. Third, the risk of exploitation increases when the therapist’s influence and reputation outweigh the client’s needs.

Making Decisions When There is Lead Time

We must emphasize right away that using ethical decision-making techniques does not result in a decision being made. However, a thorough analysis of the circumstance will significantly impact the choice.

Strategies for Decision-Making Ethical Decision-Making Under Behavioural Emergencies and Crisis Conditions

Frenetic communications from clients or their families, threats made by clients to hurt themselves or others, unanticipated client behavior or requests, and startling disclosures throughout a session are not uncommon events. Consequently, ethical conundrums requiring a quick solution can and do emerge abruptly.

Therapists may understandably feel anxious and become more inclined to act less than adequately if they need more time to formulate a properly considered conclusion utilizing a technique like the one we just described. It is also feasible that anxiety can induce unethical, self-serving, or even protective choices. Although behavioral catastrophes and emergencies are frequently used identically, differentiating between the two may be important for making decisions.

A behavioral emergency demands an urgent response and intervention to prevent potential injury. Suicidal or violent behavior, as well as interpersonal victimization, are behavioral crises. The client’s state must be assessed first, and then an intervention to lower the risk of damage must be made. Interventions might be as simple as listening without judgment or as complex as directing inpatient hospitalization.

Finally, a strategy for the subsequent steps needs to be developed for an outside occurrence that upsets a person’s psychological balance and makes it difficult for them to cope. These can range from less serious but stressful situations, including reacting to a spouse who abruptly asks for a separation or losing a job, to the anguish brought on by a life-or-death circumstance. The person may request help or, at the very least, greet it.

When deciding and responding amidst emergency or critical settings, persons in the mental health profession rate highly among those in occupations subject to ethical and statutory constraints. These circumstances apply when therapists are worried about a client’s health, when the appropriate action to take is ambiguous, when the scenario is impassioned, when the clock is ticking or when a bad outcome happens, and the stakes are great. Adapting and both decision-making abilities must be used.

Even though disclosing would undermine trust in the process, alerting the proper authorities would be permissible. Irrespective of the real or potential danger, therapists may experience anxiety or distress if there is an oncoming emergency and they are forced to make several difficult decisions at once. In times of potential disaster, especially when it comes to affairs of life and death, the most socially responsible course of action might entail comforting grieving family members, divulging information that would have remained private under ordinary situations, exercising more patience, or touching clients or their partners more frequently than usual, or even particularly searching for them.

Preparation for Emergencies in Advance Conclusion

Making moral choices can help us maintain our integrity, create a positive image of ourselves in professional situations, and produce work we are pleased with. It can be difficult and time-consuming to properly incorporate ethics into our decision-making properly, yet doing so can improve our reputation and sense of value. By prioritizing ethics in our working practice, we can improve our capacity to act in a manner that reflects our underlying values.

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