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To say that it is a somewhat a hot topic among teams around the globe won’t be an overstatement. But should you estimate software bugs?

First, let’s look at the options for estimation that we have in the first place.

Dedicated Time for Bug Fixing

Teams often implement the practice of dedicating a specific time of each sprint / day / week / month to bug fixing instead of estimating bugs using bug management tools, beforehand.

They only estimate if, after the initial investigation, it turns out to be a bigger fix or requires a change to the behavior of the product. It’s more likely that they will treat the bug fix like a feature, that might undergo the complete process of specification, design, development, testing, and release.

Default Estimation

Default estimation is another way of estimating bugs, using 0.5 to 1 days as unit values since most bugs don’t take more than a day to get fixed. Some teams have also taken this method to an extreme and treat all tickets like this.

It’s because not only do the things average out over a period of time, but also people get more comfortable with each other and the tickets created become roughly the same size.

Estimation with Historical Data

With enough data, you have the power to create a much more contextual system that would make use of that historical data from your bug management tools to predict the time it will take to fix a certain bug using Natural Language Processing, Machine Learning, and other approaches.

No Estimation

And then there is another school of thought which believes that since you can’t estimate the time it will take to fix a certain bug until you’ve located the problem, trying to come up with an estimate is pointless.

So Should You Estimate Bugs?

Also read: Best CRM software for 2023


Very logical reasons back both sides of the argument; to estimate or not to estimate.

For: At least one engineer knows the exact source of the bug and how to fix it.

Against: Some bugs are so obscure that it’s hard to predict the time it will take to fix them. In such situations, it’s better to use the default estimation or don’t estimate at all.

There’s no problem in underestimating and overestimating sometimes, but something needs to be adjusted if your estimations are not on point all the time.

Ray Parker

Ray Parker is a senior marketing consultant with a knack for writing about the latest news in tech, quality assurance, software development and testing. With a decade of experience working in the tech industry, Ray now dabbles out of his New York office.

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What Does End Of Life Mean For Software And Should You Care?

Before we begin, understand that this article also addresses operating systems (OS), specifically Windows, but the principles could apply to any software, app, or OS.

When you hear or get notification that your software is nearing End of Life  (EOL), it’s a bit disconcerting. It sounds so final, as though your software is just going to stop working on a certain date at a certain time. Rest easy, as this is not the case. The term is just very dramatic. We’ll go into what it really means later in the article.

Table of Contents

First, let’s look at something called a product life cycle.

What is The Product Life Cycle?

Any product that you can buy has a life cycle, and therefore a finite life. It consists of four stages: development, growth, maturity, and decline.

Development – This is exactly what it sounds like. It’s the period in which the software is developed and initially marketed and adopted or sold. In this stage, the software might still have some small issues or be lacking in features.

Growth – As awareness of the software grows and the software becomes more stable, it enters a growth phase. Sales or distribution of the software begins to accelerate. Because software is something that can be changed while in use, there may be some more updates and a few features introduced.

Maturity – The software has reached its peak sales or distribution. There is ongoing support for the software, but generally speaking, there aren’t any major updates or feature enhancements.

Decline – For a number of possible reasons, the sales and distribution of the software begins to go down. It could be because it’s no longer really needed, a better competing product came along, it’s not keeping up with the needs of the user, or other reasons. The point is, it’s not selling that well.

If you were to graph this process by number of sales or units distributed, it may look something like this:

You can see that the decline is not conducive to good business. At some point, the people publishing the software just don’t

A good publisher will make a very public EoL announcement detailing the End of Sale (EoS) date and the EoL date.

What is End of Sale Date?

The short answer is the date that the publisher stops selling or distributing the software. It’s often also the date that the last update of any kind would be pushed out. It will no longer be listed for sale or download on the official channels of sale. You’ll no longer be able to get quotes on the cost either.

This doesn’t always mean that the software gets pulled off the shelves of retailers carrying it though. Although, boxed software is almost not a thing anymore. Still, be aware that when you’re buying a version of software that’s been out for a few years, you might be getting something that is already EoS or nearly EoL.

