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Internet-connected intelligent gizmos had a big showing at this year’s Consumer Electronics Show, and there is one common thread between many of them: Amazon’s Alexa virtual assistant.

Lenovo has a new speaker featuring the assistant. Volkswagen and Ford are building Alexa into their cars. Plus, there’s a whole flotilla of other connected devices featuring Alexa, including a high-tech refrigerator from LG.

That’s not to say other virtual assistants aren’t doing the same thing, but Amazon is the clear winner by volume at CES.

So, what does that mean for the virtual assistant market, which includes competitors such as Microsoft’s Cortana, the Google Assistant and Apple’s Siri? 

Those companies need to start doing the same things Amazon has done, Gartner Research Director Werner Goertz said.

There’s still room to compete, in part because Amazon’s dominance doesn’t extend beyond the connected home, Goertz said in an interview.

“But, the longer the other guys wait — specifically, the longer Cortana and Siri wait — the more insurmountable this obstacle is going to become,” he said.

Some of Amazon’s competitors took different approaches. Microsoft and Google each announced integration tools for their assistants later in the year and have kept third-party integrations available to consumers limited to a small number of partners.

Amazon’s early move helped it land the deal with Volkswagen, for example. A representative for the carmaker at its booth at CES called out Amazon’s early move with SDKs as a key reason for implementing it instead of something like the Google Assistant.

Another reason Amazon may have such a lead is that the Echo can serve as a smart-home hub without requiring gadget manufacturers to work directly with one another.

From Microsoft’s perspective, Amazon’s lead in numbers is at least somewhat by design. Ryan Gavin, the general manager for search and Cortana, said in an interview that the company doesn’t see this as a race to get the most integrations. Instead, Microsoft wants to promote integrations that fit Cortana’s mission of improving productivity.

But that’s almost what you’d expect the company to say, considering that Amazon is far ahead of them with the number of connected devices available for its assistant.

Google could have been in Amazon’s position but got lost in the weeds with Nest, the smart-home hardware company it acquired in 2014, said Patrick Moorhead, the president and principal analyst for Moor Insights and Strategy.

“Microsoft had more important things to work out, like other AI implementations,” he said in an email. “Cortana is world class, but doesn’t have a smart-home ecosystem to control. That is changing, of course.”

It’s worth noting that Amazon still has a long way to go when it comes to attracting users of Alexa. The Echo is only available in the U.S., which is an incredibly small user base compared with the 37 countries where Siri is available.

That’s not to say Amazon won’t be expanding its virtual assistant’s horizons, but just that its worldwide dominance is not assured. And it will have no shortage of competitors. LG and Sony each showed off their own virtual assistants at CES, while Microsoft and Google are hardly standing still.

For example, Moorhead expects Microsoft and Google to take the lead in making virtual assistants for PCs, smartphones and tablets.

It will be interesting to see how these virtual-assistant ecosystems shake out. Right now, each player has its own home base: Siri on the iPhone, Cortana on the PC, Google on its hardware and Alexa on the Echo. Over the next few years, it seems likely that they’ll try to cement their presence on other platforms.

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What Are You Doing For Thanksgiving?: Scott Heimendinger

Scott Heimendinger

In 2009, self-proclaimed food geek Scott Heimendinger was reviewing a restaurant in Seattle for his food blog when he encountered the perfect egg. “It was on top of a salad, and the texture was so incredible that I stood up and asked a server how it was made,” recalls Heimendinger. The server told him the egg was made using sous vide, which involves sealing food in airtight plastic baths and slow cooking them in a temperature-controlled water bath.

“I went home, Googled ‘sous vide,’ and found a bunch of forum postings,” Heimendinger says. “I figured out chefs were doing sous vide using repurposed lab equipment that was super expensive, and decided there’s no reason it should cost $1,200 to heat water. So I reverse-engineered the sous vide machine and published instructions for how to make a DIY machine.”

In 2013, Heimendinger co-founded a sous vide machine company called Sansaire and launched a Kickstarter campaign for a home sous vide machine. Popular Science spoke with him about his Thanksgiving plans for this year.

