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Employee expenses have traditionally included work-related costs such as commuting, lunch, coffee and apparel. Other common expenses, such as child and pet care, arise outside of work but are still due to employment.

Remote work can save employees thousands of dollars per year, especially on commuting and child care.

Employers can also save tens of thousands of dollars per employee per year if they shift to half remote and half in person.

This article is for business leaders and employees interested in how remote work arrangements save money.

The National Bureau of Economic Research has found that 37% of American jobs can feasibly be done remotely. Location flexibility can be a boon for employees, since staying home can save them money on commuting, child care and more. Employers also stand to benefit: Although they might have less control over a physically distant team, remote arrangements can save them money too. Here’s what employees and employers alike should know.

Work-related employee expenses

These are some common expenses that employees have on a weekly or monthly basis.

Driving: A 2023 study from the Census Bureau fou9iond that the average American who drives to work spends 27.6 minutes in transit each way. As of early 2023, the American vehicle fleet was averaging 24.9 miles per gallon, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. Assuming highway commutes at speeds of 65 mph, that’s 2.43 gallons of gas per day. So, if the current national average gas price is $3.514 per gallon, that’s $8.53 spent on driving every workday. With about 250 workdays per year, that’s $2,134 per year.

Public transportation: According to Statista, the average national fare for public transit is $1.52 per ride as of 2023 – that’s $3.04 to get to and from work. With 250 workdays per year, that’s $760. Of course, transit fare could vary dramatically by region and travel distance.

Lunch: A 2023 QuickBooks survey found that 39% of employees spend $5 to $10 on lunch per day, and another 13% spend $10 to $25. This amounts to $1,250 to $6,250 spent on lunch per year. [Read our QuickBooks review to learn about this company’s accounting software.]

Coffee: One study from The Perfect Brew found that men spend $1,934 per year on coffee, with women spending $2,327. These figures encompass both home-brewed coffee and drinks bought directly from cafes. A survey from Amerisleep found that finance and insurance employees spend the most money on coffee at cafes, totaling $709 per year. 

Day care: A 2023 report from American Progress found that working families typically spend $250 per week on day care for their children. That’s $13,000 per year.

Pet care: The average American pet owner spends $111 per month on each of their pets, according to OnePoll survey data. A 2023 MetLife survey found that 38% of pet owners returning to in-person work planned to increase their pet spending. Another 23% said they would take a pay cut to stay home and directly supervise their pets.

Apparel: In 2023, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics found that the average American spends $1,883 per year on apparel.

When employees have a better understanding of how much they are spending on going to work, it can help them trim costs and make different lifestyle choices if necessary. 

Key Takeaway

Employees who commute to and from your office may spend tens of thousands of dollars per year to accommodate their work outside the home.

How much money remote workers save

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to drastic increases in work-from-home arrangements – and opportunities to assess how much money former commuters can save. 

Near the start of the pandemic, Zippia found that remote work could cut employee expenses by $4,600 annually across all categories. A 2023 LendingTree study also found that shifting to remote work helped the average American reduce their debt. Around the same time, Bankrate found that nearly 60% of remote employees discovered that working from home improved their financial situation.

Did You Know?

An Upwork survey released six months into the pandemic found that shifting to remote work had already saved the average American $2,000 on commuting. Now that the pandemic has lasted over two years, COVID-era remote work may have saved people $8,000 on commuting.

Employers benefit from work-from-home arrangements as well. A fully remote team eliminates the need for an office and all the overhead that comes with it. Even companies that keep their offices but switch to half-remote, half-in-person arrangements can reduce costs. According to Global Workplace Analytics, this arrangement can save a small business owner $11,000 per employee per year. That’s money you can pour back into your team.

Max Freedman contributed to the writing and reporting in this article. 

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How Much Do Ecommerce Websites Cost To Build?

So, you’re interested in building an online shop and need to know the average eCommerce website cost. 

The cost of an eCommerce site varies wildly; however, this guide will assist you in deciding which type of site you need and where you should invest. 