What is End of Life?

When software or an app gets to the decline phase of the product life cycle, the end of life is near. It happens somewhere in that phase. Sometimes closer to the start of the decline and sometimes they hang on to the very end.

That’s a decision that is up to them based on their values. Usually it is preceded by an end of sale point, where you just can’t buy or get the software anymore.

EoL  means any, or even all, of the following for that app, OS, or software:

Major feature releases may be supported for a fixed period of time after the EoL date..

Technical support, workarounds, and bug fixes will stop.

Support during the period between EoS and EoL may only be available to those with a paid support contract.

Online support documentation, wikis, or forums may be archived or taken offline on the EoL date or another specified date.

Requests for features will not be accepted.

Validation of software installs may not work.

Official training for the software may no longer be available.

What Problems Could Software End of Life Cause Me?

You may look at the list above and think, “That’s not a big deal. The software still works and it’ll have all the updates it’ll ever need. Plus, I already know how to use it and there’s lots of other forums and blogs with information about it. Why would I bother getting the newest version?”

That’s a valid way to look at it. However, it’s an incomplete way to look at it.

Let’s take a look at some of the problems EoL software could give you.

Security Issues

This is likely the most important reason. Just because your software or OS has been out for 15 years doesn’t mean all the holes have been patched. Most likely, all the holes haven’t even been found.

A blunt explanation of this comes from Scott Kinka, chief technology officer at Evolve IP at the time that he was quoted on chúng tôi in the article, “Is It Still Safe for Businesses to Use Windows XP?”

Kinka said, because Microsoft would no longer be sending updates for the old Windows XP, “Just assume someone is on your PC while you’re working. Every password, trade secret and bit of personal information is at risk.”

Consider that Windows XP is now 18 years old and is still on about 4% of computers worldwide, according to chúng tôi That doesn’t sound like much, but let’s assume there’s a billion desktop computers worldwide. Four percent of a billion is 40 million computers. Some in people’s homes, and some in businesses. That’s a big problem.

If that wasn’t bad enough, the holes that go unnoticed in EoL software can also be in the newer version.

Roger A. Grimes’ article, “Zero-days aren’t the problem — patches are” talks about how hackers look at patches to find the vulnerability that it’s meant to patch. Why? Because a lot of these patches don’t get applied, and they definitely don’t get applied to EoL software because no patches are available. So the patch becomes like a flare in the sky showing where the problem is, and how to exploit it.

Sure, that’s horrible for an old operating system, but does software present as big a problem? Yes, if that software interacts with the Internet in any way, it’s as big a hole. Most office suite programs can connect to the Internet or receive files from the Internet that could open holes. Don’t forget web browsers are software too!

Regulatory or Legal Issues

Whether you’re running a business out of your home or just use software to do things like file taxes, you may run into regulatory or legal issues.

Let’s say that you’re using accounting software that has gone EoL. It’s no longer receiving the updates needed to stay current with tax and business laws. So the files and information it prepares may not meet current regulations. This could result in missed tax refund opportunities, rejected tax returns, or even audits and fines. You don’t need that.

Another example might be that you’re doing some medical transcription at home. If some piece of old software has left your computer open to hackers, you might be leaking very personal medical information and not know it. Yet, you’re still accountable for that.


Although usually a minor issue, it is highly frustrating when someone sends you a file that isn’t compatible with your software.

done in Excel 365 but all you’ve got is Excel 2010. The functions in the 365 version might not work on 2010 so you wouldn’t know what your bonus was going to be.

Worse yet would be sending your resume done in an old version of Word and having all the formatting fall apart because the employer is using Office 365. How horrible would that be?

Decreased Reliability

All things degrade over time. Software is no exception. How it happens is a topic that would fill another article, but nonetheless it happens. Over time, you find that the application crashes more often and you lose your work.

Weird bugs creep up making it harder to do what you’re trying to do. Do you really need the frustration and time lost? Of course not.

