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Whether Windows or Mac, every computer comes with some activity monitor to track the processes running on the system. Using it, users can see how much RAM and CPU every process is taking up. Interestingly, Chrome has its own Task Manager, where you can see which open tabs are using more memory, CPU, and Data.
Below is how you can use Chrome Task Manager:
Step 1: Tap on three dot icon in the top right corner of Chrome browser.
Step 3: In the more tools section you will find Task Manager tap on it. Alternatively, you can type Shift+ESC on Windows to open Chrome Task Manager. Sadly, there is no keyboard shortcut to access Chrome Task Manager on Mac as of now.
Step 4: Chrome Task Manager will be opened in a new window. It will show information like Task, Memory Print, Network, and Process ID.
Among the tasks, you can see which tab is using higher memory and CPU resources. If you find one such task that is using most of the resources select that task and tap on End Process. It will clear all the resources consumed by that process.
Memory Footprint: The next column in Chrome Task Manager is Memory footprint. It shows how much RAM is being used by individual processes that are running on Chrome. By looking at memory footprint, you can look at the amount of RAM Chrome is taking up to complete all the tasks you have thrown on it.
If you are facing any issue in opening other apps or your system is hanging, then open Task Manager on Chrome and look at your memory footprint.
CPU: It shows how much CPU resource each running process on Chrome is consuming. It is being shown in percentage, so If you get 2.9 against one of the processes. It means that process is using 2.9% of your CPU.
Network: It basically shows us how much data is being used by each process. When you open Task Manager, you will stop opening up new pages, and that’s why it shows 0 for every process. But when you start browsing or say you are playing a video On YouTube in one of your tabs. It will show the amount of data that is being transferred by that tab.
Process ID: You don’t have to think much about Process ID. It is a number given by Chrome for each process running at a particular moment. So please take it as a name for that specific process given by your computer.
I hope you now know how to check which Chrome tabs are hogging up your system resources like CPU and RAM. As mentioned, Chrome itself provides the way- you need not look anywhere else. Just open up Task Manager and check all the running processes and the memory, RAM, and data used. By looking at the chart, even a novice can check which tab is using more resources. I would recommend using Task manager on Chrome next time when Chrome starts to hang up on your computer.
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Working with multiple tabs makes it easier to collect information from different resources while doing online research. Though sometimes, it becomes overwhelming to have too many tabs opened. You search for something in a tab, keep reading it, and then switch to something else in a different tab. After opening a couple of tabs, you won’t be able to look at the title of a tab that lets you know what information it holds. Also, it becomes difficult to search for a specific word or phrase in a particular tab. To overcome these issues, most modern browsers nowadays offer a ‘Search Tabs‘ feature that lets you search across all the opened or recently closed tabs.
The Search Tabs feature allows you to:
See a list of open tabs across all browser windows.
Find a specific tab in a list of all open tabs and recently closed tabs.
Know when a specific tab has been opened or closed by seeing the timestamp (feature available in Chrome and Edge).
Search both title and content of open pages (a feature available in the Opera browser).How to search open tabs in Edge, Chrome, Firefox, Opera browsers
Let’s look at how to search open tabs in different browsers, including Microsoft Edge, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and Opera.How to search open tabs in Microsoft Edge
Go to Microsoft Edge.
A pop-up window will appear listing all open tabs and recently closed tabs. The window also shows a search bar on top.
Type the desired word or phrase in the search bar.
Use up and down keys on the keyboard to move between the search results.
Press Enter to go to the tab. You can also use your mouse to go to the desired tab.
Read: Microsoft Edge not restoring previous Tab session.How to search open tabs in Google Chrome
Go to Google Chrome.
You will see a pop-up window listing all open tabs and recently closed tabs. The window shows a search box on top.
Type the word or phrase in the search box. Search results will appear.
Use up and down arrow keys to move between the search results.
Press Enter or use your mouse cursor to go to the required tab.