The Value of a Top Performing eCommerce Site 

Modern customers expect ease and accessibility with their shopping. They have little patience for inefficient sites or lack of online shopping options. There are currently more than 24 million eCommerce sites active worldwide. At least in the United States, around 90% of internet users have made online purchases. For all of these sites, the main goal is to usher customers from the search page to the shopping cart in as little time as possible. 

Businesses that can do this successfully stand to bring in serious revenue from the eCommerce market. 

Factors of an eCommerce Site’s Cost

There are two popular methods for developing a functional eCommerce site. They are as follows: 

Pay For An eCommerce Website Builder

A site builder offers a set package with select options for design, hosting, payments, and other eCommerce site necessities. They typically require month-by-month payments to continue running your eCommerce site. 

Examples of popular eCommerce platforms include Shopify, Wix, and Squarespace. eCommerce software can be an excellent option for:

Businesses with some technical know-how 

New businesses 

Hire Professional eCommerce Developers 

A professional agency offers customized eCommerce services. Their prices vary not just from developer to developer but also based on the services you require. What you get with an expert is the assurance that your eCommerce site will be ideal for your product and services. 

This option requires much less technical know-how from businesses themselves. In addition, a professional agency can offer individualized custom development and will work with legacy systems and existing eCommerce sites moving off of a builder system. 

General Factors Influencing Cost of an eCommerce Website

The following lays out some universal costs of building an eCommerce website. 


Your hosting costs depend on numerous factors, including the level of traffic your site gets and your specific needs. Hosting costs are necessary for any site build as quality hosting services ensure your site is secure and can run efficiently daily. 

The average cost of a hosting plan may range anywhere from $30 a month to thousands of dollars a month. 


Payment processing is a vital component of your eCommerce site. Unfortunately, accepting payments through your site will cost you, so be sure to budget payment costs into your website planning. 

Payment platforms like PayPal and Stripe will take a set percentage plus a small fee for every sale. For example:

PayPal Domestic Checkout Fees: 3.49% + fixed fee

Stripe Domestic Checkout Fees: 2.9% + 30¢


Potential customers expect a certain level of aesthetic quality in every site they visit. eCommerce sites have become highly competitive, so a poorly designed site sets you behind competitors. Additionally, designing for your audience requires in-depth consumer knowledge and the ability to execute a functional design. 

Box builders like Shopify offer ready-made design packages that are easy to launch. A design like this can be limiting and only vaguely customizable. However, this can be a promising option for an eCommerce business with limited funds. Professional designers offer a highly targeted custom design experience. The higher price tag may be worth it for business owners trying to outpace competitors. 

The average eCommerce website design cost can range from around $20 a month to thousands of dollars in setup.


This requires many eCommerce sites to transition to a professional development company. These agencies can create a custom eCommerce site poised to adapt as you grow. 

The cost of growth is extremely dependent on a business’s unique situation. Oftentimes, a professional agency can offer valuable insights on where a site needs adjustment and how to build a site for future growth. This can save funds in the long run. 

Many professional agencies charge hourly fees for a website rehaul ranging in the hundreds per hour. Additionally, many will consult or offer expertise before a rehaul or before creating a website. If possible, always consult with the experts before launching an eCommerce site independently. 

Other Costs To Consider 

Product photographers and editors typically charge by the hour, and fees usually range from $75 to $500+ an hour. Prices depend on the skill and experience of the photographer. 

Content services typically range in the thousands of dollars per month. However, pricing depends on the exact content services you require and the experience of the content specialist or agency. 

A custom app can run you anywhere from tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of dollars. Clearly, this is a serious investment in your eCommerce business with potentially high rewards. 

The main cost estimate consideration you’ll need to make is for your overall business budget. A quality eCommerce site can bring in a sizable jump in revenue, but it also requires a significant upfront average cost. Consider what funds you have and where you want your business to be in 5, 10, and 20+ years. 

The Elevato Strategy 

As a professional agency, our experts work in creative solutions and innovative processes. We sit down with you and run a deep dive into where your business is now and where you want to be. Quality website building sets your eCommerce business up for success now and in the future.  