Outdated Skills

Using Microsoft Office as an example again, how are you going to keep your skills relevant if you’re still working on Office 2003 and most of the world has moved on to Office 365. Office 365 is about 16 years newer and has features and integration that you couldn’t have dreamt of back in 2003.

The more competent you are with the newest versions of software and operating systems, no matter what your line of work, the more competitive you’ll be in the job market. That means better jobs and better pay. If your line of work is technical, even more so.


How will staying with EoL software cost you money? We’ve already seen that it could cost you job opportunities, waste your time, and even put you in legal hot water.

All of those things come back to money out of your pocket either literally or in opportunity cost. But there can be other costs associated with maintenance of your computer.

If you’re using EoL software, it could cause your newer operating system issues. Figuring out that it is the old software is beyond the skill set of the average person, so you might end up taking it to the nearest computer shop.

If you’re lucky, that shop will have experienced technicians who will know how to diagnose the problem quickly and recommend you upgrade the software.

Plus, they’re still going to recommend you upgrade the software. Save yourself some time and money and just update it as soon as you know about the EoL date.

How Do I Know if My Software is Reaching End of Life?

If you’ve registered your software or signed up for updates, you may receive a few emails leading up to the EoL date.

If you know your software is older and start hearing about a new version coming out, you’ll want to go to the developer’s website and search out the EoL date for your version. Or you can get on a search engine and find it that way.

For your convenience, here are some of the EoL pages for a few major software producers:

Microsoft – Search Product Life Cycle Adobe End of Life Matrix Google Apps End of Life Announcements Google Chrome OS Devices Google Pixel and Nexus Devices Apple Vintage and Obsolete Products

(Apple isn’t very forthcoming on EoL dates like other companies.)

Yes, You Should Care About Software End of Life

To conclude, yes, you should care. You should care because you care about your time, money, privacy, peace of mind, and yourself in general.

Why You Should Care About Lossless Bluetooth Audio (And Why You Shouldn’T)

Lily Katz / Android Authority

With the introduction of Qualcomm’s aptX Lossless technology, Bluetooth headphone customers will finally join their wired audiophile brethren with the option to listen to lossless quality audio. The promise, as always, is superior sound. But whether this is really a game-changer for your future listening habits depends on who you ask.

On the one hand, existing wireless products are some of the best-sounding headphones on the market, packing in powerful noise canceling, virtual assistants, and customization options you’ll seldom find in the wired space. Plus, there are solid-sounding Bluetooth codecs already on the market, including LDAC and aptX HD. However, audio purists will tell you there’s no substitute for the sound quality of lossless audio. It’s a debate that’s raged since the development of the MP3, but who should you believe, and is lossless Bluetooth audio really that important?

Bluetooth’s limitations regarding lossless audio

Robert Triggs / Android Authority

Why does Bluetooth use lossy, rather than lossless, compression to begin with? The problem is that Bluetooth’s data rate is too low for lossless Bluetooth audio.

Even though Bluetooth’s Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) can hit above 2Mbps, sustaining that rate for real-time data transfer is not feasible. In reality, 1Mbps, or often well below, is a more realistic and sustainable maximum transfer rate. That’s not enough for 1.4Mbps CD, let alone 4.6Mbps Hi-Res audio. This limited speed is due to radio and object interference, packet overhead and loss, and oftentimes, less than optimal antenna placements.

As a result, Bluetooth audio codecs have historically targeted lower, more sustainable bit rates using lossy compression. Another way to think of this is prioritizing playback that’s free from skips and dropouts at the expense of some audio fidelity.

Bluetooth audio is historically a trade-off between sound and connection quality.

Compounding the problem is the fact that the original low-bit-rate SBC codec was designed for voice compression rather than high-fidelity music. Despite subsequent revisions, third parties have stepped in to fill the void with codecs specifically designed to transmit music over Bluetooth. But AAC, aptX, and the LC3 still target lower, sustainable bit rates around 300kbps and below. Qualcomm’s aptX HD pushes the envelope with high-end sound, but it’s still capped at 576kbps.