Thanksgiving sous-vide cooking with the Sansaire immersion circulator

What are you eating and/or cooking for Thanksgiving?

It probably comes as no surprise to anyone who knows me that I’ll be doing a lot of sous vide cooking this year. I got a bunch of vegetables, including tricolor carrots, cauliflower, and onions, that I’m planning to sous vide at 85 degrees Celsius until they’re tender on the inside. Then I’ll put them on a baking steel griddle and pop them in the oven on broil to get them really hot. Finally I’ll sear or caramelize their outsides straight on the griddle.

After the veggies, I’ll drop the temperature of the water bath to 60 degrees Celsius to make dark meat turkey in a umami liquid brine with some fish sauce, molasses, MSG, and sugar. I’ll let the meat cook for about 24 hours until it’s about ready to shred, then deep fry it to crisp up the skin.

With the white meat, I’ll be making a roulade. I’ll season it simply with standard poultry herbs like thyme, rosemary, and sage, add a little bit of melted butter or olive oil, and cook it in the sous vide to core temperature at 57 degrees Celsius. Then I’ll roll the meat into a beautiful tube with the skin on the outside and sear it, either by dropping it the deep fryer or rolling it across a screaming hot griddle.

Thanksgiving sous-vide prep

Thanksgiving sous-vide cooking with the Sansaire immersion circulator

Sous-vide turkey cooked with the Sansaire immersion circulator

For dessert, I’ll be making a sous-vide pumpkin crème brûlée. Any time you’re making a custard, your biggest fear is that the eggs will curdle. But since we have total temperature control with the sous vide, we don’t have to worry. I blend together the custard ingredients, pour them in in 4-ounce mason jars, which are about the right size for a single serving, and drop them in a bath at 82 degrees Celsius for about 45 minutes. Then I let them cool down and finish the top with a crème brûlée torch. It’s bullet proof.

Sous vide can also be great for making infusions for cocktails. You could make a signature drink for your Thanksgiving — one example might be a concoction of cranberries, sugar, rosemary, and vanilla bean. You toss your ingredients in a sous vide bag, heat it up, and end up with a nice, strong infusion that you can add to champagne or vodka. If you’re really fancy you could even put the infusions in little bottles and give them out as holiday gifts.

Lastly, when you’re done cooking, you can put your food back in sous vide bags and immerse them in a holding bath to keep everything warm. That way when you decide that you’re switching from hors d’oeuvres to the main course, you can just pull stuff out of the bag. You’re not eating when dinner is ready — rather, dinner is ready, and you eat it when you want.

What’s the benefit of sous vide cooking?

With sous vide, you have precise control over doneness temperature, so don’t have to worry about accidentally overcooking or undercooking. There’s no possibility of the meat drying out. Every time I’ve done a sous vide turkey, people take their first bite and look up disbelief over how juicy it is.

Instead of being frantic on Thanksgiving day, you can be relaxed. You don’t have to keep an eye on the clock, and you know how everything’s going to turn out. It frees you up to other things, like making a playlist, planning seating charts, or, in my case, making even more courses!

What Are Holy Panda Switches?

Holy Panda Switches are a type of mechanical switch created by Quakemz. They are a relatively new product to the mechanical keyboard market and have quickly gained much attention due to their unique design and performance.

Holy Panda Switches are a hybrid switch combining the stem and housing of two switches to create one unique switch. They feature a rounded actuation feel and smooth tactile feedback, making them ideal for gaming and typing.

They have quickly become popular among mechanical keyboard enthusiasts and have a quick response time and smooth keystrokes. This article will discuss what Holy Panda Switches are, how they work, and why they have become so popular!

The Holy Panda switch is a combination of two parts from different switches. The first part is the Invyr housing, a durable plastic housing that provides protection and stability to the switch. The second part is the stem from Halo True switch. The stem provides a smooth, tactile feel. The Invyr housing and Halo True switch stem make the Holy Panda switch an excellent choice for a mechanical keyboard.

