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To generate SSH keys on Windows 11, open Command Prompt (admin), and run the “ssh-keygen,” confirm the name for the keys and passphrase. The keys will be generated inside the “.ssh” folder in your profile folder (or in the root of “C.”)

On Windows 11, you can generate private and public SSH keys directly from Command Prompt or PowerShell without having to resource to third-party solutions, and in this guide, you will learn how.

If you are a web developer or network administrator, you’re probably familiar with remote server connections using SSH keys. SSH (Secure Shell Protocol) keys come in pair of public and private keys that you can use to authenticate with a remote server using encryption communication over the internet. Typically, you enable and configure the remote server with SSH and install the public key, and then when establishing a remote connection, you will present the private key (and passphrase if configured) to perform a secure authentication.

Usually, you would use third-party solutions, such as Putty’s PuttyGen tool, to generate SSH keys, but you can also use the built-in SSH key generator on Windows 11 (and 10).

In this guide, you will learn the steps to create SSH keys on Windows 11.  (These instructions should also apply to Windows 10.)

Generate SSH keys on Windows 11 (basic)

To generate SSH keys on Windows 11, use these steps:

Type the following command to generate a pair of SSH keys and press Enter:


Confirm a descriptive name for the file (for example, webserver) and press Enter.

(Optional) Confirm a passphrase for the SSH keys.

Quick note: The passphrase is a layer of security to protect the keys. If you don’t enter a password when authenticating, you won’t be asked to confirm the passphrase, but entering one is recommended.

Confirm the passphrase one more time and press Enter.

Once you complete the steps, the private and public keys will be generated and stored in the “.ssh” folder inside your profile folder (%USERPROFILE%). The private key will not include a file extension, while the public key will have a “.pub” extension.

To generate SSH keys using a specific type, use these steps:

Open Start.

Type the following command to generate private and public SSH keys using a specific type and press Enter:

ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -C "[email protected]"

Quick note: The “-t” option tells the command that you want to specify a new type of key. In the command, we’re using “ed25519” to create an EdDSA key type. The default creates RSA keys, but you can change it to DSA, ECDSA, ECDSA-K, ED25519, or ED25519-SK. If you don’t specify your email address, the command will generate a random address using your account username "@" computer name.

Confirm a descriptive name for the file (for example, webserver) and press Enter.

(Optional) Confirm a passphrase for the SSH keys.

Confirm the passphrase one more time and press Enter.

After you complete the steps, the SSH keys will be available in the “.ssh” folder in your account folder (%USERPROFILE%).

If the SSH keys are not present in the C:Usersusername.ssh folder, the tool may have stored the files in the root of the C: drive. Also, if the “.ssh” folder is missing from the profile folder, you can create a new folder manually and run the command again, but this time, you need to append this configuration -f %userprofile%/.ssh/id_ed25519. The command should be similar to this: ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -C "[email protected]" -f %userprofile%/.ssh/id_ed25519

You can always use the ssh-keygen /help command to access the available options with descriptions.

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How To Change Function Keys On Windows 11

How to Change Function Keys on Windows 11




Functions Keys provide access to unique features like Airplane Mode and display brightness levels without having to go into your settings.

However, there may be an occasion when you want to change the functionality of those keys to suit your needs.

This guide will show you how to change your Function Keys using Microsoft PowerToys.

You probably use function keys every single day of your life, but don’t understand their purpose. Function keys on keyboards are tied to a specific feature on a computer, like increasing brightness level on a display or controlling the volume.

Admittedly, Function keys have so much usage that it can be confusing as to what they exactly do.

There may be times when you accidentally press a function key while typing and your computer do something that you didn’t know it could do.

Although function keys are pre-set, you can still change what they do. It’s important to point out what the function keys do is not universal across all Windows PCs and laptops.

Why should I change function keys on my Windows 11 computer and how?

The reason why you would want to change your function keys is to personalize your computer and know exactly what it does.

As stated earlier, function keys may have unknown uses or features, and it’s highly recommended that Windows 11 users know the ins and outs of their device so they can get the most out of it.

Digging into the inner workings of your computer can teach you a lot. Plus, configuring something all your own is a great way to make sure your machine meets your needs.