Sony’s LDAC was the first codec to attempt to tackle the quality and scalability problem head-on with its 330, 660, and 990kbps quality options. The codec also claims Hi-Res support and promises “same as CD quality” playback (note, not bit-perfect playback). After testing, we found the 990kbps mode is indeed virtually transparent for CD-quality audio. However, there are still some small elements of lossy encoding, and more importantly, some devices struggle to offer a glitch-free playback experience at this bit rate. LDAC can achieve near-lossless CD playback, but you’ll often find quality called back to 660kbps, although we’d argue that’s still good enough for all but the pickiest listeners.

LDAC can already achieve near-lossless CD playback, but sustained connectivity can be a problem.

aptX Adaptive is Qualcomm’s alternative approach to solving the connection dropout problem. This codec dynamically scales its bit rate based on the radio environment, reducing quality in congested areas to avoid glitches. Before aptX Lossless, aptX Adaptive still targeted a more conservative 420kbps but will now scale up to greater than 1Mbps for lossless CD-quality audio. Qualcomm’s aptX Lossless is the first codec to claim fully lossless Bluetooth audio, bit-exact playback of CD-quality files, and it also appears to have the hardware setup to sustain this high data rate. For now, lossless Hi-Res (24-bit, 96kHz) tracks remain out of reach for all Bluetooth codecs currently on the market.

Quick reference bit rates:

SBC — 200 to 328kbps

AAC — 128 to 256kbps

LC3 — 160 to 345kbps

LDAC — 300kbps, 660kbps, 990kbps

LHDC-V — 1.2Mbps

Samsung Seamless Codec — 88 to 512kbps

aptX — 352kbps

aptX HD — 576kbps

aptX Adaptive — 279 to 420kbps

aptX Lossless is a hardware and software solution to Bluetooth’s bit rate problem.

In addition, aptX Lossless falls under the aptX Adaptive tool suite, meaning devices will benefit from Qualcomm’s other codec features too. For example, audio bit rate scales from lossless right down to 140kbps without interruption if you wander into an area with high radio interference, so there are no glitches or dropouts. aptX Adaptive also supports 24-bit 96kHz playback, albeit with lossy compression, and a dynamic low latency mode for gamers and voice calls.

There are a few caveats, though. For starters, existing aptX Adaptive products won’t automatically receive Lossless support — at least not without a firmware update. You’ll also need Snapdragon Sound-certified devices on both the transceiver and receiver end to benefit from lossless audio. So it will take a while for devices to permeate the market with a sizable portfolio. Unfortunately, not all Snapdragon Sound devices will necessarily support aptX Lossless, so knowing exactly what you’re getting might not be as crystal clear as it should be.

Customers with a lossless music collection stand to benefit from CD-quality Bluetooth audio.

With lossless CD quality, radio-aware scaling, low latency gaming and voice, and Hi-Res support, aptX Lossless is the industry’s most robust Bluetooth audio option. However, there’s still likely to be some debate about whether Qualcomm’s standard offers a perceivable improvement to audio quality and which Bluetooth audio codec is the best pick for consumers with a Hi-Res library. Plus, whether the proprietary nature of Qualcomm’s technology will limit consumer adoption versus more universal support for SBC and the upcoming LC3 codec.

Ultimately, the best Bluetooth codec is the one supported by both your headphones and smartphone or music player. aptX Lossless has some rather steep requirements on the hardware side compared to existing standards. Some headphone companies are investing in this now, like Nura with the True Pro Wireless earbuds. What do you think?


Yes, aptX Lossless can send lossless Bluetooth audio, but this requires a Snapdragon Sound device like the ASUS Zenfone 9 and compatible earbuds.

To receive lossless audio over Bluetooth, you’ll need a Bluetooth 5.3 device with a modern Snapdragon processor and earbuds with the Snapdragon S3 or S5 chips.