The Holy Panda switches are a type of mechanical keyboard switch known for their noticeable tactile design. These switches are popular because they provide a smooth, even typing experience and a distinct tactile bump when pressed. The bump provides noticeable feedback when typing, making it easier to recognize a keystroke. The Holy Panda switches are also durable, making them popular for gaming and typing enthusiasts.

Holy Panda Switches are a unique and popular switch choice for mechanical keyboards. The name is memorable and catchy, and their construction makes them stand out from other switches. The Holy Panda Switches have a tighter feel than other switches, making them one of the most tactile switch options.

The switch’s housing has a higher tolerance than other switches and a greater actuation force of 65g. This offers a round tactile bump that is well-defined and consistent, making the switch more suitable for gaming and typing, as it offers better feedback than other switches. Additionally, this tighter construction gives the switch a longer life span, as it better resists wear and tear.

The stem of the Holy Panda Switch is different from most other switches. It has a cross-shaped stem, which allows it to be more durable. The design enhances the switch’s longevity and is more resistant to dust, dirt, and other particles.

Finally, the Holy Panda Switch has a unique sound to it. It is much quieter than other switches, making it more suitable for people who prefer a quieter typing experience.

Overall, the Holy Panda Switch is a great choice for anyone who wants a high-quality switch with a great tactile feel and a unique sound. It is durable, long-lasting, and provides a great amount of feedback. Its unique design and construction make it a stand-out choice for mechanical keyboard users.

Today, there are several variants of the Holy Panda switch because the original tooling used to make the original Holy Panda switches got lost. Without it, the production of the original Holy Panda is impossible.

The loss of the original tooling has led to the development of different Holy Panda variants, which strive to replicate the original design and provide a similar typing experience.

However, two of the most notable companies are Drop and Glorious. They both make variations of the original Holy Pandas.

Drop Holy Panda


Rating: 4.5 out of 5.

See Price

Drop’s variation is called the Drop Panda switch and features a softer spring that makes it easier to actuate. Glorious’ variation is called the Glorious Panda switch and is excellent for typing, featuring a slightly heavier spring that makes it easier to type. Both switches are compatible  with mechanical keyboards, and both companies offer a variety of colors and variations of their switches.

Below are some features of Drop Holy Panda Switches:


The Drop Panda switches feature a unique look that differentiates them from traditional Holy Panda switches. The Drop Holy Panda features Halo Switch Stems, Polycarbonate top housing, Nylon bottom housing, and a raised “DROP” labeling on the top housing, which completes the unique look.

The combination of nylon and golden tones gives the switches an eye-catching and stylish appearance. The unique design of the Drop Panda switches has been praised by many for its modern and aesthetically pleasing look.

Tactile feedback

The Drop Panda switches offer tactile feedback close to the original Holy Panda switches. The Panda switches feature a tactile bump comparable to the original Holy Panda switches, resulting in a satisfying feeling when typing. The switches have an actuation force of 64g, slightly higher than the original Holy Pandas, which have an actuation force of 62g. The Panda X switches also feature a 4mm travel distance, providing a smooth typing experience. They have a lifespan of up to 50 million keystrokes, making them reliable and durable. In addition, the Panda switches offer a variety of different colors to choose from, making them perfect for customizing your keyboard.


This gives you a more tactile experience, with the sound and feel of a mechanical switch. The bump sound of the Drop Panda switches is also more consistent and reliable than other mechanical keyboards, making it a great choice for gamers and typists alike.

Glorious Panda


Rating: 4.5 out of 5.

See Price

Glorious Holy Panda switches provide a unique switching experience not found with other switches. These switches are very tactile and feature a smooth and linear operation. They are also highly durable, making them ideal for gaming and typing. The switches also offer a unique sound. Below are the features of the Glorious Holy Panda switches in more detail:


The first thing you will notice about the Glorious Panda is the packaging. Glorious Panda switches have an off-white/grayish tone, giving them a sleek and modern look. The switches also feature raised, textured text that makes the branding quite noticeable. The switches are also packed with springs you can lubricate, giving the switches a smooth, buttery feel when typing.

