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If you like to plan ahead and make a weekly or monthly schedule, having a calendar in Excel could be quite useful.

In this tutorial, I’m going to show you how to create a calendar in Excel that automatically updates when you change the month or the year value.

I will show you the exact process to create the interactive monthly and yearly calendar, and I also have these as downloadable Excel files, so that you can use them offline.

You can print these calendar templates and manually create the schedule on paper.

Before I get into the nitty-gritty of making the calendar in Excel, let me show you what the final output would look like.

Below is an example of the interactive monthly calendar in Excel where you can change the month and year value and the calendar would automatically update (you can also highlight holidays or specific dates in a different color).

Interactive Monthly Calendar in Excel

It also highlights the weekend dates in a different color.

And on similar lines, below I have the yearly calendar template, where when you change the year value the calendar automatically updates to give you the calendar for that year.

Interactive Yearly Calendar in Excel

The weekend dates are highlighted in a different color and if you have a list of holidays (or important dates such as project deadlines or birthdays/anniversaries), then those holidays are also highlighted in the calendar.

Now let me quickly explain how I have created this calendar in Excel.

While most of the heavy lifting in this calendar is done by some simple formulas. you need to have a few things in place before you make this calendar.

Before starting to make the calendar, you need to have the following two additional sheets:

A sheet where you have a list of all the holidays and the dates on which these holidays occur. You can also use this to add important dates that you want to get highlighted in the calendar (such as birthdays, anniversaries, or project deadlines)

Holiday Dates to Highlight in the Calendar

A list of all the month names. This is for the monthly calendar template only, and is used to create a drop-down that shows the month names.

Month names

If you download the calendar template for this tutorial, you will see these two additional sheets.

For the sake of simplicity, I have kept these two sheets separate. If you want, you can also combine and have the holiday dates and the month names on the same sheet.

For this calendar, I have used the holidays in the US. You can change these to your region’s holidays, and even add important days such as birthdays or anniversaries so that they can be highlighted in the calendar.

Holidays (and other specified dates) get highlighted in the calendar

The data from this holiday sheet would be used to highlight the holiday dates in the calendar.

Since I want this calendar to be interactive and allow the user to select the date and the year value, I will:

Have a cell where the user can input the Year value

Create a drop-down list that will show the month names from where the user can select the month

Note that the month drop-down list is needed only for the monthly calendar template, as in the yearly calendar template all the months are shown anyway.

Below are the steps to do this:

Enter Year in cell A1 and Month in cell A2

In cell B1, enter the year value manually (I will use 2023 in this example)

The above steps would give you a drop-down list in cell B2, where you can select the month name.

Now that we have a place to enter the year value and select the month name, the aim here is to create a calendar that would automatically update as soon as we change the month/year values.

So it’s time to go ahead and build that awesome calendar in Excel.

The first thing I need to build this monthly calendar is to have the weekday names in a row (as shown below).

After entering the day name, I’ve also given it a background color and increased the column width a little.

Now it’s time for the formulas.

While I can create one single formula that will give me the values in the calendar grid that I have created, it would become quite big.

So for the purpose of this tutorial, let me break it down and show you how it works.

For the formula to work, I will need two values:

The month number for the selected month (1 for Jan, 2 for Feb, and so on)

Getting the Weekday value for the first day of the selected month (1 if the month starts on Monday, 2 if it starts on Tuesday, and so on)

Formula to get the month number of the selected month:

=MATCH($B$2,'Month Names'!$A$1:$A$12,0)Formula to get the weekday value of the first day of the month

=WEEKDAY(DATE($B$1,$M$4,1),2)I have the output of these formulas in cells M4 and M5 as shown below.

Now that I have these values, I will be using these in the main formula that I will be using in the calendar grid.

Below is the formula that will give me the dates in the calendar:

=IF(MONTH(DATE($B$1,$M$4,1)+SEQUENCE(6,7)-$M$5)=$M$4,DATE($B$1,$M$4,1)+SEQUENCE(6,7)-$M$5,"")This is an array formula, so you just need to enter it in cell D5, and the result would spill automatically to all the other cells in the calendar.