What Is Virtualization, And Why Should You Use It?

In the broadest sense, virtualization is the process of creating a virtual, rather than actual, copy of something. Virtual in this case means something so similar to the original that it can barely be distinguished from it, as in the phrase “virtually the same.”

Virtualization is the use of computer programs to closely imitate a specific set of parameters. A specific software tool, called a “hypervisor,” creates a virtual environment with software within the given parameters.

There are as many kinds of virtualization as there are uses for it, so we will restrict our discussion to the most common types of virtualization.

Hardware Virtualization

This is the most familiar type of virtualization for most users. When you run a virtual machine in VirtualBox, you’re running a hardware virtualization. Video game system emulators follow the same principle, using a hypervisor to generate the parameters of bygone video game consoles.

In hardware virtualization, the hypervisor creates a guest machine, mimicking hardware devices like a monitor, hard drive, and processor. In some cases the hypervisor is simply passing through the host machine’s configuration. In other cases an entirely separate and independent system is virtualization, depending on the needs of the environment.

This is not the same as hardware emulation, a far more complex and lower-level process. In hardware emulation, software is used to allow one piece of hardware to imitate another. For example, hardware emulation can be used to run x86 software on ARM chips. Windows 10 uses this type of emulation extensively in its one-OS-everywhere strategy, and Apple used it in Rosetta when transitioning from PowerPC to Intel processors.

Often, some limitations are required of virtualization. A hypervisor often cannot exceed the specifications of its host device. You cannot run a hypervisor with 10 TB of hard drive storage on a 2 TB disk. You could try to falsely provide that number through the hypervisor, but that would quickly fall apart under use.

Hardware-assisted virtualization uses specifically-designed hardware to aid in the virtualization processes. Some modern processors include virtualization-friendly optimizations, allowing for faster and more fluid processor virtualization.

Desktop Virtualization

Desktop visualization separates the desktop environment from the physical hardware the user interacts with. Rather than storing the operating system, desktop environment, user files, applications, and other end-user files on the hard drive of the user’s computer, the desktop is virtualized for the user. From the user perspective, this environment appears to be a local disk, if perhaps a little slow.

However, the entire system is actually managed by a server. This allows system administrators to have complete control over the users’ desktop environment from a remote access point. By rolling out updates on the server, they are instantly applied to the end user, without the need for tunneling, physical access, or device-specific user profiles. By separating the desktop environment from the hardware it runs on, the user is free to access “their” computer from any desktop computer.

Network Virtualization

Similar to the two types of virtualization already mentioned, network virtualization mimics network topology, but decoupled from the hardware traditionally used to manage such networks. Rather than running physical networking controlling infrastructure, a hypervisor recreates that functionality within a software environment. Network virtualization can be combined with hardware virtualization, creating a software network of hypervisors all communicating with one another. Network virtualization can be used to test and implement upper-level network functionality like load balancing and firewalling as well as Level 2 and 3 roles like routing and switching.


Virtualization’s main penalty is speed. Virtual environments are universally slower than host environments running on “real” platforms. But speed is not all that matters. In environments when next-second performance is not mission critical, organizations can save money and increase flexibility with virtualization. Single users can use virtualization to mimic hardware environments they don’t have access to, running multiple operating systems on a single computer simultaneously.

Alexander Fox

Alexander Fox is a tech and science writer based in Philadelphia, PA with one cat, three Macs and more USB cables than he could ever use.

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Should You Think About Ai

We are increasingly relying on artificial intelligence (AI) to automate parts of our everyday lives, from devoting connections to follow up with significant work tasks to controlling the warmth of our houses. Already, automation has begun to take more tasks from the manufacturing industry, and together with the explosion of AI over the close horizon, millions of people are concerned their jobs, also, might be obtained by a satisfactorily complex machine (or algorithm).

So if you be considering the possibility of being substituted by an AI-driven algorithm? And if yes, is there a method for one to AI-proof your livelihood?