Tactile Feedback

The tactile bump of the switches starts as soon as you press it downwards. It offers solid and firm feedback that gives you a great typing experience. The tactile bump ensures the switch is firm enough to provide the necessary feedback for an accurate typing experience. This ensures the switch operates as it should, and you don’t have to worry about misfires or missed keystrokes. With the tactile bump, you can feel the switch engaging and disengaging as you press it, which gives you full control of the typing experience.


The YOK Panda switches are a new mechanical switch manufactured by Novelswitch. The switch features a lower actuation force of 60g, meaning that the switch does not provide tactile feedback when pressed. This makes the switch ideal for gaming because the lower actuation force allows for faster action.

They also feature an array of unique colors and interesting names such as Mint, Trash, and Polar, which gives them an aesthetic appeal. The switch also has a long lifespan and is rated to last for up to 50 million keystrokes. This makes it a great choice for anyone looking for a reliable switch. The YOK Panda switch is a great option for gamers and typists looking for a reliable switch with a lower actuation force and a unique aesthetic. The switches have unique colors and interesting names such as Mint, Trash, and Polar.

The Invyl Panda switches were released in October 2023 after a collaboration between two companies known as Invyr and Mech27. The goal of the collaboration was to produce the smoothest linear switch available in the market, but the companies could not achieve this goal. Many people in the community complained about the feel of the switches, as the experience was not pleasant. The community is an online group that uses the Holy Panda mechanical switches.

There are many other variants of the Holy Panda switches. 

The Holy Panda switch is available in several variations, and the price will vary depending on your choice. The Drop Panda switch is the most expensive of the variations, retailing at around $1 per switch. The Glorious Panda switch retails at about 0.6$ per switch. YOK Pandas, which closely resemble Glorious Pandas, retail at around 0.55$.

You can find these switches online and offline retailers, including Amazon and online specialty stores. It’s important to shop around to ensure you get the best price for your switches.

The controversy surrounding the use of the name “Holy Pandas” has been ongoing for some time now between the Glorious and Drop companies. Both companies produce these types of switches. However, Glorious has already petitioned to use the “Holy Panda” trademark. Drop has filed a motion in response to counter the petition in an attempt to protect their rights to the name.

However, on August 24th, 2023, Glorious successfully acquired the Holy Panda trademark, officially ending the dispute between the two companies. This has allowed Glorious to exclusively use the name for their switches, while Drop has been forced to develop a new name for their product. This has been a big win for Glorious.

Holy Panda switches provide excellent tactile feedback and are great for typists and gamers. Unfortunately, the original Holy Panda switches are no longer available since the original tooling equipment was lost. However, two main variants of the original Holy Panda Switches have been created in their place – The Glorious and Drop Pandas. Drop Pandas provide the closest feeling to the original Holy Panda but are also the most expensive. All in all, Holy Pandas are an excellent choice for both typists and gamers.

Holy Pandas are widely considered some of the best switches available. They offer smooth, linear tactile feedback, allowing for easy and precise key presses. They are also known to be incredibly durable, with a lifespan of up to 70 million key presses.

One of the best Panda switches is the Drop Holy Panda switch. They have a smooth tactile feel and fast actuation. They are a clone of the original Holy Panda switches with a few twerks. They are also durable and offer an excellent typing experience.

Yes. Holy Panda Switches are worth their price, as they offer a unique feel and sound compared to traditional mechanical switches. They are often more expensive than other switches, but many people find their unique design and performance worth the price.

Yes, you can use Holy Panda switches on your gaming keyboard. They provide a smooth, fast, and linear keystroke ideal for gaming. However, they have a higher actuation force which you might need some getting used to if you are accustomed to keyboards with a lower actuation force.

What Are Electronic Logging Devices?

Electronic logging devices (ELDs) are used on commercial vehicles to, among other things, record how long drivers are on the road.

ELDs are required by law to be used by many commercial vehicles with engines that have been manufactured in the model year 2000 or later.