Note: This formula would only work in Excel for Microsoft 365, Excel 2023, and Excel for the web. This is because it uses the SEQUENCE function, which is a new formula and is not available in the older version of Excel.

In case you’re not using Excel for Microsoft 365 or Excel 2023, you can use the below formula instead:

=IF(MONTH(DATE($B$1,$N$4,1)+(ROW()-5)7+COLUMN()-3-$N$5)=$N$4,DATE($B$1,$N$4,1)+(ROW()-5)7+COLUMN()-3-$N$5,"")Enter this formula in cell D5, and then copy and paste it for all the other cells in the calendar grid.

The result of the formula is the date serial number, so you may either see a serial number (such as 44562) or a date.

While this is good enough, I only want to show the day number.

Below are the steps to change the format of the cells to only show the day number from the date value:

Select all the cells in the calendar

Hold the Control key and press the 1 key (or Command + 1 if using Mac). This will open the Format Cells dialog box

Select the Numbers tab in the Format Cells dialog box (if not selected already)

In the Category options. select Custom

In the Type field, enter d

The above steps would only display the day number in the calendar.

As I mentioned, I broke down the formula to make it easier for you to understand how it works. In the templates you download, I have used one single formula only to generate the entire calendar.

The next step in making this dynamic calendar would be to add a dynamic title – that would tell us for what month and year does the calendar shows.

While I can see these values in cells P1 and P2, it would be easier if I create a title that shows me the month and year value right above the calendar.

To do this, I have used the below formula in cell D3:

=B2&" "&B1This is a simple concatenation formula that combines the value in cell B2 and cell B1 (separated by a space character)

If you make any changes in the month and year selection, this value would automatically update along with the calendar.

I’ve also done the below cosmetic changes to make it look like a header and align it to the center of the calendar:

This one is simple.

Just select all the days in the calendar which represent the weekend and give it a different color.

In this example, since Saturday and Sunday are weekend days for me, I have highlighted these inner light yellow color

And the final thing that I want to do in this calendar is to highlight all the days that are holidays in a different color.

As one of the previous steps, we already created a separate holiday worksheet where I listed all the holidays for the current year.

Something as shown below:

Below are the steps to highlight all these holiday dates in the calendar:

In the New Formatting Rule dialog box, select the option – ‘Use a formula to determine which cells to format’

In the field that shows up, enter the following formula:

=ISNUMBER(VLOOKUP(D5,Holidays!$B:$B,1,0))The above steps apply a conditional formatting rule in the selected cells, where each date in the calendar is checked against the holiday list that we provided.

In case the formula finds a date in the holiday list, it’s highlighted in the specified color, else nothing happens

That’s it!

If you follow the above steps, you will have an interactive dynamic monthly calendar that would automatically update when you make the year and month selection. It would also automatically highlight those dates that are holidays.

Just like the monthly calendar, you can also create a yearly calendar that automatically updates when you change the year value.

The first step in creating the yearly calendar is to create an outline as shown below.

Here I have the year value in the first row, and then I have created the monthly grids where I’ll populate the dates for the 12 months. I have also highlighted the weekend dates (for Saturday and Sunday) in yellow.

For the yearly calendar, we don’t need the Month Names sheet, but we would still be using the holiday list in the Holidays sheet to highlight those dates that are a holiday.

Now let’s start building this yearly calendar.

For this yearly calendar to work, I will somehow need to refer to the month value in the formulas for that month (i.e. 1 for Jan, 2 for Feb, and so on)

Let me show you a cool trick that will allow me to use the month number but at the same time instead of showing the number show the month name instead

Follow the below steps to do this:

In cell B3, which is the left-most cell above the first month calendar grid, enter 1

With cell B3 selected, hold the Control key and press the 1 key (or Command + 1 for Mac). This will open the Format Cells dialog box

In the Format Cells dialog box, make sure the Number tab is selected

In the ‘Type’ field on the right, enter the text “January”

The above steps format cell B3 to show the full month name. And the good thing about this is that the value in the cell still remains 1, and I can use these values in the formulas.

So while the value in cell B3 is 1, it is displayed as a January.

Pretty Cool… right!