On some computers, you can remap your keyboard by going into the settings menu, but a lot of the time, this isn’t possible.

Expert tip:

As you’re wondering how can you reassign function keys, this guide will show you some easy ways you can do just that.

One of the best third-party remapping apps is PowerToys and it works universally on all keyboards. Some gaming keyboards have their apps, but PowerToys is honestly better and saves space.

How can I change the function keys on Windows 11? 1. Download and install the Microsoft PowerToys app 2. Configure PowerToys 3. Map multiple inputs to a single Function Key 4. Configure keyboard inputs Are there other keyboards tips that I should know about?

If you have a Windows 10 computer, it’s recommended that you also learn how to change the function keys on that OS too. It’s not that difficult as PowerToys and other third-party apps that work on Windows 11 also work on the older OS.

What you may not be aware of is using BIOS and UEFI Settings on Windows 10, which are firmware that can change a computer’s runtime services. However, it does take a bit of technical know-how.

There have also been cases of people reporting their keyboard layout changing to a completely different language. This can be caused by a corrupted user profile or the Fast Startup messing with the system. Whatever the case may be, fixing this weird glitch is highly recommended.

And if you get to a point where you don’t feel like typing away but still need to write, then you should look into the text-to-speech and voice recognition features on Windows 11. That way you can still work with just your voice. Set up is easy as it requires you to go into the Settings menu and turn the feature on.

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How To Generate A Public/Private Ssh Key In Linux

If you are using SSH frequently to connect to a remote host, one way to secure your SSH server is to use a public/private SSH key so that no password is transmitted over the network. It can prevent against brute force attack too.

In Linux, creating a public/private SSH key is easy.

Open a terminal. Type:




Alternatively, you can also use the DSA (Digital Signing Algorithm) technology to create the public/private key.




Note: there has been much debate about the security of DSA and RSA. In my opinion, unless you are very particular and love to delve into the technical detail between the two technologies, it doesn’t matter which of the two you choose. Both will work fine.

In the next screen, you should see a prompt that asks for the location to save the key. The default location is the .ssh folder in your Home directory. Press Enter to accept the default setting.

You will be prompted to enter a passphrase – NOT the passphrase to connect to your remote host, but the passphrase to unlock the private key so that no one can access your remote server even if they got ahold of your private key. The passphrase is optional. To leave it blank, just press Enter.

Your public and private SSH key should now be generated. Open the file manager and navigate to the .ssh directory. You should see two files: id_rsa and

Upload your new SSH public key to your remote host by running the following command:

ssh-copy-id username



Log in to your remote host and edit your SSH config file:













Scroll down the config file and make sure the following attributes are set correctly:





PasswordAuthentication no

Press Ctrl + O to write and save the file, then Ctrl + X to close the file.

Restart the SSH server in the remote host:


systemctl restart


That’s it. You can now connect to your remote host with the following command:




remote-host-ip-address Frequently Asked Questions I copied my SSH key to my remote server and am getting a “Permission Denied” error.

This problem is most likely due to an issue with your remote host’s “.ssh” folder. By default, the SSH daemon rejects any incoming connections if its configuration folder and “authorized_keys” file does not have the right permission bits.

To change the file and folder permissions, access a local console for your remote machine, thrn go to your “/home” directory and run: chmod 700 /home/$USER/.ssh && chmod 600 /home/$USER/.ssh/authorized_keys. Lastly, restart the daemon to apply your new settings: sudo systemctl restart ssh.

Is it possible to create multiple SSH keys for the same remote server?

Yes! However, you need to make sure that each SSH key in your machine has a unique file name by running: ssh-keygen -f /home/$USER/.ssh/filename.

Aside from that, make sure that you specify the key you want to use to log in to your remote host by running: ssh -i /home/$USER/.ssh/filename [email protected].

Is it possible to import a new SSH key to a remote host with an old working key?

Yes! First, import your new key to the SSH authentication agent: ssh-add. Next, log in to your old machine and import its key to the same authentication agent: ssh -A old.machine.ip.address && ssh-add -c.

Lastly, leave the old machine by pressing Ctrl + D and connect to your remote host with both your new and old keys.

Image credit: Unsplash. All alterations and screenshots by Ramces Red.