Read: Reset or Refresh Firefox browser settings to defaultHow to search open tabs in Mozilla Firefox
Go to Mozilla Firefox.
Open a new tab and place your mouse cursor in the address bar.
Select the tabs icon at the bottom of the menu that appears.
You will see a list of all open tabs, with a ‘Switch to Tab’ button in front of each listing.
Use the address bar to locate a specific tab.
Note: Firefox doesn’t give you the option to look at your recently closed tabs while using the Search Tabs feature.How to search open tabs in Opera Browser
Go to Opera Browser.
A list of recently closed and open tabs will open up in a popup window.
The windows show a search bar on top. Type the desired word/ phrase in the search bar.
Use up/ down keys to move between the search results.
Go to the desired tab either by pressing Enter or by using your mouse cursor.How do I search tabs in Windows? What happens if I have a lot of tabs open?
If you have a lot of tabs open in your web browser, your system may experience performance issues. This is because each tab consumes a fraction of your system’s RAM. The more tabs you open, the more RAM they utilize and your system will run out of RAM to manage other tasks. This may result in slowing down, freezing, or crashing your PC.
Read Next: How to reopen a closed tab in Chrome, Edge, Firefox, Opera browsers.
The Linux find command is one of the most important and handy commands in Linux systems. It can, as the name suggests, find files on your Linux PC based on pretty much whatever conditions and variables you set. You can find files by permissions, users, groups, file type, date, size and other possible criteria using the find command. Here we show you how to find a file in Linux using the find command.
The find command is available on most Linux distro by default, so you do not have to install a package for it.Find Files by Name in Current Directories
The most obvious way of searching for files is by name. To find a file by name in the current directory, run:
-namechúng tôi you want to find a file by name that contains both capital and small letters, run:
-inamechúng tôi you want to find a file in the root directory, prefix your search with sudo, which will give you all the permissions required to do so, and also the / symbol, which tells Linux to search in the root directory. Finally, the -print expression displays the directories of your search results. If you were looking for Gzip, you’d type:
If you want to find files under a specific directory like “/home,” run:
-namechúng tôi you want to find files with the “.txt” extension under the “/home” directory, run:
To find files whose name is “test.txt” under multiple directories like “/home” and “/opt”, run:
-namechúng tôi find hidden files in the “/home” directory, run:
To find a single file called “test.txt” and remove it, run:
To find all empty files under the “/opt” directory, run:
-emptyFind Directories Using Name
If you want to find all directories whose name is “testdir” under the “/home” directory, run:
To file all empty directories under “/home,” run:
-emptyFind Files with Certain Permissions
The find command can be used to find files with a specific permission using the perm option.
To find all files whose permissions are “777” in the “/home” directory, run:
To find all the files without permission “777,” run:
To find all read-only files, run:
To find all executable files, run:
To find all the sticky bit set files whose permissions are “553,” run:
To find all SUID set files, run:
To find all files whose permissions are “777” and change their permissions to “700,” run:
}; Find Files and Directories Based on Date and Time
To find all the files under “/opt” which were modified 20 days earlier, run:
To find all the files under “/opt” which were accessed twenty days earlier, run:
To find all the files under “/opt” which were modified more than 30 days earlier and less than 50 days after:
To find all the files under “/opt” which were changed in the last two hours, run:
-120Find Files and Directories Based on Size
To find all 10MB files under the “/home” directory, run:
To find all the files under the “/home” directory which are greater than 10MB and less than 50MB, run:
To find all “.mp4” files under the “/home” directory with more than 10MB and delete them using a single command, run:
As you can see, the find command is incredibly useful for administering a system, looking through directories to find files, and generally pruning the virtual directory tree in Linux. If you enjoyed this Linux article, make sure you check out some of our other Linux content, like how to use the scp command to securely transfer files, how to use nnn as a file manager in the terminal, and how to fix broken packages.
John is a young technical professional with a passion for educating users on the best ways to use their technology. He holds technical certifications covering topics ranging from computer hardware to cybersecurity to Linux system administration.