When you do the above, you may see the ## signs instead of the month name. This happens when the cell width is not enough to accommodate the entire text. Nothing to worry about – this will be sorted we align the text in the center (covered next)

You need to repeat the same process for all the months – where you enter the month number in the top-left cell in the above row off the calendar month grid (I,e, 2 in J3 and 3 in R3, and 4 in M12 as so on).

And for all these numbers, you need to open the format cells dialog box and specify the month name for each number.

This is just a one-time setup, and you won’t be required to do this again.

Also, you can reposition the name of the month so that it appears in the center above the monthly calendar grid.

You can do this using the Center Across Selection technique.

To do this:

After doing this, the month names will be shown right above the monthly calendar and aligned to the middle.

You can also format the month name if you want. In the calendar I have made, I made the month name bold and changed the color to blue.

Once you have done this for all the months, you will have the structure in place, and we can go ahead and enter the formulas.

Similar to the monthly calendar, you can use the below formula for January:

=IF(MONTH(DATE($B$1,$B$3,1)+SEQUENCE(6,7)-WEEKDAY(DATE($B$1,$B$3,1),2))=$B$3,DATE($B$1,$B$3,1)+SEQUENCE(6,7)-WEEKDAY(DATE($B$1,$B$3,1),2),"")As soon as you enter the formula in cell B5 for January, it will spill and fill the entire grid for the month.

And again, since we are using the SEQUENCE formula, you can only use this in Excel for Microsoft 365, Excel 2023, and Excel for the web.

You can use the same formula for other months as well, with one minor change (replace $B$3 with $J$3 for February, $B$3 with $R$3 for March, and so on).

This is because we have the month number for each month in a different cell, and we need to refer to the month value for each month in the formula.

And the final step of creating this dynamic yearly calendar is to highlight those dates that are holidays (these dates are specified in the holiday worksheet).

Below are the steps to do this:

In the New Formatting Rule dialog box, select the option – ‘Use a formula to determine which cells to format’

In the field that shows up, enter the following formula: =ISNUMBER(VLOOKUP(B5,Holidays!$B:$B,1,0))

The above steps would check all the dates in January and highlight those that are marked as a holiday in the holiday worksheet.

You will have to repeat this process for all the months with one minor change.

In the following formula that we use in conditional formatting, you need to replace cell B5 with the top-left cell reference of that month.

For example, if you are doing it for February, then instead of B5, use J5, and for March, use R5.

Once done, all the holidays will be highlighted in the yearly calendar as shown below.

In the downloadable templates that I have provided, I have made sure that the entire calendar would fit one single sheet when printed.

So this is how you can create an interactive calendar in Excel that automatically updates when you change the month value and the year value.

I hope you found this tutorial useful.

Other Excel tutorials you may also like:

You're reading __How To Make An Interactive Calendar In Excel? (2023 Template)__

## How To Use Val Function In Excel Vba With Excel Template

VBA Val Function

VBA Val stands for Value. It converts the arrays or string which has some numbers into pure numerical values. Suppose if we give “111 One” as input then we will get only “111” as numerical output. This is quite useful while working in a data which we extract from some kind of database. In that database file, we may encounter such cells which may contain numbers along with extra spaces, hidden characters, special characters or alphabets. In that case, using Val can convert that string into numbers. Which can be used in further analysis.

How to Use Excel Val Function in VBA?Let’s see the examples of Val in Excel VBA.

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Valuation, Hadoop, Excel, Mobile Apps, Web Development & many more.

You can download this VBA VAL Excel Template here – VBA VAL Excel Template

Example #1 – VBA ValIt is quite easy to implement. For multiple types of applications and codes, we will first form a frame of code which we will be using multiple times in further examples.

Step 1: Go to Insert menu tab and select a Module as shown below.

Step 2: After that, we will get the blank window of Module. In that, write the sub category of VBA Val in excel or you can use any other name of subcategory as per your need.

Code:

Sub

VBA_Val()End Sub

Code:

Sub

VBA_Val()Dim

AAs Variant

End Sub

Step 4: And now assign any type of number sequence to variable A under VBA function VAL. We have assigned a combination of sequential number for demonstration as shown below with spaces between them.