Ramces Red

Ramces is a technology writer that lived with computers all his life. A prolific reader and a student of Anthropology, he is an eccentric character that writes articles about Linux and anything *nix.

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Setting Up Ssh Keys: A Step

SSH (Secure Shell) is a cryptographic network protocol that enables secure data communication between two untrusted networks. It is widely used for remote login and secure file transfer between computers. One of the most significant benefits of SSH is the ability to authenticate users using public-key cryptography instead of passwords. This article will guide you through the process of setting up SSH keys on your computer, including a detailed description, code examples, and related concepts.

What are SSH keys?

SSH keys are a pair of cryptographic keys used to authenticate users and secure communication between two computers. The pair consists of a private key that is kept secret on the user’s computer, and a public key that can be shared with anyone. The private key is used to sign data, while the public key is used to verify the signature.

Why use SSH keys?

Increased security: SSH keys are much more secure than passwords since they use public-key cryptography, making it almost impossible for anyone to guess or brute-force your password.

Convenience: Once you have set up SSH keys, you don’t need to remember your password every time you log in to a remote server.

Automation: SSH keys can be used in scripts to automate tasks that require authentication, such as backups or software deployments.

How to generate SSH keys?

To generate SSH keys, you need to use a tool called ssh-keygen, which is included in most Unix-based operating systems. Here’s how you can generate SSH keys on your computer:

Open a terminal window on your computer.

Type the following command: ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096

This will create a new RSA key pair with a key size of 4096 bits. You can choose a different key type or size if you prefer.

You will be prompted to enter a file name for the key pair. The default file name is id_rsa, which is stored in the .ssh directory in your home directory. You can accept the default file name or choose a different one.

You will also be prompted to enter a passphrase for the private key. The passphrase is used to encrypt the private key, providing an additional layer of security. You can choose to leave the passphrase blank, but this is not recommended.

Once you have entered the passphrase, ssh-keygen will generate the key pair and save it to the file you specified.

How to copy SSH keys to a remote server?

Once you have generated your SSH keys, you need to copy the public key to the remote server you want to log in to. Here’s how you can do that:

Open a terminal window on your computer.

Type the following command, replacing username and server with your username and the hostname or IP address of the remote server: ssh-copy-id username@server

This will copy your public key to the remote server and add it to the authorized_keys file in the .ssh directory in your home directory on the remote server.

You will be prompted to enter your password for the remote server. Once you have entered your password, ssh-copy-id will copy the public key to the remote server.

Alternatively, you can copy the public key to the remote server manually by following these steps:

Open the file that contains your public key ( in a text editor.

Copy the entire contents of the file to the clipboard.

Log in to the remote server using your username and password.

Create the .ssh directory in your home directory if it doesn’t already exist: mkdir -p ~/.ssh

Open the authorized_keys file in the .ssh directory: nano ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

If the file doesn’t exist, create it.

Paste the contents of your public key into the authorized_keys file and save it.

Set the correct permissions on the authorized_keys file: chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

How to use SSH keys for authentication?

Once you have copied your public key to the remote server, you can use SSH keys for authentication. Here’s how you can do that:

Open a terminal window on your computer.

Type the following command, replacing username and server with your username and the hostname or IP address of the remote server: ssh username@server

This will log you in to the remote server using your SSH key for authentication.

If you set a passphrase for your private key, you will be prompted to enter it.


Setting up SSH keys is an essential step in securing your remote login and file transfer. By following the steps outlined in this article, you can generate SSH keys, copy them to a remote server, and use them for authentication. Using SSH keys provides increased security, convenience, and automation, making it a valuable tool for any developer or system administrator.

How To Generate Truth Table In Windows 11/10

Here is a full guide for you to generate a Truth Table in Windows 11/10. A truth table basically displays outputs for all possible combinations of input values to a logic gate or circuit. It either shows Tru and False values or 0 and 1 values. Now, if you want to calculate truth tables for boolean expressions, propositional formulae, and logic circuits, you can refer to this post. In this article, we are going to discuss different ways to generate truth tables on your PC.

What is a Truth Table?

A truth table is a chart with rows and columns depicting how a proposition’s truth or falsity changes with its input components. As we mentioned above, it is primarily used to show all possible outcomes from a combination of input values. It is used in logic relating to digital circuits, boolean algebra, boolean functions, and propositional calculus.