Businesses that don’t abide by the federal ELD mandate are subject to a range of penalties and fines.

This article is for business owners wanting to learn more about ELDs and whether their vehicles are required to have them installed.

Driving trucks or company-owned vehicles can be a dangerous job. In an effort to create a safe work environment for drivers, many businesses that operate a fleet of vehicles are required to have electronic logging devices (ELD) installed in their trucks and busses. If your business has a fleet of vehicles, it is important to have a clear understanding of what an ELD is, how they operate, their benefits and who is required to use them.

What is an electronic logging device (ELD)?

An electronic logging device (ELD) is a device that automatically records driving time and hours of service (HOS) records for drivers of commercial motor vehicles. It also records data on the vehicle’s engine, movement and miles driven. Truck drivers, fleet managers, and dispatchers can use the ELD’s real-time information about the driver’s status to ensure fleet compliance with industry regulations, support planning of schedules, and adherence to required inspections.

To obtain all of this information, ELDs are connected to the vehicle’s engine. Information from those devices is then automatically uploaded into fleet management software.

ELD rule

The federal ELD mandate, which is part of the Federal Highway Administration’s MAP-21 Act, requires that commercial drivers use ELDs when they are required to prepare HOS records of duty status (RODS). The rule sets performance and design standards for ELDs, which must be certified and registered with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), and determines what documents drivers must keep to meet the rule.

What do ELDs do?

The ELD connects to the commercial motor vehicle’s engine and records driving time to track HOS. It automatically records driving activity, miles driven, engine hours, ignition status, location, and other key data points (e.g., date, time, driver ID, user authentication).

The ELD sends engine and GPS location data to the fleet company’s main server, creates duty status logs, and sends the information to the ELD’s mobile app for drivers and fleet managers to view. The device continually updates this information to provide reports in real time.

Drivers, dispatchers and fleet managers can use the ELD’s mobile app on their smartphone or tablet to access electronic logging information. The mobile app syncs with fleet management software to produce ELD reports, maps, and notifications for fleet and compliance managers.


The FMCSA mandates that ELDs must:

Be registered with the FMCSA

Have manufacturer certification

Meet specific technical specifications

Many ELDs consist of a device that includes a preloaded mobile app. The carrier can also use a bring your own device (BYOD) solution that works with their hardware.

The ELD needs to be able to:

Synchronize with the engine control module

Automatically record driving time and details

Record location via GPS technology

Support electronic data transfer (e.g., wireless, email, USB, Bluetooth)

Prevent tampering with the device

Support certification of driver records (every 24 hours)

Display report for safety officials (on screen or paper)

Potential uses for ELDs

Fleet owners use ELDs to record their drivers’ drive time and electronically track HOS time as per the FMCSA’s ELD rule. Since ELDs record a lot of data in addition to driver logs, fleet owners can use them to support their fleet management system. Companies across many different industries can use ELDs, and the data they collect, to support various strategies and applications, including:

Compliance: ELDs electronically record HOS and duty status in electronic logs. This ensures their vehicles comply with the FMCSA’s ELD mandate. It also removes the need to maintain paper logs.

Safety: Modern ELDs include built-in accelerometers and gyroscopes that enable the detection of certain types of “harsh events” (e.g., collisions, hard braking, severe turns). Fleet managers can use historical data to identify where events occurred, train drivers on safer driving practices and back up drivers in cases where they are falsely accused of causing accidents.

Dispatch and routing: ELDs include built-in GPS devices that provide real-time location data when drivers are on the road. Fleet managers and dispatchers can use this information to determine where their vehicles are at all times. They can also use the data to plan more efficient routes and help drivers avoid traffic congestion.

Reporting: Fleet managers can produce numerous reports using data collected from They can use these reports to improve efficiency and cost-saving opportunities. For example, reports can focus on idle time, rising fuel costs, risky driving behavior, unusually long delivery times and other events tied to specific drivers or vehicles.