The High-Level View: AI Is Coming

Let us begin with a high-level evaluation of the potential of AI. AI will continue to progress, at speeds that continue accelerating nicely to the future. In 2040, we might return to the AI available now exactly the identical manner our ubiquitous-internet-enjoying culture appears back online of 1999.

Basically, it is possible that one day, far into the future, automation and AI will probably be capable of handling any individual obligation. Luckily, after that, AI will probably be so embedded and so phenomenally strong, our accessibility to sources will be almost infinite and locating work might not be much of a problem.

But putting aside those sci-fi fantasies, it is realistically safe to presume that AI will start bridging the difference between blue-collar and extra-curricular jobs. Already, automated calculations have started to manage responsibilities in pharmaceuticals, journalism, human sources , and regulation –regions once thought untouchable by AI.

In a nutshell, yes, you ought to be considering how AI will influence your career.

Related: – How AI can Help Blockchain

What AI Can’t Do Well

That said, AI is not an ideal tool. AI and automation are far superior to humans in performing rapid-fire, predictive tasks, but there are some key areas in which AI struggles, including:

Human interactions. While there are a few teams working on growing AI assistants (and even therapists) that may replicate fundamental human connections, the simple fact remains people like to engage with different individuals, at least in some specific sectors. By way of instance, once you’re purchasing a new house, you will want a real dialogue with a qualified property agent, and if you are fighting with a mental health problem, you will want to talk with a human being sitting across from you. Accordingly, jobs which are heavily determined by human interaction will probably be protected for a while.

Situations with lots of (or erratic ) factors. AI performs well in scenarios with company, unbreakable rules, and the rules there are, the greater. When you enter situations with a growing number of factors, or if these factors become unpredictable, AI starts to struggle. Thus, the higher up the management chain you go, the less probable it is that AI is going to soon be capable of handling the obligations.

Replacement or Displacement?

It’s also wise to think about the question of if AI has the potential of really replacing your work, or just displacing it. You will find experts on either side of the debate here, and various businesses and various places may come to various decisions.

Fearing the growth of new technologies is not a new notion; folks have been frightened of losing their jobs to machines for centuries. We frequently use the word “luddite” to describe somebody who’s irrationally terrified of (or reluctant to utilize ) new technologies, but the word originates as a method of describing textile employees who have been terrified that textile machines could create their job irrelevantly. We return on this stage of industrialization with some level of comedy. We all know that many employees were not replaced by machinesinsteadthey just started to work with the machines as part of the tasks.

This might be the not too distant future for many places; instead of having whole positions and companies replaced with machines, organizations and individuals will be embracing and incorporating AI.

AI-Proofing: Learning to Love the Machine

One of the best choices is learning how to adopt AI, instead of attempting to fight or prevent it. Company owners will be incentivized to incorporate AI as far as possible in their own ventures, but they are likely to need assistance to get it done. If you position yourself to make the most of AI to create your own place more precious, you are likely to strongly profit from AI–instead of simply being jeopardized by it.

You are able to set yourself in a better place by studying more about the up-and-coming AI software on your business and becoming more educated in their integration. In certain sectors, you might even have the ability to find out more about creating and changing AI systems. Should you are feeling your job is really under threat, you can change careers entirely, studying development and functioning on AI methods of your own.

AI-Proofing: Incorporating AI-Challenging Skills

You might even work to AI-proof your livelihood by integrating more abilities into your job which are hard for AI. There are numerous approaches you can certainly do this. Supervisory and management functions need juggling many unpredictable factors, and at times engaging in abstract thinking. AI methods have a tendency to battle with these kinds of duties.

You might also produce a horizontal movement, learning new skills in your present role or altering industries into a position that is not as likely to be jeopardized by an automatic algorithm. By way of instance, you might attempt to transition into a job which involves more direct human connections, or you might return to college to begin a new career in an area that is less likely to automatic in the not too distant future.