What is a Truth Table generator?

A truth table generator is basically a tool that can automatically generate a truth table based on the respective logic circuit, boolean expression, proposition, etc. In this article, we are going to list several truth table generators that you can use on Windows 11/10. Keep on reading to find out these tools.

How to generate Truth Table in Windows 11/10

Here are the two ways to generate a truth table in Windows 11/10:

Use a free software to generate a truth table.

Create a truth table using a free web service.

Let us discuss the above methods in detail!

1] Use a free software to generate a Truth Table

There are multiple free software that let you generate a truth table, Basically, some logic simulation software enable you to create a truth table from boolean expressions, logical statements, circuits, or propositional formulae. Here are some of the better truth table generators that you can use on Windows 11/10 PC:






1] LogicCircuit

LogicCircuit is a dedicated logic simulation software that lets you generate truth tables in Windows 11/10. Using it, you can create a truth table from a logic circuit. Let us have a look at the steps to generate a truth table in LogicCircuit.

How to generate a truth table from logic circuits in Windows 11/10:

Here are the main steps for creating a truth table from a logical circuit:

Firstly, download and install LogicCircuit on your PC. Launch it and then you need to create a logical circuit for which you want to calculate the truth table. You can design a logical circuit with multiple components including input, output, logic gates, and memory. Simply drag a desired component from the Project panel and drop it onto the main design window.

Your logical circuit will be processed for a few seconds and then a respective truth table will be generated. You will see output values based on all possible values of input pins.

You can also apply filters to view a specific set of input and output values, like x=0, x1=1, etc.

It is an easy-to-use truth table calculator that you can use to design and export logical circuits. You can download it from

2] Logisim

Logisim is a portable truth table generator for Windows 11/10. It is basically used to design and simulate logic circuits. Using it, you can create a logical circuit and then generate a truth table for it. Let us discuss the whole process in detail.

Now, if you want to generate a truth table using a boolean expression, you can do that too. It even lets you automatically generate a logical circuit design using a boolean expression.

To do that, open the Combination Analysis window as we did in earlier steps and then go to the Inputs tab. Here, enter the inputs you want to use in the truth table and then press the Add button. Similarly, add the output labels in the Outputs tab.

This will create a logical circuit as well as a truth table for the entered boolean expression.

It is a good logic gate simulator that lets you calculate the truth tables from logic circuits as well as boolean expressions.

3] SimpleSolver

SimpleSolver is a free truth table calculator software for Windows 11/10. It comes up with some tools including Boolean minimizer, logic simulation, truth table generator, etc. In it, you can enter boolean expressions and it will generate the respective truth table. Let us check out a sorted procedure now.

First of all, download and install SimpleSolver on your PC. Then, launch this software and in Input Window, enter a boolean expression, such as X = A xor B xor C xor D;. The boolean expression must end with a semi-colon (;). You can enter more than one boolean expression in new lines and it will generate truth tables for all of them.

Now, from the right panel, make sure the Truth Table – Full option is enabled. You can also enable the other information that you want to display, like PLA Truth Table, Logic Design, Minimize (boolean expression), and more.

4] Logicheck

Logicheck is a dedicated free and portable truth table generator for Windows 11/10. It is a simple tool for quickly generating a truth table from boolean expression. Let’s see how.

Download and launch this portable app. You will see an Expression field on the main screen. Just enter your boolean expression in this field. You can use logical operators like NOT, OR, AND, XOR, etc., to complete your boolean expression.

It will then display a truth table for all entered boolean expressions.

You can download this handy truth table generator from

5] LogicCalculus

LogicCalculus is free and open-source truth table generator software for Windows 11/10. It evaluates boolean expressions and then generates a corresponding truth table. It is one of the easiest tools on this list.

You can add terms using the New option and then add the boolean expression in the middle section. It provides basic logic operators to use in your expression. As you enter the expression, it generates the truth table for the same in the dedicated section in real-time.

If there are errors in your input expression, it shows the same in the bottom panel.