Code:

Sub

VBA_Val() Dim A As Variant A = Val("11 22 33")End Sub

Step 5: At last we will need a message box to print the values stored in variable A.

Code:

Sub

VBA_Val()Dim

AAs Variant

A = Val("11 22 33") MsgBox AEnd Sub

Example #2 – VBA ValIn this example, we will see how VBA Val function is used for number containing some mathematical signs. For this, we will consider the code written above. We have taken out the frame of the code which will be used all the examples, as shown below.

Step 1: Go to Insert menu tab and select a Module as shown below

Step 2: As highlighted in the below screenshot, we will keep updating the value between brackets of VAL Function.

Code:

Sub

VBA_Val2()Dim

AAs Variant

A = Val("") MsgBox AEnd Sub

Step 3: Now let’s insert any number with mathematical sign plus (“+”) as shown below.

Code:

Sub

VBA_Val2()Dim

AAs Variant

A = Val("+111") MsgBox AEnd Sub

Step 4: Now compile and run the code. We will see, VBA Val has given the values as 111 without the plus sign. It is because logically all the values with or without plus signs are always positive in nature.

Step 5: Let’s change the value in Val function from +111 to -111. Now we will see if minus sign gets converted into the value or not.

Code:

Sub

VBA_Val2()Dim

AAs Variant

A = Val("-111") MsgBox AEnd Sub

Step 6: Compile the code and run. We will see, the minus sign is still retained in the value and message box has returned the value as -111. Which means any sign other than plus will not get converted with Val function in VBA.

Example #3 – VBA ValIn this example, we will see, how Val function would work for time formats.

Step 1: For this again we will use the above-defined format for Excel VBA Val as shown below.

Code:

Sub

VBA_Val3()Dim

AAs Variant

A = Val("") MsgBox AEnd Sub

Step 2: Now insert any time format in VAL function as circled in the above screenshot. Here we are adding 11 AM as shown below.

Code:

Sub

VBA_Val3()Dim

AAs Variant

A = Val("11 AM") MsgBox AEnd Sub

Step 3: Now compile the code and run. We will see, VAL function has eliminated AM from 11 AM and given us only 11 as output as shown below.

Step 4: Now let’s use some different format. Use any minutes with hours. We have used value 11:05 under Val brackets.

Code:

Sub

VBA_Val3()Dim

AAs Variant

A = Val("11:05 AM") MsgBox AEnd Sub

Step 5: Again compile and run the code. Again Val function has removed colon and minutes numbers along with AM and given us the whole number 11 as shown below.

Example #4 – VBA ValIn this example, we will see how the date format works in this.

Code:

Sub

VBA_Val4()Dim

AAs Variant

A = Val("") MsgBox AEnd Sub

Step 2: Now insert any date format as per your need. We can insert data in a hyphen (“-“) format in a slash (“ / “) format. Let’s use the slash date format which is most often used.

Code:

Sub

VBA_Val4()Dim

AAs Variant

A = Val("06/26/2023") MsgBox AEnd Sub

Step 3: Now compile the code and run it. We will see VBA Val has returned the numerical values as “6”. Values after slash are not accepted by VBA Val.

Example #5 – VBA ValIn this example, we will see how this will work when the numbers are after the text.

Step 1: Take the format which we have seen above.

Code:

Sub

VBA_Val2()Dim

AAs Variant

A = Val("") MsgBox AEnd Sub

Step 2: In Val function brackets, let’s put some text and numbers. Let’s consider “AB 11” as shown below.

Code:

Sub

VBA_Val2()Dim

AAs Variant

A = Val("AB 11") MsgBox AEnd Sub

Step 3: Now run it. We will see, in the message box, only 0 is appearing. Which means VBA Val doesn’t consider the numbers after characters or text.

Pros of VBA Val

It can be used in the data which is extracted from some kind of tool or database. Which consists of different kind of characters along with numbers.

It is quite easy to separate numbers by using VBA Val in any kind data.

We can choose any format which consists of a number or set of number to separate it from other characters.

Things to Remember

It also considers the decimals.

Save the file as Marco enable excel so that written would be retained.

If record this process in VBA, then obtained code will be much lengthier than the examples which we have seen above.