We are not an out-of-the-box solution, nor do we create basic sites. Our clients get custom development and attentive care. Typically, our solutions involve a bare minimum of about 100 hours of billable project time. At Elevato, we focus on billing by the hour, so the customer only pays what it takes to build the site exactly how you want it. 

We offer top-tier teams in all the following areas of eCommerce services: 

From Search Engine Optimization to revenue-driving content to stunning paid media – our marketing team offer tailored services to give your eCommerce site a competitive edge. 

The Elevato developers provide holistic solutions for an online storefront that’s perfect for your business. We can launch a variety of systems for an adaptable site that can handle a plethora of functions and grow your business. 

Our integrated hosting services give businesses peace of mind knowing that their online business is secure and ready for traffic.  

Build a competitive eCommerce website with Elevato. Contact us today.

What Is Windows Activation And How Does It Work?

Windows Activation is an anti-piracy method from Microsoft that makes sure every copy of Windows OS that’s installed on a computer is genuine. I am sure you must have seen the Windows Activation message on your computer, and in this post, we will talk about what Windows Activation is and how it works.

Activation helps verify that your copy of Windows is genuine and hasn’t been used on more devices than the Microsoft Software License Terms allow. Depending on how you got your copy of Windows 10, you’ll need either a 25-character product key or a digital license to activate it. A Digital license or entitlement is a method of activation in Windows 10 that doesn’t require you to enter a product key.

A Windows product key is a 25-character code used to activate Windows. It looks like this:


Types of Windows Activation

On a broader level, there are two types of Windows Activation. The first applies to the consumer level, while the second applies to the Enterprise level which goes through Volume Licensing.

Consumer Level activation is when you personally buy a Key from Microsoft Store or any authorized store, while Volume Licensing is when you get a pre-activated Windows from OEM – or when you are in an Enterprise, your Windows is activated using KMS or MAK keys.

Types of Windows License or Key

You either need to use a 25-character product key or a digital license to activate it. Digital Keys are those which are tied to a Microsoft account and can activate your copy of Windows when you log in through the same account.

How does Windows Activation work

Directly through Microsoft Activation Servers

While MAK keys are for Enterprise, they are of the same nature as consumer keys to activate Windows.  They both can be activated even when the computer goes through re-install.  When you enter the keys and activate Windows, the key details are sent directly to the Microsoft Activation Servers.

These servers verify if the key is valid if it can activate more copies of Windows, if the key has expired, and so on. If verification fails, an appropriate Windows Activation error message is displayed on the end-user screen.

Through Enterprise Servers

Companies buy Windows activation keys in bulk through Volume Licensing. In the enterprise, not every computer needs to connect to the Internet. This is where KMS o Key Management server comes into the role. Microsoft allows the activation of multiple computers using the same key. When an enterprise computer is activated, they pass through the KMS servers which verifies the keys.

I am sure you must have heard about Windows Activation over phone calls, by Microsoft Chat support, and so on. They all work in the same way at the end, i.e., validated by Microsoft Servers for validity.

How often is a Windows Activation check performed?

While there is no fixed rule, once activated it is checked when there is a major change. This change could be because of a hardware change or when Windows is reinstalled. On an Enterprise level, some computers need to connect back to companies servers for a validation check while few need a new key when they go through reinstallation.

This covers the basics of Windows Activation. I am sure you now know what’s happening in the background when you press that Activate button.

Now read: How to check if the Windows Key is Genuine.

