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Body Condition and weight gain: If a bovine in your herd is not able to gain weight efficiently on pasture alone, or gain weight after calving while nursing a calf and going into winter feeding, she should be shipped.

Cows that come up open during preg-checking, are late calvers or late breeders should be culled. Bulls that are infertile or cannot settle all the cows he’s been exposed to should be culled. Often health and nutrition are factors affecting the fertility of your cow herd, and you may have to look at that as well if a lot of your cows are coming up open.

Some cows can be too old to calve out or even raise a calf. This is apparent when their teeth have been worn down to the gums, when they have poorer fertility than the rest of the herd, or are generally not as productive and thrifty as they used to be.

Good conformation in cattle is necessary if you are to keep a good, high producing cow herd. Cows must have good feet and udders, maintaining the depth in their ribs and rumps, and be overall as feminine as their breeding allows. Bulls must have great feet and legs, good scrotal conformation, good depth in the ribs and rump and have good masculinity and muscling. Replacement heifers should be growthier than other calves and have good conformation like their dams if they are to be retained. Any bovine in your herd that does not meet any of the criteria mentioned in the conformation article link above, they should be culled.

Temperament is just as crucial as fertility and conformation in your cow herd. You should not be allowing any wild or unruly cows to be kept in your herd, as they are often dangerous to you, and can even stir up an unnecessary fuss in the herd. Any cows that are crazy, not docile, overly protective or aggressive towards you, or try to run to the hills whenever you’re out checking cows should be culled. Any bull that challenges you and does not respect you (often when they’ve come to realize they’re bigger and stronger and more intimidating than you) should be shipped ASAP.

You may have some cattle that are just too wild to be put in the trailer. It may be more humane to put them down in the pasture and butcher them for the freezer right there. It’ll save the headache and stress of forcing them to get in the trailer.

There is a longer list for any potential health issues that will make you consider culling some cows from your herd. You may be the kind of producer that doesn’t want to spend the money on vet medicine to treat a sick cow, bull or calf, and may choose to put them down instead. However, you may be the kind of producer that will try to treat a sick bovine, only to find their fertility has decreased, or they are chronically ill. Some diseases, like Johne’s disease, are simply untreatable, and you will have to not only cull the cow with Johne’s, but all her daughters and sons from your herd. Some animals you will find may be carriers for a genetic defect that is affecting your calf crop, and you may have to cull those as well. Mastitis in a dairy cow will often reduce her milk productivity, and she will be culled as well.

Any bovines that have prolapsed, have pink-eye or cancer eye, have sunburnt or frost bitten udders or testicles, or consistently have been difficult with calving, must be culled.

Please see your local large animal veterinarian for any information on diseases you will need to keep an eye out for in your cow herd.

Selling your year’s calf crop is another form of culling, though this is really a result of your year’s work of keeping the cow herd in top condition and quality. If you choose to keep your calves back for a while, remember you are doubling your herd size if you do so, and need more pasture and/or feed to keep these calves for an extra few months or even a year (if necessary). It’s highly recommended, if you are primarily a cow-calf producer and not a cow-yearling producer, to sell your calves right after they’ve been weaned.

When deemed necessary, separate those animals that are on your cull list into a separate pen or corral from the rest of the herd using calm herding practices. The top priority animals that should be culled out of the herd sooner (if possible) are those with bad temperament issues and/or health issues. Some animals with bad health issues can be kept back particularly if you are willing and able to treat them back to health. Other animals with health issues that cannot be treated and should be culled as soon as possible. When it comes to bad temperamental issues, however, it is highly recommended that you get rid of these animals right away. If you are working alone, you will need to call someone to help you separate the bad animal from the herd, or wait until you can sell your other culls to separate that animal with the other culls.


Phone the auction barn and go load them up into a stock trailer. It’s best if you separate your cattle into different groups before you haul them to the auction mart. For example, you may only have one cow with health issues, one bad tempered bull, and five cows that are too old to continue being production or bad conformation, and the rest of your culls are weaned calves you are intent on selling, but it’s a good idea to load your cows and/or bulls together in one load, then your weaned calves in a separate load.

Back up to the stockyard entrance where you can unload your culls, then go to the office and pick up your bill. Your animals will be weighed first before you get the bill of sale, and how much your animals sell for goes according to what the current prices are for each type and size of animal.


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How To Deal With Your Crush’S Death: 10 Steps (With Pictures)

Accept the fact that your crush is gone. This may be the most difficult part, especially if you had deep feelings for that person, and you never had an opportunity to share those feelings.

Go ahead and grieve, shed your tears, and let the pain wash over and through you. This is difficult, but it is an unavoidable part of the process. The depth of the hurt reflects the depth of your humanity, and your love for the one who has died.