There is not an alternate insert function available in Excel which gives the same result as VBA Val.

Recommended ArticlesThis is a guide to VBA Val. Here we discuss how to get Val in VBA Excel along with practical examples and downloadable excel template. You can also go through our other suggested articles –

## How To Calculate Age In Excel Using Formulas + Free Calculator Template

Watch Video – How to Calculate Age in Excel (in Years, Months, and Days)

Using a combination of Excel functions and the date of birth, you can easily calculate age in Excel. You can either calculate the age till the current date or between the specified period of time.

The technique shown here can also be used in other situations such as calculating the duration of a project or the tenure of the service.

In this tutorial, you’ll learn how to calculate age in Excel in:

The number of years elapsed till the specified date.

The number of Years, Months, and Days elapsed till the specified date.

You can also download the Excel Age Calculator Template.

Suppose you have the date of birth in cell B1, and you want to calculate how many years have elapsed since that date, here is the formula that’ll give you the result:

=DATEDIF(B1,TODAY(),"Y")

If you have the current date (or the end date) in a cell, you can use the reference instead of the TODAY function. For example, if you have the current date in cell B2, you can use the formula:

=DATEDIF(B1,B2,"Y")

DATEDIF function is provided for the compatibility with Lotus 1-2-3.

One of the things that you’ll notice when you use this function is that there is no IntelliSense available for this function. No tooltip appears when you use this function.

This means that while you can use this function in Excel, you need to know the syntax and how many arguments this function takes.

If you’re interested in knowing more about DATEDIF function, read the content of the box below. If not, you can skip this and move to the next section.

Syntax of DATEDIF function:

=DATEDIF(start_date, end_date, unit)It takes 3 arguments:

start_date: It’s a date that represents the starting date value of the period. It can be entered as text strings in double-quotes, as serial numbers, or as a result of some other function, such as DATE().

end_date: It’s a date that represents the end date value of the period. It can be entered as text strings in double-quotes, as serial numbers, or as a result of some other function, such as DATE().

unit: This would determine what type of result you get from this function. There are six different output that you can get from the DATEDIF function, based on what unit you use. Here are the units that you can use:

“Y” – returns the number of completed years in the specified time period.

“M” – returns the number of completed months in the specified time period.

“D” – returns the number of completed days in the specified period.

“MD” – returns the number of days in the period, but doesn’t count the ones in the Years and Months that have been completed.

“YM” – returns the number of months in the period, but doesn’t count the ones in the years that have been completed.

“YD” – returns the number of days in the period, but doesn’t count the ones in the years that have been completed.

You can also use the YEARFRAC function to calculate the age in Excel (in years) in the specified date range.

Here is the formula:

=INT(YEARFRAC(B1,TODAY()))

The YEARFRAC function returns the number of years between the two specified dates and then the INT function returns only the integer part of the value.

NOTE: It’s a good practice to use the DATE function to get the date value. It avoids any erroneous results that may occur when entering the date as text or any other format (which is not an acceptable date format).

Also read: How To Calculate Time In ExcelSuppose you have the date of birth in cell A1, here are the formulas:

To get the year value:

=DATEDIF(B1,TODAY(),"Y")

To get the month value:

=DATEDIF(B1,TODAY(),"YM")

To get the day value:

=DATEDIF(B1,TODAY(),"MD")

Now that you know how to calculate the years, months and days, you can combine these three to get a text that says 26 Years, 2 Months, and 13 Days. Here is the formula that will get this done:

=DATEDIF(B1,TODAY(),"Y")&" Years "&DATEDIF(B1,TODAY(),"YM")&" Months "&DATEDIF(B1,TODAY(),"MD")&" Days"

Note that the TODAY function is volatile and its value would change every day whenever you open the workbook or there is a change in it. If you want to keep the result as is, convert the formula result to a static value.

Excel Functions Used:

Here is a list of functions used in this tutorial:

DATEDIF() – This function calculates the number of days, months, and years between two specified dates.

TODAY() – It gives the current date value.

YEARFRAC() – It takes the start date and the end date and gives you the number of years that have passed between the two dates. For example, if someone’s date of birth is 01-01-1990, and the current date is 15-06-2023, the formula would return 26.455. Here the integer part represents the number of years completed, and the decimal part represents additional days that have passed after 26 years.