How Does Mysql Union Work

Introduction to MySQL Union

MySQL Union combines the output of two or more “SELECT” statements. The output of the “UNION” will be without duplicate rows. The number of fields in the table should be the same, and the data type of the columns should be the same. If you don’t want the duplicate rows to be ignored, we can do it with the “UNION ALL”. In the result set of the UNION table, the column name will be the same as the column name of the first select statement. In this session, let us learn more about the usage of the UNION and let see the examples of it: –

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Now let us see the syntax:

SELECT column_1, column_2,...column_n FROM First_tables [WHERE conditions] UNION [DISTINCT] SELECT column_1, column_2,...column_n FROM Second_tables [WHERE conditions]; How Does MySQL Union Work? Table1 create table uniona ( cola INT ); Table2 create table unionb ( colb INT );

Insert data into the tables as below: – Below is for the “uniona” table.

insert into uniona values (99); insert into uniona values (95); insert into uniona values (94); insert into uniona values (93); insert into uniona values (92); insert into uniona values (91); insert into uniona values (99);

Select the items for the table “uniona”: –

select * from uniona;

Let us see the screenshot for the same: –

Insert data into the tables as below: – Below is for the “unionb” table.

insert into unionb values (99); insert into unionb values (34); insert into unionb values (35); insert into unionb values (33); insert into unionb values (32); insert into unionb values (31); insert into unionb values (30); insert into unionb values (29); insert into unionb values (28);

Select the items for the table “unionb”: –

select * from unionb;

Let us see the screenshot for the same: –

Now let us perform union operation on the above tables: –

select * from uniona union select * from unionb;

Select the items for the table “uniona” and “unionb” and perform the union: –

Let us see the screenshot for the same: –


Now let us perform UNION on three tables as below: –

--Table1: - create table TEST_A ( cola INT ); --Table2: - create table TEST_B ( colb INT ); --Table3: - create table TEST_C ( colc INT ); insert into test_a values (1); insert into test_a values (2); insert into test_a values (3); insert into test_a values (4);

Let us see the columns of the table: –

select * from test_a; insert into test_b values (1); insert into test_b values (5); insert into test_b values (6); insert into test_b values (7); insert into test_b values (8);

Let us see the columns of the table: –

insert into test_c values (1); insert into test_c values (10); insert into test_c values (11); insert into test_c values (12); insert into test_c values (13);

Let us see the columns of the table: –


Screenshot for the above: –

select * from test_a union select * from test_b union select * from test_c


Here in the above output, we need to check two things: –

The column name of the result set is the column name of the first “select” statement. Here it is “cola”.

The second thing is that we can see that there is a duplicate row in all the tables of value “1”. But in the result set, UNION ignores the duplicate because we have only one row of data, “1”.

Screenshot for the same: –

Example of MySQL Union

Actual Table:-

create table St_marks ( subject_name varchar(20), marks int ); insert into st_marks values ('English', 98); insert into st_marks values ('Mathematics', 93); insert into st_marks values ('Physics', 78); insert into st_marks values ('Chemistry', 67); insert into st_marks values ('Art', 43); insert into st_marks values ('Music Class', 67); select * from st_marks;

Backup table:-

create table St_marks_bkup ( subject_name varchar(20), marks int ); insert into st_marks_bkup values ('English', 98); insert into st_marks_bkup values ('Mathematics', 93); insert into st_marks_bkup values ('Physics', 78); insert into st_marks_bkup values ('Chemistry', 67); insert into st_marks_bkup values ('Art', 43); insert into st_marks_bkup values ('Music Class', 67); select * from st_marks_bkup;


A screenshot for the above is given below: –



The screenshot is for the same: –


Things that need to remember are as below: –

MySQL Union combines the output of two or more “SELECT” statements. The output of the “UNION” will be without duplicate rows.

The number of fields in the table should be the same, and the data type of the columns should be the same. If you don’t want the duplicate rows to be ignored, we can do it with the “UNION ALL”.

In the result set of the UNION table, the column name will be the same as the column name of the first select statement.

Recommended Articles

We hope that this EDUCBA information on “MySQL Union” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.

How Does Clubhouse Waitlist Work?

The virtual world is abuzz with talk of Clubhouse – a new social networking app born in the unpropitious year of 2023. Its distinctive invite system and exclusivity, which could have restricted its growth, has actually made it all the more appealing, like most things in short supply. 

On top of that, as it is an audio-only platform, going against the tide of social media apps drowning its users with visual streams, its idiosyncracies have somehow been well received. Also, since Clubhouse is only available on iOS devices (as of now), it is all the more restrictive as to who can join and who can’t. 