Put your thoughts down in a journal or diary. List each thought you have about the person, and after you have written it down, think about it, even immerse yourself into it. Until you do this, you will not be able to get past it toward acceptance and peace.

Find out if there is an online page dedicated to the person who has died. Often there will be memorial pages, with blogs or links so you can write your feelings for the world to share anonymously. If there is not, you can begin one.

Write a letter to the person, tell them everything you ever felt about them, and how it feels to lose them. Seal it in a plain envelope with no name or address, and put it in a safe place. This will verbalize your feelings, and make them a permanent part of your own history and memories.

Talk to your friends about what you feel. If your feelings are too personal or you think it would be embarrassing, you can talk in general terms about it, but you need to share what you are feeling, and receive support from people who care about you.

Go and pay your last respects, either at the funeral, or if you cannot deal with that level of emotion, to a place you associate with the person. Drop some flowers there, or something you believe they would like, sit and let another flood of tears flow over you if you need to, then walk away with the knowledge that you are beyond the place where you can give them any more.

Tell your parents, a very close friend, or a religious leader (if you’re religious) about your hurt. Do not let depression become a prison for you. It is normal to feel depressed for a time, and the feelings of grief and regret will continue to come around for a long time, even the rest of your life, but again, that is just a reminder of your own humanity, and your care for another person.

Get back into life. Return to school, and other activities you are expected to be involved in. It may seem hard to do at first, but being engaged in something challenging, productive, and familiar will allow you to focus on things at hand, and not your regrets.

Tell your parents if you feel at the least like you just can’t deal with this on your own. There are counselors and other professionals who can offer help in healing from your loss if it is too much for you.


How To Recite The Qur’An Perfectly: 8 Steps (With Pictures)

Learn Tajweed rules. Tajweed is an Arabic word meaning ‘proficiency’ or ‘doing something well’. It is also known as elocution. It teaches you how to pronounce certain words so that you can recite the Qur’an properly. Every letter is pronounced specifically from a certain part of the mouth, and it is obligatory to recite the Qur’an as it is written, and if you apply all the rules of Tajweed, then that is much better. The Qur’an says, Or add to it, and recite the Qur’an with measured recitation, which implies reading the Qur’an with Tajweed or with care.

Take each rule one at a time. There are many rules in Tajweed, and it can be daunting to memorize them all. Luckily, some Qur’ans are color-coded to help you identify some of the Tajweed rules. However, you should take your time when learning Tajweed; learn a specific rule, then practice using that rule.


Pay attention to what you are reciting. If possible, have a translation copy so you can understand the meaning of the Qur’an. Make sure you recite the Qur’an in a quiet, clean place, where there will be no distractions.

Do not be afraid of mistakes. For some non-native Arabic speakers, perfecting the sounds of some letters and words can be very difficult. However, it takes time to master Tajweed, and if you persevere and put effort, you will get the reward of trying. This was narrated by the Prophet (peace be upon him), who said: “The one who is proficient in the recitation of the Qur’an will be with the honourable and obedient scribes (angels) and he who recites the Qur’an and finds it difficult to recite, doing his best to recite it in the best way possible, will have a double reward.”

Start from short chapters. Don’t push yourself too much, so start with short chapters, such as Chapter 114 (An-Nas). Start with small chapters, pay attention, follow the rules and recite gently. If you can, listen to an audio recorder of a Qari (reciter) reading it, so you can follow along and take lessons from their recitation.

Take time out. Leave about half an hour out of your daily schedule to read the Qur’an. If you don’t put effort into it, you’ll never be able to recite the Qur’an perfectly. So when you do get a chance to read it, make full use of it. Limit any distractions and do not rush.

Listen to famous reciters. They are people who have studied under the most renowned scholars and who have dedicated their life to the study of Tajweed. The more you listen and imitate them, the more you will master reciting the Quran. Try to listen to the likes of Saad El Ghamidi, Abdul Rahman Al Sudais, Mishary Rashid Al-afasy, and Abdul Basit Abdus Samad. Their voices are distinct due to their Tajweed and the melody with which they recite the Qur’an.

Learn the meaning. Put your soul and emotion into reading the Qur’an, and be humble when reading the words of Allah. Try to learn some of the Arabic words that are used throughout the Qur’an, and definitely read the translation to understand what is being said.


How To Find Wild Edible Plants: 15 Steps (With Pictures)

Know where the best food is, depending on where you live. Keep in mind that if you live in a humid region, the majority of wild food will be in the sun – whether clearing or ‘edge’. In a dry region, such as the Southwest of the USA, most of the wild food will be near water.


Pick up a local plant guidebook. Get guides to the most common edible plants in your area, typically referred to as “weeds.” Learn the top 20 or 25 and try to memorize them — they might come in handy later.