DATE() – It returns the date value when you specify the Year, Month, and Day value arguments.

INT() – This returns the integer part of a value.

You May Also Like the Following Excel Tutorials:

## Calculator (Example With Excel Template)

Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula (Table of Contents)

Start Your Free Investment Banking Course

Download Corporate Valuation, Investment Banking, Accounting, CFA Calculator & others

What is the Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula?The term “cost-benefit analysis” refers to the analytical technique that compares the benefits of a project with its associated costs. In other words, all the expected benefits out a project are placed on one side of the balance and the costs that have to be incurred are placed on the other side. The cost-benefit analysis can be executed either using “benefit-cost ratio” or “net present value”.

The formula for a benefit-cost ratio can be derived by dividing the aggregate of the present value of all the expected benefits by an aggregate of the present value of all the associated costs, which is represented as,

Benefit-Cost Ratio = ∑PV of all the Expected Benefits / ∑PV of all the Associated Costs

The formula for net present value can be derived by deducting the sum of the present value of all the associated costs from the sum of the present value of all the expected benefits, which is represented as,

Net Present Value = ∑PV of all the Expected Benefits – ∑PV of all the Associated Costs

Example of Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula (With Excel Template)Let’s take an example to understand the calculation of Cost-Benefit Analysis in a better manner.

You can download this Cost-Benefit Analysis Excel Template here – Cost-Benefit Analysis Excel Template

Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula – Example #1Let us take the example of a financial technology start-up which is contemplating on hiring two new programmers. The promoter expects the programmers to increase the revenue by 25% while incurring an additional cost of $45,000 in the next one year. The help promoter decides whether to go ahead with the recruitment based on cost-benefit analysis if the revenue of the company in the current year is $220,000 and the relevant discount rate is 5%.

Solution:

PV of Benefit is Calculated as:

PV of Benefit= $55,000 / (1 + 5%)

PV of Benefit = $52,380.95

PV of Cost is Calculated as:

PV of Cost = $35,000 / (1 + 5%)

PV of Cost = $33,333.33

Benefit-Cost Ratio is calculated using the formula given below

Benefit-Cost Ratio = ∑PV of all the Expected Benefits / ∑PV of all the Associated Costs

Benefit-Cost Ratio = $52,380.95 / $33,333.33

Benefit-Cost Ratio = 1.57x

Net Present Value is calculated using the formula given below

Net Present Value = ∑PV of all the Expected Benefits – ∑PV of all the Associated Costs

Net Present Value = $52,380.95 – $33,333.33

Net Present Value = $19,047.62

Therefore, both the method of cost-benefit analysis suggests that the promoter should go ahead with the recruitment.

Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula – Example #2Let us take the example of two projects to illustrate the use of cost-benefit analysis. The sum of the present value of expected benefits from Project 1 is $50 million with the sum of the present value of associated costs of $30 million. On the other hand, the sum of the present value of expected benefits from Project 2 is $10 million with the sum of the present value of associated costs of $5 million. Discuss which project is better based on cost-benefit analysis.

Solution:

Benefit-Cost Ratio is calculated using the formula given below

Benefit-Cost Ratio = ∑PV of all the Expected Benefits / ∑PV of all the Associated Costs

For Project 1

Benefit-Cost Ratio = $50,000,000 / $30,000,000

Benefit-Cost Ratio = 1.67x

For Project 2

Benefit-Cost Ratio = $10,000,000 / $5,000,000

Benefit-Cost Ratio = 2.00x

Net Present Value is calculated using the formula given below

Net Present Value = ∑PV of all the Expected Benefits – ∑PV of all the Associated Costs

For Project 1

Net Present Value = $50,000,000 – $30,000,000

Net Present Value = $20,000,000

For Project 2

Net Present Value = $10,000,000 – $5,000,000

Net Present Value = $5,000,000

ExplanationThe formula for cost-benefit analysis can be calculated by using the following steps:

Step 1: Firstly, Calculate all the cash inflow from the subject project, which is either revenue generation or savings due to operational efficiency.