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Base64 is a popular binary to ASCII encoding scheme designed to reliably transfer binary data across channels that have limited support for various content types. This article goes over the basics of Base64 encoding, how it works and details different command line and graphical ways to encode your own data using Base64.What Is Base64 Encoding
Base64 is an encoding technique, which converts binary data, such as images and video, into ASCII format (an encoding scheme for representing text data in a computer systems.). Since binary data consists of strings of 0s and 1s, Base64 encoding works by converting these characters into a definite set of ASCII. The result can be easily decoded by mapping the ASCII characters into the binary value.
Below you can find a list of standard ASCII characters used in Base64 encoding.
Number characters: 0-9.
Uppercase alphabet characters: A-Z.
Lowercase alphabet characters: a-z.
Two special characters: “/.” and “+”.
Image source: WikipediaWhy Is Base64 Encoding Used
When performing a file transfer online, binary data from the file is chopped into chunks which are called packets. These are then sent to the receiver using different protocols.
Image source: Figma
Here is where the problem arises. If the receiver is unable to decode the binary file format from the sender, it can lead to data loss or corruption. Therefore, it’s considered good practice to first covert the file using Base64 encoding before sending it to the user. Base64 will encode the characters into ASCII format, which the majority of machines can read. And given the wide adoption of Base64 encoding, you can basically employ Base64 encoding on any machine.What Is Base64 Encoding Used For
Base64 is widely used to encode text, images, musics, videos etc that you want to transmit across the web. One of the established use cases for Base64 is email attachments. Files attached to an email are encoded using Base64 behind the scenes before they are sent off along with the email to their destination.
Image source: Figma
With Base64, encoded images can directly be added to HTML documents or in CSS files. This technique can help reduce the number of requests from clients and make your website more performant. You’ll need make sure to compress the image before encoding, though. Otherwise it will result into very big file sizes and slow down the website (alternatively, you can use webp file format to compress the image).
If you are transferring a big BLOB (Binary Large Object File) across the internet, it’s actually mandatory to encode the data using Base64. Otherwise if some network packets happen to get lost during the transfer, the data inside the file may become corrupted and your file will be no longer usable.
For this example we’ll define a variable named word which contains the string “Hello”.let word
Use the btoa() function to convert this string into Base64 ASCII string.let encodedString
Print encodedString to the console to see what the Base64 representation for “Hello” looks like.console.
=How to Encode Data with Base64 in Python
In Python, you can use the built-in Base64 Python standard package.
Import the library inside your Python file by using this command:
Then use the base64.b64encode() function to encode a string into Base64 encoded ASCII characters. We’re using “Hello’” for this example.encoded
Now print out the result to see how “Hello” looks like in Base64 format.
)How to Encode & Decode with Base64 in Linux
Every Linux distribution comes with a Base64 encoding and decoding utility. If you are on Windows, you can use the Windows subsystem for Linux (WSL) to run the the terminal commands examined below.With Command Line
To convert a string into Base64 encoding, at first echo the value and pipe the output into Base64 command.base64 chúng tôi start="4">
You can also save the output Base64 encoded ASCII strings into a file using the following command.
To decode the image from the file, use the -d flag after the Base64 command.
There are many online Base64 converters out there, but rapidtable’s Base64 converter stands out. This online tool provides a handy way to encode and decode Base64 texts and images.
To encode a text string, simply paste your string in the text area and hit the the encode button. This tool can also support text files as an input.
In the character encoding section, you also have additional options such as ASCII, UTF8, UTF16 etc.
Other online easy-to-use Base64 converters include:Frequently Asked Questions Why do Base64 encoded files have a larger file size then normal binary files?
Base64 encoding uses a 6-bit system, while normal binary files use a 8-bit system. 8-bit is called a byte. As Base64 encoding outputs ASCII characters which are in 8-bit and since Base64 uses a 6-bit system, 2-bits remain unoccupied for every byte of data. If you do the calculation, the Base64 encoded file is 33% larger than the original file.Does Base64 encoding translates into encryption as well?