Now that Clubhouse has gained enough traction to become the next best thing that most people are not a part of (FOMO is real), many are wondering how they can become a part of it. Sure, one can always get an invite from one’s friend(s) who’re already on Clubhouse. But what about the rest of us who’ve signed up and find ourselves way down the waitlist? And how long does one have to wait? Well, here’s all you need to know about it. 

What is Clubhouse Waitlist?

There are a couple of ways one can get into Clubhouse – through an invite from someone who’s already got in, or by signing up for the waitlist. But since invites are in short supply, most people resort to the latter. 

Basically, it works like this – you sign up for the waitlist and wait for someone to wave you in. It helps to have a friend already on Clubhouse who can do so and save you some time.

It doesn’t consume their invite so you don’t have to holler into the internet void, begging for someone to spend their invites on you.

How much time does Waitlist invite take?

There’s no clear range for how much time one has to wait on average before they’re waved in. Some lucky ones have had to wait no more than a few hours, while others had to wait months to get in. As things can be a little unpredictable and depend on whether any of your friends are existing Clubhouse members, we’d suggest you don’t hold your breath over it. 

Do you surely get an invite via Waitlist?

Whether or not you can get into Clubhouse through the Waitlist (even after long periods of waiting) is not a matter only of time alone. One of your friends has to already be a part of Clubhouse for them to know that you’ve signed up for the waitlist. Once you’ve signed up on the waitlist, the Clubhouse algorithm will then identify your contacts that are already inside and send them a notification to waive you in. So, as the circle grows, there is a definite possibility that you will (eventually) become a part of Clubhouse. 

Are there better ways to get an invite than Waitlist?

The most obvious way to get into Clubhouse, as we’ve mentioned before, is to get an actual invite from someone who’s already “in”. Most celebrities and famous influencers won’t have to go through much of a struggle to get an invite, but regular folk might have to wait until someone remembers to send them one. But there are a few other ways you can get an invite. 

Via Forums

Clubhouse has “rooms” where people that share similar interests can come together and share their insights (or simply listen). This means that if you can connect with them, you might be able to get an invite to their Clubhouse chat rooms. 

The best way to do so is to connect with Clubhouse users on other platforms and exchange contacts. If you can befriend enough existing Clubhouse users, you will have a higher chance of getting in when Clubhouse’s algorithm scans your contact list, find people that are already in, and send you an invitation. 

There are multiple subreddits with Clubhouse users that may just be kind enough to get you in. Just drop a message in the community thread and say precisely why is it that you want. There are some who may share their invites for free, but a great majority of them will ‘sell’ them. 

As there’s a real dearth of invites, a real Clubhouse invite-market has surfaced where people can spend a few bucks to become a part of Clubhouse. Similar listings are also seen on eBay, Craiglist, and buymeacoffee pages, but be wary as some of them are out there only to swindle you off of your money. Make sure you chat with the person who’s selling the invites and only pay if you think they’re authentic. 

Many have also started a chain of free invites where one Clubhouse user sends an invite to someone who goes on to invite two more (as every Clubhouse user gets two invites in the beginning), and then two more, ad infinitum.  

Via Social Media

Facebook and Instagram are one of the biggest social media platforms and it is very likely that you may come across people who are already on Clubhouse. Using hashtags such as #Clubhouseinvites or #Clubhouse and finding specific Clubhouse groups can speed up the process and get you in touch with Clubhouse users. All you have to do is to request them for an invite and, if they’re willing enough, they may share it with you. 

Has anyone got an invite via Waitlist?

Yes, there are many who’ve got an invite via Waitlist. If that were not the case, Clubhouse wouldn’t have had the Waitlist method in place.

Just because it’s taking a long time to get in through the waitlist doesn’t mean that you won’t get in eventually. Make sure that you interact with people who’re already on Clubhouse and exchange contacts with them so that the algorithm can find you quickly.  

Why I can’t join Waitlist?

If you’re not able to join the Waitlist, then it means that the waitlist is down for the moment.