2] Create a Truth Table using a free web service

You can also use an online web service to generate a truth table. Here are some better truth table generator services that you can use:


You can select the format truth values in the output truth table such as T/F, 0/1, etc. It also lets you set truth table type to Full Table, Main Connective Only, Text Table, or LaTex Table to generate a specific kind of truth table. Plus, you can also select the connectives to enter the expression. It provides some examples of how the input expression must be.

Read: How use the OR function Excel to determine if a condition is True.

It shows a quick guide on its main interface on how to use this tool and the format and symbols needed to be used in the expression.


4] is a simple tool to calculate truth tables for boolean and propositional logic formulas. You can enter the formula and it will automatically generate the respective truth table in the web browser.

How do you make a boolean Truth Table?

You can make a boolean truth table by entering the respective boolean expression with the correct syntax. Almost all of the above-discussed software and online tools allow you to create a truth table from a boolean expression. From the list, you use software like SimpleSolver, Logicheck, or LogicCalculus as we explained above. Alternately, you can use any of the discussed web services to generate a boolean truth table.

How do you create a Truth Table with two variables?

To create a truth table with two variables, you can enter a boolean expression or design a logic circuit with two inputs. For example, A + B = C. Here, A and B are two input variables, + sign denotes OR gate, and C is the output that is generated with the combinations of A and B values.

Hope this post helps you generate a truth table for boolean expression or logical circuit in Windows 11/10.

Now read:

How To Restart Windows Update Service On Windows 11

Running into issues during Windows Update is not uncommon in Windows 11. If Windows Update is stuck at a certain percentage for far too long, or if it shows that the update has failed or simply with an unknown error code, rebooting your computer can usually fix the issue.

However, you can restart only the Windows Update service without rebooting your entire PC. This way you can save all the hassles from having to save your ongoing works and close all your programs in order to restart your computer.

This guide will show you two methods on how to restart Windows Update service on Windows 11 – using the Services app, or entering command lines in the Command Prompt or Windows Terminal.

In addition, this guide also shows you a list of commands you can use to fully restart all Windows Update related services and remove the update cache so that Windows Update can re-check, re-download and reinstall updates all over again.

You can quickly restart the Windows Update service by executing command lines in the Command Prompt or Windows Terminal in Windows 11. However, these command lines will require you to have administrative privileges, meaning that you will need to run Command Prompt as administrator in order for the commands to be executed successfully.

Also see: How to Fix Windows 11 Update Stuck at 0% or 100%

To restart Windows Update service in Windows 11 using CMD, follow the steps below.

In the elevated command prompt window, enter the following command lines. Press Enter after each line of command.

net stop wuauserv net start wuauserv

Tip: Note that the 2 command lines above only restart the Windows Update service. If you are encountering issue with Windows Update, restarting only the Windows Update service may not be enough. You may also want to restart all other Windows Update related services and remove the update cache so that Windows Update can re-check and re-download the updates all over again. To do so, run the following commands in the following order (one-by-one followed by Enter key).

net stop wuauserv net stop cryptSvc net stop bits net stop msiserver Ren C:WindowsSoftwareDistribution SoftwareDistribution.old Ren C:WindowsSystem32catroot2 Catroot2.old net start wuauserv net start cryptSvc net start bits net start msiserver

The command lines above will stop the following services and then start them again. These are the services that Windows Update uses during update.

Windows Update Service

Cryptographic Service

Background Intelligent Transfer Service

Windows Installer Service

The “Ren C:WindowsSoftwareDistribution chúng tôi command is to rename the SoftwareDistribution folder – a folder where all the Windows Update caches store, to chúng tôi so that a new SoftwareDistribution can be automatically created again when you run Windows Update next time. Note: Replace “C:” in the command if your Windows installation is not in C: drive.

If the Rename SoftwareDistribution folder command returns “Access denied“, make sure you run the commands in exactly the order shown above. Windows Update services need to be stopped before the SoftwareDistribution folder can be renamed or removed. In addition, make sure you run Command Prompt as administrator.

To restart Windows Update service through a graphical interface instead, follow the steps below.

First, search for and open “Services” via Start menu in Windows 11.

To also restart all other Windows Update dependent services, find and restart the following services. If a service is not even started yet, you can’t restart it.

Background Intelligent Transfer Service

Cryptographic Service

Windows Installer Service

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