No. Encoding and encryption are two different things. Encoding means conversion of one format to another, while encryption means concealing information so that no one can access it without a password. Encrypted files usually have a password to decrypt the information, while encoded files can be decoded easily using the proper algorithm.How to check if a string is Base64 encoded or not?
If the string is a combination of what appears to be a jumble of characters, then it may be Base64 encoded. To make sure, see the characters used in the string. If the characters are in the range of A-Z, a-z, 0-9, and “+”, “/.”, then this is a Base64 encoded string. To decode its value, use any of the techniques mentioned above.
Image credit: Markus Spiske via Unsplash All screenshots by Hrishikesh Pathak
Developer and writer. Write about linux and web.
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This article was published as a part of the Data Science BlogathonIntroduction
Getting complete and high-performance data is not always the case in Machine Learning. While working on any real-world problem statement or trying to build any sort of project as Machine Learning Practioner you need the data.
To accomplish the need for data most of the time, it is required to fetch data from API and if the website does not provide API, then the only option left is Web Scraping.
In this tutorial, we are going to learn how you can use API, extract data and save it in the form of a dataframe.Table of Contents
Fetching data from an API
What is API
Importance of using API
How to get an API
Hands-on Code to Extract data from API
Fetching Data using SQL databases
EndNoteFetching data from an API What is API
API stands for Application Programming Interface. API basically works as an interface between the communication of two software. Now let’s understand How?Importance of using API
Consider an example, If we have to reserve a railway ticket then we have multiple options like the IRCTC website, Yatra, make my trip, etc. Now, these all are different organizations, and suppose we have reserved seat number 15 of B15 carriage, if someone visits and tries to book the same seat from a different software it will reserve or not? It will show as booked.
Although these are different companies, different software they are capable to share this information. Hence the sharing of information happens between multiple websites through API that’s why APIs are important.
Each organization provides services on multiple operating systems like ios, android, which are integrated with a single database. Hence, they also use API to fetch data from the database to multiple applications.
Now let’s understand practically how to fetch data using in dataframe using Python.
How to get an API?
We will use the TMDB official website, which provides different APIs to fetch different kinds of data. we are going to fetch top-rated movie data into our dataframe. To get the data you need to pass the API.
Use API key to fetch Top-rated Movies data
Copy the link and Instead of the API key paste your API key which you have generated and open the link, you are able to see the JSON-like data.
Now to understand this data there are various tools like JSON viewer. If you want you can open it and paste the code into the viewer. It is a dictionary and the required information about movies is present under the results key.
The Total data is present in 428 pages and the total number of movies is 8551. So, we have to create a dataframe that will have 8551 rows and the fields we will extract is id, Movie title, release date, overview, popularity, vote average, vote count. Hence the dataframe we will receive will have shape 8551 * 7.Hands-on Code to Fetch data from API
Open your Jupyter Notebook to write the code and extract the data in the dataframe. Install the pandas and requests library if you do not have using pip commandpip install pandas pip install requests
Now define your API key in the link and make a request to the TMDB website to extract data and save the response in a variable.api_key = your API key response = requests.get(link)
Do not forget to mention your API key in the link. And after running the above code if you print the response you can see the response at 200 which means everything is working fine and you got the data in form of JSON.
The data we want is in key results so try to print results key.response.json()["results"]
To create the dataframe of the required columns we can use pandas dataframe and you will get the dataframe of 20 rows which has top movies of page 1.data = pd.DataFrame(response.json()["results"])[['id','title','overview','popularity','release_date','vote_average','vote_count']]
We want the data of the complete 428 pages so we will place the code in for loop and request the website again and again to different pages and each time we will get 20 rows and seven columns.for i in range(1, 429): temp_df = pd.DataFrame(response.json()["results"])[['id','title','overview','popularity','release_date','vote_average','vote_count']] data.append(temp_df, ignore_index=False)
Hence we got the complete dataframe with 8551 rows. we have formatted a page number to request a different page each time. And please mention your API key in the link by removing the HTML tag. It will take at least 2 minutes time to run. The dataframe we got looks like this.