You can check back in a couple of weeks and see if it’s up again. Until then, make sure that you get in touch with other Clubhouse members on forums or social media platforms to improve your chances of getting in once you do get to sign up for the waitlist. 

Being an audio-only social media app, Clubhouse has seen a surprising jump in popularity with every other iOS user wanting to get in and be a part of the new fad. Just do what’s necessary, be patient, and you will get your invite soon enough.

How Does Performance Management Work?

What is Performance Management?

Performance management is a communication-based process between a supervisor and an employee occurring throughout the year, to plan, monitor and review the employee’s performance, objectives, goals, and overall contribution to the organization. Essentially, performance management is what organizations undertake to increase their success and maintain a competitive edge.

Performance management is often categorized into two types; they are as follows −

Corporate Performance Management

Human Performance Management.

Corporate Performance Management

Corporate Performance Management (CPM) is defines the methods, metrics, and processes used to monitor and manage the business performance of an organization. CPM strategically focuses on information to operational plans in order to receive aggregated results. It does not concern about human performance unlike Human Performance Management.

Corporate Performance Management (CPM) uses intelligent business tools to formulate organizational strategies through data analysis, processing, and reporting to monitor and manage the performance of an organization. In other words, it helps corporations to improve their business management through various proven and tested business methods.

Human Performance Management

Human Performance Management (HPM) refers to employees’ productivity along with their operational capabilities. HPM focuses on psychological processes that contribute to employees’ performances at the workplace, on both individual and team level.

HPM aims to ensure the level of satisfaction of the employees at the workplace, thereby helping organizational strategies in achieving fruitful results in the most rewarding and efficient way possible.

HPM tries to find out the best ways to enhance human performance at the workplace. It focuses on how to manage humans or employee behaviors towards goal accomplishment rather than the controlling their performances.

Performance Management is primarily concerned with the following issues −

Outputs, Process, And Inputs


Measurement and Review

Continuous Improvement

Continuous Development




The main aim of performance management is to foster an environment in which people and teams take ownership of their development and that of their companies. Specifically, performance management is concerned with accomplishing individual goals under corporate settings and ensuring that each employee works toward these.

What are the Characteristics of Performance Management?

The primary characteristics of performance management are as follows −

Reward and Encouragement

Performance Management focuses on empowering, encouraging, and rewarding employees to achieve their highest level of work efficiency for company’s benefits.

Performance Aligning with Company’s Moto

It aims to concentrate on the employee’s performance and aspirations aligning with the organization’s moto. Monitoring performance and assigning tasks for constant action as necessary.

Data Analysis and Reporting

Performance management involves Data analysis and regular reporting of projects progress as well the employee performances in various departments, thereby identifying areas for improvements.

Continuous Adaptable Process

Performance management is a constant and adaptable process involving managers and those they supervise collaborating within a framework that outlines how they may work most effectively to accomplish the desired objectives. This implies to constant and effective communications between the managers and the employees.

Based on Agreement and Collaboration Principles

It is founded on the notion of contract- and agreement-based management rather than command-and-control management. It is based on agreement and collaboration rather than on compulsion or control.

Concentrates on Planning and Enhancement of Future Performance

Performance management is concerned with planning and enhancing future performance rather than with Retrospective Performance Review. As mentioned previously, it is a continuous and evolving process in which performance improves over time. It is the foundation for providing regular and frequent trainings, guidance, and resources on several requirements.

Transparency in Monitoring Own Performance

The most interesting part in performance management program is that the employees can monitor their own individual achievements and progresses to know how they are contributing to the overall accomplishments of the company.

One can use software to track these goals and monitor the performances. This makes it easier to highlight and reward the exceptional performers in the team. This would also make the hard-working employees feel valued for their efforts.


Every company wants to guarantee that its personnel expenditures are reasonable. When performance management is performed successfully, it is easy to analyze workforce’s daily productivity and find areas where they are not doing as well. This may assist in increasing the efficiency of the employee’s personal development, unlocking his or her latent potential, and ensuring that employees are worth every rupee.

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