Maintenance: ELDs connect to the vehicle’s onboard diagnostics port, which allows it to access critical engine data (e.g., fault codes, mileage). This enables fleet managers to schedule preventative maintenance and quickly respond when repairs are required. Drivers can also submit electronic driver vehicle inspection reports (DRIRs) via the ELD’s mobile app. This is more efficient than filling out paperwork, saving time for the driver and the administrative staff.

Geofencing:Some ELDs come with geofencing capabilities, which can use acquired data to improve security and reduce financial loss. Geofencing allows the fleet manager to create virtual boundaries around real-world physical locations (e.g., a shipping yard, terminal, parking area, bridge). The software can be programmed to send alerts when a vehicle enters or exits the geofenced area, allowing the fleet manager to react to security issues, thefts or drivers entering prohibited areas.

Key Takeaway

ELDs help ensure vehicle and driver compliance, they promote driver safety, and they can improve fleet efficiency. If you’re looking for a GPS fleet management system to monitor ELD data, read our buyer’s guide.

Who uses ELDs?

The ELD rule applies to commercial motor vehicles. The FMCSA defines commercial motor vehicles as “any self-propelled or towed motor vehicle used on a highway in interstate commerce to transport passengers or property when the vehicle” that meets one or more of the following criteria:

It has a gross vehicle weight rating or gross combination weight rating, or gross vehicle weight or gross combination weight, of at least 4,536 kg (10,001 pounds), whichever is greater

It is designed or used to transport more than eight paid passengers, including the driver

It is designed or used to transport more than 15 unpaid passengers, including the driver

It is used to transport hazardous material as per 49 USC 5103 in a quantity that requires placarding under regulations as per 49 CFR, subtitle B, chapter I, subchapter C

Additionally, commercial motor vehicle drivers who are required to maintain RODS for at least eight days out of 30 days must use an ELD. Drivers who fail to follow the ELD rule are subject to a range of penalties and fines, including being put out of service for 10 hours.

Did You Know?

Depending on the type of vehicle and violation, fines could range from $1,500 to more than $20,000.


Drivers who do not have to keep RODS logs are not required to have an ELD on their vehicle. The FMCSA also exempts drivers from having an ELD in their vehicle if they:

Operate vehicles with engines made before the year 2000

Use RODS for no more than eight days within 30 days

Are driveaway-towaway drivers, where the vehicle they drive is part of the shipment

Qualify under short-haul exceptions and are not required to keep RODS

Transport livestock or insects

Required documentation

Any driver who is required to use an ELD must also keep an ELD information packet in their vehicle. This information packet must include:

A user’s manual that explains how to use the ELD

An instruction sheet that outlines the ELD’s data transfer mechanisms, with instructions on how to produce and transfer the driver’s HOS records to a safety official

An instruction sheet on how to report ELD malfunctions and keep records during ELD malfunctions

An eight-day supply (minimum) of blank driver’s records of duty status (RODS) graph-grids

What are the benefits of ELDs?

The main benefit of ELDs is that they help to improve driver safety. ELDs ensure that drivers and fleet owners comply with HOS regulations, which serves to prevent and reduce driver fatigue.

ELDs provide additional benefits for fleet owners and carriers, including:

Simplifying the process of keeping RODS

Automating the RODS process to ensure HOS compliance

Reducing overall paperwork

Saving the time and resources spent on administrative tasks

Employing automated tracking to reduce the risk of errors

Open platform telematics

ELDs that use open platform telematics technology provide a number of benefits, including the ability to:

Provide access to real-time data that can be used to improve fleet productivity and efficiency

Monitor fuel use and efficiency

Produce reports of engine faults, which supports proactive vehicle maintenance

Report vehicle inspections

Support mileage reporting for fuel tax and International Registration Plan

Scan receipts and invoices

How much do ELDs typically cost?

ELDs can range in cost from hundreds to thousands of dollars per vehicle. Costs include the device hardware, a monthly software fee and professional installation. While most ELDs offer comparable features, they all have different price points and levels of support. It’s important, therefore, to choose the right ELD provider and GPS fleet management software to meet the fleet carrier’s specific needs.