Save the data to a CSV file so that you can use this to Analyze, process and create a project on top of it.Fetching Data from a SQL Database
Working with SQL databases is simple with Python. Python provides various libraries to connect to the database and read the SQL queries and extract the data from the SQL table to pandas Dataframe.
For a demonstration purpose, we are using world cities and district population dataset uploaded on Kaggle in SQL queries format. You can access the dataset from here.
Now we are ready to connect Python to the database and Extract the SQL data in Pandas Dataframe. For making a connection install the MySQL connector library.!pip install mysql.connector
After installing import the required libraries and orient the connection to the database using connect method.import numpy as np import pandas as pd import mysql.connector conn = mysql.connector.connect(host="localhost", user="root", password="", database="World")
After connecting with the database successfully we can query a database and extract a data in dataframe.city_data = pd.read_sql_query("SELECT * FROM city", conn)
Hence we have extracted data to dataframe successfully and that’s easy it is to work with databases with help of Python. You can also extract data by filtering with SQL queries.EndNote
I hope it was an amazing article to get you through How to Extract data from different sources. Fetching data with the help of API is mostly used by Data Scientist to data the large and vast set of data to have better analysis and improve model performance.
As a beginner most of the times you get the accurate data file but this is not the case all the time, you have to bring the data from different sources which will be noisy and work on it to drive better business decisions.
The media shown in this article are not owned by Analytics Vidhya and is used at the Author’s discretion.
What if RAM is Faster Than CPU & Does it Matter?
Both RAM and CPU are key components of your PC that work together for optimum performance.
How fast or slow your computer runs depends on both and y
our activities will determine whether you need more RAM or a faster CPU.
It’s important to have a healthy balance between these two components — with neither one being too strong or too weak in comparison to the other.
The choice between a fast CPU and a fast RAM is actually one of the hardest choices you can make in computing.
CPU is the brain of your computer. It processes all of the instructions and calculations that your computer needs to perform.What’s the difference between RAM and CPU?
The CPU and RAM are both components of your computer, but they’re quite different.
CPU is the brain of your computer and it does all the processing by executing instructions and thus does all of the work of running programs.
The RAM (short for Random Access Memory) is where programs store their data so they can retrieve it very quickly when they need to.
RAM needs to be fast enough so that your CPU never has to wait for data because if it does then your system gets slowed down.
If your RAM was really slow then every time you tried to do something your computer would have to wait for ages before it could do anything else.
The difference is that your RAM only has to store data long enough for the CPU to retrieve it.Is it better to have your RAM faster than your CPU?
The answer here lies in what you predominantly do on your computer. If you run a number of programs, then your CPU is the bottleneck.
This is because it has a number of tasks to complete, and the faster it completes them, the more quickly the program will respond. In this case, you need a fast CPU.
On the other hand, If you do not run many simultaneous programs, but instead run one program and make it do a lot of things, then that program needs to access and update a large amount of data hence the need for more RAM.Is CPU more expensive than RAM?
It’s true that a CPU will always cost more than the equivalent amount of RAM. CPUs are significantly more complicated and powerful than most types of RAM.
However, since most computers come with a fair bit of RAM preinstalled, you should compare the price of the additional memory needed to match the CPU’s capabilities.
If you’re looking at a computer with equal amounts of RAM and CPU power, then yes, the CPU will usually be more expensive. As a general rule, this is true for desktop computers as well as laptops.
Don’t hesitate to check out our top recommended CPUs for Windows 11 if you are in the market for one.
You can also use RAM cleaners and optimizers to keep your computer running smoothly at all times.
Don’t forget to also apply some of our tips and tricks to make your OS faster and more responsive.
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