Start with the number-one habitat for wild edible plants — your lawn. Any place that is regularly cleared is potentially loaded with weeds such as dandelion, chickweed, plantain, wild onion, violets, wood sorrel, henbit, clover, dead-nettle and sow thistle — all of which are 100% edible. Some of these may be called something different where you live or are foraging for food.[1]

Ebbing’s silverberry is frequently planted in cities as bushes and hedges – but it will escape into any disturbed habitat and form thickets. The stems, foliage, and berries are all speckled with silver. The red berries are excellent when fully ripe.

Look for berries on trees. Even in the dead of winter, such as on this laurelcherry. Like most wild cherries, these have a long ripening process and aren’t fully ripe until the fruit starts to soften and shrivel.

Check out ornamental trees. These are planted for their showy flowers — those flowers can lead to fruit, such as cherries or crab apples or plums. They may be small, but can be very tasty.


Look for nuts beneath trees. Walnuts and hickory nuts can be smashed open with a rock and the edible flesh picked out. Fresh nuts are wet and filling and easy to digest, with a lot of flavor. Acorns are abundant beneath oaks — if the oak has round-lobed leaves, the acorns will need minimal to no processing. Some white oak acorns will have no tannin at all. And keep in mind you get used to it and stop noticing it after the first few — it’s how pigeons eat so many acorns.[12]

The shoots are wonderful raw, and the pollen in early summer tastes like cake flour. You can gather whole bags of it. Its pollen is so nutritious it’s considered a “superfood.”


Nibble on safe flowers. Sample the flower petals of plants you know to be nonpoisonous. Flowers are often very mild to sweet and full of antioxidants. Some excellent blooms are daylilies, violets and honeysuckle. DO NOT EAT AZALEAS! Azaleas are deathly poisonous.[14]

The base of flowers can be strong to bitter (and in the case of some, such as Wisteria, toxic) — it’s better to break off petals and not eat the green material.


Learn your vines so that you can distinguish grape. Wild grapes are found throughout the U.S. and are one of the best wild foods. There’s a variety which you will see everywhere throughout the South of the US called “muscadine” — the grapes are thick-skinned and very large, with a flavor like bubble gum.[16] Wild grapes have both edible leaves and tendrils as well as fruit — the leaves can be steeped in apple cider vinegar and used to make dolmas.[17]


The young green shoots at the tips of the branches are great raw – a pleasant acid taste. The male pollen cones on conifers are also edible – some are very sweet. And again, it’s pollen – extremely nutritious. Many species of pine have edible nuts in the cones in late summer to fall.


How To Grill A London Broil: 13 Steps (With Pictures)


Lay your meat directly on the grill. Remove your (now roughly room temperature) meat from the marinade and use a paper towel to blot your meat so that it is somewhat dry. Paint the bars of the grill lightly with a little olive or canola oil, then gently lay your meat down. You should immediately hear a sizzling sound — if you don’t, your grill probably isn’t hot enough. Let your meat cook with the grill uncovered.


Turn once during cooking. Resist the urge to turn the meat frequently — doing this can dry the meat out. The exact amount of time each side of your meat will take to cook can vary greatly based both on the level of “done”-ness you’re looking for and on the thickness of your meat. In general, thicker cuts will require a few more minutes per side, as will (obviously) more well-done dishes. Below are some general guidelines for how long to spend cooking your meat per side:[8]

For rare: 2 minutes for a 1/2 inch (1.27 centimeter) steak, 2-3 minutes for a 3/4 inch (1.9 centimeter) steak, 3-4 minutes for a 1 inch (2.54 centimeter) steak.

For medium: 3-4 minutes for a 1/2 inch steak, 4-5 minutes for a 3/4 inch steak, 5-6 minutes for a 1 inch steak.

For well-done: 5-6 minutes for a 1/2 inch steak, 6-7 minutes for a 3/4 inch steak, 8-9 minutes for a 1 inch steak.

Optionally, transfer to low heat. If you divided your grill into a hot section and a cooler section (as directed above), once your meat starts to approach done-ness, if you like, you can transfer it to the cooler section. Leave it here for several more minutes with the grill cover closed. Cooking the meat for a longer period of time over lower heat helps get it as tender as possible — this is why exceptionally tough cuts of beef like brisket are sometimes cooked at low heat all day.

If you haven’t marinated, paint with your favorite sauce. If you didn’t have time to apply a marinade before cooking, you still have a chance to give your meat some extra flavor during the cooking process. Using a grill brush and a small bowl of your favorite sauce, paint the top side of the meat generously, then repeat after you flip it. Give each side another application of sauce about thirty seconds before you plan to remove the meat from the grill. While the complex flavor combinations that are possible with marinades aren’t possible with this trick, a piece of meat that’s been generously basted with barbecue sauce, sriracha, or another delicious sauce can be outstanding in its own right.