While many fleet carriers are legally mandated to equip their commercial vehicles with ELDs, the costs are offset by significant savings from improved fuel efficiency, driver safety and fleet productivity.

What Are Restricted Boltzmann Machines?


The Restricted Boltzmann Machine, developed by Geoffrey Hinton in 1985, is indeed a network of symmetrically interconnected systems that functions like neurons and makes stochastic judgments. After the Netflix Competition, where RBM walt is a type of unsupervised utilized as an information retrieval strategy to forecast ratings and reviews for movies and outperform most of its competition, this deep learning model gained a lot of notoriety. It is helpful for collaborative filtering, feature learning, dimensionality reduction, regression, classification, and feature learning.

Let’s understand what are restricted Boltzmann Machines in depth.

Restricted Boltzmann Machine

Restricted Boltzmann Machines have stochastic two-layered neural networks that can automatically identify underlying patterns in data by reconstructing input. They are a subset of energy-based models. They have two layers, one of which is hidden. The hidden layer is made up of nodes that create the visible layer and collect characteristic information from the data. They do not have any output nodes, which might appear weird, and they don’t have the typical binary output that allows for the learning of patterns. They vary because learning cannot take place without that capacity. We don’t concern about hidden nodes; we only care about input nodes.

RBM is utilized in numerous real-time commercial use cases, including.

Since it can be difficult to understand handwritten writing or a random pattern, RBM is used for feature extraction in pattern recognition applications.

Recommendation Engines: RBM is frequently used in information retrieval approaches to forecast the recommendations that should be made to a client in order for that client to enjoy utilizing a specific application or platform. For example, both books and movies come highly recommended.

Radar Target Recognition: In this situation, RBM is used to locate intra pulses in radar systems that have high noise levels and exceptionally low SNR.

Restricted Boltzmann Machine Features

Some key characteristics of the Boltzmann machine are

They employ symmetric and recurring structures.

RBMs aims to connect low-energy states with the highest probability ones as well as vice versa as part of their learning process.

The layers are not connected to one another.

It uses input data lacking labeled responses to generate inferences; this makes it an algorithm in unsupervised learning.

In this section, we will contrast a Boltzmann machine with a constrained Boltzmann machine. Each algorithm has two levels: an apparent level and a secret one. The Boltzmann Machine connects each individual neuron for each layer as well as every neuron inside the visible layer to every neuron in the hidden layer layer. However, RBM differs from previous examples of the Boltzmann machine in that the neurons in the layer are not connected. i.e. There really is no intra-layer communication, making each other independent and easier to implement as provisional freedom means that researchers do need to determine only negligible probability, which is easier to compute.

Operation Of RBM

How does Restricted Boltzmann Machine, an unsupervised learning method, learn without needing any output data, as was previously mentioned? A hidden layer neuron adds a bias value to input data received from a visible layer neuron, multiplies the result by some weights, and then output is produced. Then, the hidden layer neuron’s output value becomes a new input, which is multiplied by the same weights, and the visible layer’s bias is added to create the new input. Reconstruction nor backward pass are the two names for this procedure. The original input and the newly generated input will then be compared to see if they match or not.

Training In RBM

Gibbs Sampling & Contrastive Divergence are used to train RBM.

to make an approximation of the gradient, which is a graphical slope depicting the link between such a network’s weights as well as its error, Contrastive A crude Maximum-Likelihood learning strategy is divergence. It is used when we cannot directly evaluate a functional as well as set of probabilities and need to approximate the learning slope of the algorithm and determine what direction to go in.

RBM Applications Conclusion

What Are Solid State Batteries And Why Are They Important?

However, batteries could always be better! 

Table of Contents

What Does “Solid State” Mean?

Whether it’s a lead acid car battery, alkaline disposables, or lithium polymer batteries in a phone, they all use a liquid electrolyte. The electrolyte is a conductive substance that connects the two internal terminals of the battery. Electrons flow through the electrolyte, allowing the battery to either build up an electrical charge or to discharge it.