Related: – Success of Artificial Intelligence its Secret

AI-Proofing: Diversifying Your Career

However much you think beforehand or how completely you emphasise the future of AI remains somewhat inconsistent. It can encroach on more tasks than we initially believed or may prove to be a totally minimal threat. In any event, you can boost your career trajectory by minding your skillset and minding your prospective career choices.

By way of instance, you may begin studying new marketable skills in several distinct classes –even if they don’t immediately apply to your existing career. You might also begin taking on a little assortment of distinct side gigs. In that way if some of your earnings flows or abilities come under threat, it is possible to easily transition into something else. This strategy leaves you the maximum flexibility.

Proof your job might be substituted with a sufficiently strong AI algorithm or system is blended, however, AI is surely likely to be sophisticated in the long run.

You Should Take A 5

As more and more adults have jobs that require them to be sitting at a desk most of the day, the phrase “sitting is the new smoking,” can feel quite haunting. According to the Mayo Clinic, sitting for long periods of time can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, increased blood pressure, cancer, and other health concerns.

However, a small study published January 12 in the Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, the journal of the American College of Sports Medicine, finds that taking a five minute walk for every 30 minutes of sitting can offset some of the worst effects of prolonged sitting. It builds on a growing body of research into the health benefits of shorter walks or bursts of activity throughout the day.

[Related: How to sit ergonomically without expensive equipment.]

The study tested five different exercise “snacks,” or short bursts of activity: one minute of walking after every 30 minutes of sitting, one minute after 60 minutes; five minutes every 30; five minutes every 60; and no walking. 

“If we hadn’t compared multiple options and varied the frequency and duration of the exercise, we would have only been able to provide people with our best guesses of the optimal routine,” said study co-author Keith Diaz, an associate professor of behavioral medicine at Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, in a statement.

Each of the 11 adults who participated in the study sat in an ergonomic chair for eight hours in Diaz’s lab. The participants (all in their 40s, 50s, and 60s and most didn’t have hypertension or diabetes) could read, work on a laptop, and use their phones and were provided standardized meals.

They stood up only for their prescribed exercise snack of walking on the treadmill or for restroom breaks. The research team monitored that each participant din’t over or under exercise and measured blood pressure and blood sugar-two key indicators of cardiovascular health.

Five minutes of walking every 30 minutes was the only amount that significantly lowered both blood pressure and blood sugar levels in the participants. This regimen also affected how the participants’ bodies responded to large meals and reduced blood sugar spikes by 58 percent compared with sitting for eight hours. 

[Related: Walking correctly takes work—here’s how to improve every step.]

One minute walking breaks every 30 minutes also provided some modest benefits to blood sugar levels throughout the day, but walking for either one minute or five minutes after 60 minutes of sitting didn’t appear to provide any benefits to blood sugar.

As far as blood pressure levels, all amounts of walking reduced blood pressure by 4 to 5 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) compared with sitting all day. “This is a sizeable decrease, comparable to the reduction you would expect from exercising daily for six months,” said Diaz. 

Levels of mood, fatigue, and cognitive performance was also measured during the testing. Every regimen except for walking one minute every hour led to decreases in fatigue and boots in moods. Cognition wasn’t influenced by any of the walking regimens.

“The effects on mood and fatigue are important,” said Diaz. “People tend to repeat behaviors that make them feel good and that are enjoyable.” 

The team is now testing 25 different doses of walking and exercise “snacks” and testing a wider variety of people.

“What we know now is that for optimal health, you need to move regularly at work, in addition to a daily exercise routine,” said Diaz. “While that may sound impractical, our findings show that even small amounts of walking spread through the work day can significantly lower your risk of heart disease and other chronic illnesses.”

You don’t even need to get a standing desk (which aren’t necessarily better) to help prevent some of the negative effects of sitting all day. Some tips on how to increase your movement during the work day include holding walking meetings with co-workers, taking the stairs instead of the elevator, setting reminders in your phone or watch to get up and move, and listening to music while walking to stay motivated and entertained. You can also try box squats, where you get up and down in your chair gently, or do some push ups and planks.

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