Step 2: Next, Calculate all the cash outflow into the project, which are the costs incurred in order to maintain and keep the project up and running.

Step 3: Next, Calculate the discounting factor based on the current pricing of assets with a similar risk profile.

Step 4: Next, based on the discounting factor, calculate the present value of all the cash inflow and outflow. Then, add up the present value of all the cash inflow as ∑PV of all the expected benefits and outflow as ∑PV of all the associated costs.

Step 5: Now, the formula for a benefit-cost ratio can be derived by dividing aggregate of the present value of all the expected benefits (step 4) by aggregate of the present value of all the associated costs (step 4) as shown below.

Benefit-Cost Ratio = ∑PV of all the Expected Benefits / ∑PV of all the Associated Costs

Step 6: Now, the formula for net present value can be derived by deducting the sum of the present value of all the associated costs (step 4) from the sum of the present value of all the expected benefits (step 4) as shown below.

Net Present Value = ∑PV of all the Expected Benefits – ∑PV of all the Associated Costs

Relevance and Use of Cost-Benefit Analysis FormulaThe importance of cost-benefit analysis lies in the fact that it is used for assessing the feasibility of an opportunity, comparing projects, appraising opportunity cost and building real-life scenario-based sensitivity testing. In this way, this technique helps in ascertaining the accuracy of an investment decision and provides a platform for its comparison with similar proposals.

Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula CalculatorYou can use the following Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula Calculator

∑PV of all the Expected Benefits ∑PV of all the Associated Costs Benefit-Cost Ratio Benefit-Cost Ratio = ∑PV of all the Expected Benefits =

∑PV of all the Associated Costs

0

= 0

0

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula. Here we discuss how to calculate the Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula along with practical examples. We also provide a Cost-Benefit Analysis calculator with a downloadable excel template. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

## Calculator (Examples With Excel Template)

Equity Formula (Table of Contents)

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What is Equity Formula?Equity = Total Assets – Total Liabilities

There is another method to derive the equity of a company. In this method, all the different classes of equity capital, which includes common/capital stock, share premium, preferred stock, retained earnings and accumulated other comprehensive income, are added while the treasury stocks are deducted. Mathematically, it is represented as,

Equity = Capital Stock + Share Premium + Preferred Stock + Retained Earnings + Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income – Treasury Stock

Examples of Equity Formula (With Excel Template)Let’s take an example to understand the calculation of Equity in a better manner.

You can download this Equity Formula Excel Template here – Equity Formula Excel Template

Equity Formula – Example #1Let us take the example of a company ABC Ltd that has recently published its annual report for the financial year ending on December 31, 2023. As per the balance sheet, the total assets of the company stood at $500,000, while its total liabilities stood at $300,000 as on December 31, 2023. Determine ABC Ltd’s equity as on the balance sheet date.

Solution:

Equity is calculated using the Formula given below.

Equity = Total Assets – Total Liabilities

Equity = $500,000 – $300,000

Equity = $200,000

Therefore, ABC Ltd’s equity stood at $200,000 as on December 31, 2023.

Equity Formula – Example #2Let us take the Real-Life example of Airbus SE’s published annual report as on December 31, 2023. As per the balance, the information is available. Calculate Airbus SE’s equity based on the given information.

Equity is calculated using the Formula given below.

Equity = Capital Stock + Share Premium + Retained Earnings + Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income – Treasury Stock

Equity = €777 + €2,941 + €5,923 + €134 – €51

Equity = €9,724 million

Therefore, Airbus SE’s equity stood at €9,724 million as of December 31, 2023.

ExplanationThe formula for equity can be derived by using the following steps:

Step 1: Firstly, determine the total assets of the company, which is the last line item on the asset side of the balance sheet and includes plant, machinery, cash, bank deposits, investments, etc.

Step 2: Next, determine the total liabilities of the company, which is also available in the balance sheet and includes all kinds of debt obligations, payables, etc.

Step 3: Finally, the formula for equity can be derived by subtracting the total liabilities (step 2) from the total assets (step 1) as shown below.

Under the other method, the formula for equity can be derived by using the following steps:

Step 1: Firstly, identify all the different categories of equity capital from the balance sheet.