A solid state battery uses a solid electrolyte, instead of the traditional liquid electrolyte. That’s the only fundamental difference between the two battery technologies. It sounds simple enough, but engineers and scientists have been struggling for decades to come up with a solid material that can act as an electrolyte.

What’s Hard About Solid State Batteries?

Various materials, such as ceramics and lithium metals, offer potential as solid state electrolytes. The problem is that the ceramic approach has resulted in poor battery performance. Lithium metals are promising, but have a fatal flaw. As the battery is charged and discharged, metal “dendrites” grow through the electrolyte. The battery can short-circuit and turn into a hazard.

Finding practical and economically viable solutions to these issues has been the mission of several companies and research teams over the past few years. Now that work is about to pay off. 

Why go through all this trouble? Let’s look at the benefits that solid state batteries promise over traditional ones.


Batteries store large amounts of energy and there’s always a danger that this energy can be released in an uncontrolled way. When that happens, it can mean fire, explosions and other unwanted outcomes. Solid state batteries, assuming the dendrite issue is resolved, promise to be safer and more stable. For one thing, they aren’t flammable, so battery fires should be a thing of the past.

This is not only important for electric vehicles such as cars and drones, but also for personal electronics such as smartphones and laptops. Many people are injured every year by battery fires in their electronic gadgets. Entire houses have been burned to the ground as a result!

Recharge Speed

Modern lithium batteries can charge at impressive speeds, but they still take a long time to fill up. There’s a limit to how much energy you can pour into a traditional lithium ion battery before it all goes sideways. Solid state batteries promise to charge as much as six times faster than the batteries we currently use. That means charging up your phone from empty to full in five minutes or charging an electric car to 80% in 15.

Energy Capacity and Size

Lithium ion batteries currently have the highest energy density of any battery type sold to the public. Yet it’s still many times less dense than gasoline. While solid state batteries don’t bring batteries up to par with gas, it does promise to more than double the energy density per volume. 

In other words, if you changed the battery in your phone using a solid state model, it could theoretically run twice as long without increasing in size. This is yet another big selling point for electric vehicles, which aren’t as popular as they could be, thanks to range anxiety.

Lifespan and Durability

Most current lithium ion batteries start to degrade after about 500 full charge-discharge cycles. After that point the battery begins to lose its capacity until it can barely hold a charge at all. In smartphones, which now tend to have sealed batteries, this puts a hard limit on device lifespan. Solid state batteries promise to greatly increase that limit. As much as five times. 

So, where a typical daily-use phone battery might start to degrade after two to three years, a solid state battery would remain at its rated capacity for up to fifteen years. In electric cars, where the replacement of batteries is extremely costly, that could have a dramatic effect on the cost of ownership for this class of vehicles. 

Solid State Battery Weaknesses

If this all sounds too good to be true, there are a few caveats to the technology. Some of these still need to be solved before widespread adoption of solid state battery technology is achieved.

Cost is perhaps the greatest foe. Research teams and startup companies are working hard on making the production process for these batteries cheaper and scalable. Some companies claim to be close, but we won’t know how successful they’ve been until we see the actual prices on products with these batteries.

These batteries also struggle at low temperatures. Therefore, solutions that involve insulating them or keeping them at a good operational temperature are part of the challenge.

When Can You Buy Solid State Batteries?

Solid state batteries by Solid Power

There are a few companies like Solid Power and QuantumScape, which claim to be at the cusp of commercial solid state battery applications. 

Toyota plans to have solid state battery electric vehicles for sale as early as 2023. Both Solid Power and QuantumScape are aiming for a rollout of batteries for vehicles in 2023 and 2024 respectively.  This means that in the next couple of years we could be right at the start of a battery revolution. 

That’s before we even get into the possibilities that come from using graphene. This wonder material promises even better batteries, whether they have liquid or solid electrolytes in them. Getting graphene to play ball has eluded scientists and engineers for longer than expected, but you can already buy a hybrid graphene powerbank right now. Truly, the future is here.

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