Another way to check your meat for done-ness is to use a thermometer. Inserted into the thickest part of the meat, a thermometer should read about 135o F (about 57o) for medium rare; up to ten degrees more for medium to well done.[9] Any hotter than this and the meat can begin to dry out, so remove it immediately!


How To Make A Minecraft Roller Coaster: 13 Steps (With Pictures)

If your are having problems building a roller coaster on the standard Minecraft terrain, try creating a new game with a flat world. When creating a new world on the title screen, simply select More World Options (Java Edition only) and select Flat (Bedrock Edition) or Superflat (Java Edition) before starting your world.

Think about what features you want your roller coaster to have. Minecraft tracks don’t allow you to do everything a real roller coaster can do. For example, you can’t do loops, twists, or inversions on a Minecraft roller coaster. But you can do hills, sharp turns, powered rails, and even drops. You can also build creative scenery around your tracks. Think about what features you want your track to have and where you want your track to go.


Wood can be gathered from trees all over the overworld map. Simply punch trees or use chop them with an axe to get wood.

Iron ore is found underground and mined using a stone, iron, or diamond pickaxe. It resembles stone blocks with yellow spots in it. You can then smelt iron ore in a furnace to get iron ingots.

Redstone ore is found deep underground. It resembles stone blocks with red spots on it. Mine redstone ore with an iron or diamond pickaxe to get redstone dust.

Gold ore can be found underground and mined using an iron or diamond pickaxe. You can smelt the iron ore in a furnace to get gold ingots.

Crafting table. A crafting table is needed to craft most items in Minecraft. It is crafted from 4 wood blocks in the crafting menu.

Wooden Planks: These can be used to build the frame for your roller coaster. They can be crafted using 2 wooden blocks in the crafting menu. You do not need a crafting table to craft wooden planks.

Sticks: Sticks are one part needed to craft rails needed to construct the roller coaster tracks. They can also be used to craft fence posts that can be used as scaffolding.

Button: A button can be used to start your roller coaster in the loading station. Buttons can be crafted from a single wooden plank block or stone block using a crafting table. You can also use a lever.

Rails: You can craft 16 rails from 6 iron ingots and a stick using a crafting table. These are used to build your track.

Stone Pressure Plates: You can craft a stone pressure plate from 2 stone blocks using a crafting table. These are used to build detector rails.[1]

Detector Rails: Detector rails are tracks that detect when a minecart is on top of them and activate redstone circuits. They can be used to activate powered rails on a roller coaster. 6 detector rails can be crafted from 6 iron ingots, 1 redstone dust, and 1 stone pressure using a crafting table.[2]

Powered Rails: Powered Rails can give your roller coaster a speed boost. 6 powered rails can be crafted from 6 gold ingots, a stick and some redstone using a crafting table.

Minecart: A minecart is used to ride your roller coaster It can be crafted from 5 iron bars using a crafting table.

Fence (Optional). Wooden fences can be used to craft the scaffolding for your roller coaster. This is purely decorative and entirely optional.

Dig a trench three blocks wide and one block deep.

Place two powered rails in the trench. One at the back of the trench and the other in the center.

Place a block with a button above the trench and to the side. The button should be reachable from within the trench.

Use redstone dust to connect the button to the powered rails. Redstone dust can be placed below the block with the button and the powered rail.

Place a minecart on the first powered rail.

Build the frame for your roller coaster. Use wooden plank blocks to build the frame that your roller coaster tracks will sit on. The frame should lead out of the loading station. Lay your rails on top of the wooden plank blocks. Minecraft tracks can go North, South, East and West and make sharp 90 degree turns when you place a rail as a corner piece between two rails that are at a right-angle to each other.

Build diagonal tracks. In addition to north, south, east and west, you can build tracks that go in diagonal directions (i.e. Southeast, Northwest) by placing tracks in a zig-zag fashion. The track may look like one sharp turn after another, but when riding it, the minecart will travel in a smooth, diagonal direction.

Speed boosters require straight, flat tracks to work. They do not work on inclines or diagonal tracks.

When powered rails are not powered by redstone, they slow down and stop the minecart. Placing more than 2 powered rails after the detector rail will slow down the minecart.

If your roller coaster does not have enough speed to get over the top of a hill, you can add more speed booster rails before the hill, or you can make the previous hill taller so that you get more momentum on the downward slope.

To make the “sky hills” more believable, add supports to your track.

Build a drop. To build a drop, build an elevated track above the ground that cuts off suddenly. Build a second track below the elevated track and extends out. This track will catch the minecart when it flies off the elevated track.

Make sure you place enough lighting around the track, so mobs can’t come too close to the roller coaster.

You don’t need just one loading station. You can build multiple loading stations throughout your map and have a roller coaster rail system that makes for a fun way to get to different points on your map.


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