Step 2: Finally, the formula for equity can be derived by adding up all the categories of equity capital except ones that have been repurchased and retired (also known as treasury stock) as shown below.

Equity = Capital stock + Share premium + Preferred stock + Retained earnings + Accumulated other comprehensive income – Treasury stock

Relevance and Uses of Equity FormulaFrom the perspective of an investor or an investment analyst, it is important to understand the concept of equity because it predominantly used to evaluate the real value of a company (net worth). In fact, the value of one’s equity investment in the company is captured by the equity value and as such the shareholders are typically concerned with the net worth of the company.

The value of equity can be both positive or negative. A positive equity value indicates that the company has adequate total assets to pay off its total liabilities. On the other hand, a negative value of equity indicates that the company may be on the way to become insolvent as the total liabilities exceed its total assets. Consequently, the investor community, in general, considers a company to be risky and perilous if it has a negative equity value. However, the value of equity in isolation may not give very meaningful insight into a company’s financial health. But an investor can use the equity value to analyze the company to draw significant conclusions if it is used in combination with other financial metrics.

Equity Formula CalculatorYou can use the following Equity Formula Calculator.

Total Assets Total Liabilities Equity Equity = Total Assets

–

Total Liabilities =

0

–

0

= 0

Recommended ArticlesThis is a guide to Equity Formula. Here we discuss how to calculate Equity along with practical examples. We also provide an Equity calculator with a downloadable excel template. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

## How To Print On An Envelope In Microsoft Excel

Microsoft Office lets you print envelopes individually or as a mass mail merge. This is incredibly valuable for businesses that need to add branding and other custom elements to an extensive mailing list.

Here’s how you can print on an envelope in Microsoft Excel. Remember that you need both Microsoft Word and Excel to make this work. This method should work regardless of whether you’re using the Microsoft suite on a Windows PC or a Mac.

Table of Contents

Step 1: Create Your Mailing ListThe first step is to create the list of recipients to whom you will send mail. You can skip this step if you only need to print one or two envelopes. However, this step is essential for those working with large mailing lists.

To create your mailing list:

Open

Microsoft Excel

.

Verifying your addresses at this step is important to avoid wasting time and money printing old or incorrect data.

Step 2: Design Your EnvelopeNext, you need to prepare your envelope template in Microsoft Word. This is the document you will set up to populate with your recipient’s addresses when printing automatically.

To do so:

Open a blank document in Microsoft Word.

Select the

Mailings

tab.

Now specify what paper size your envelopes are to be. To do so, select the

Preview icon

.

In the

Envelope Options

tab, select the drop-down menu under

Envelope size

.

Next, select

Font…

next to the

Delivery address

box or

Return address

to set the font you want for both options.

Select

OK

.

Step 3: Set the Printer FeedThe next step is to tell Microsoft Word how your printer feed works. This ensures that your envelopes will be printed correctly, with all elements in the proper organization.

To set the printer feed:

Select

Options

.

In the

Feed method

window, select the orientation for how your envelope will feed into the printer. We recommend selecting a method where the envelope borders the edge of the feed tray, as it will make it easier to place the envelope in your printer. Note that the delivery and return addresses will be misaligned if your envelope isn’t correctly positioned.

Select

Face up

or

Face down

to define which way up you will load the envelope.

Step 4: Start the Mail Merge and Link Your Mailing ListIt’s time to begin the mail merge. This will allow Microsoft Word to automatically add the names and addresses from your address list data source.

To do so:

If any addresses need to be edited, you can select

Edit Recipient List

to change them.

Choose an option, then select

OK

.

Step 5: Print the EnvelopesIf everything looks correct, it’s time to complete the mail merge and print addresses onto your envelopes. To do so:

Select

Finish & Merge,

then

Print Documents…

Finally, make sure “All” is checked and select

OK

.

Make sure the printer settings are correct, and your envelopes are correctly aligned then select

OK

again. Your printer should now begin printing your envelopes.

Don’t Forget StampsUnfortunately, you can’t print envelopes using Excel alone. However, with the combination of MS Word and Excel, the envelope printing process is incredibly easy. With this tutorial, you should have your next batch of mail ready to go in no time. Don’t forget to pay for postage!

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