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Books, videos, and other resources teachers can use with students in grades 3 to 12 to examine one of the largest mass migrations in history.
One out of every five people on the planet lives in South Asia, which comprises Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, and about 5.4 million people of South Asian descent live in the United States. Very few educators, however, know or teach about Partition, which after 300 years of British economic intervention and, later, political domination formed the new nations of India and Pakistan in August 1947. Pakistan was divided into East and West Pakistan; East Pakistan later fought for its independence and became the nation of Bangladesh in 1971. From 1946 to 1948, an estimated 14 million people migrated, and 1 million to 2 million were killed.
The following texts and resources present, in age-appropriate ways, nuanced perspectives on this significant world historical event with legacies that linger today in the divisions and intergenerational trauma it cemented both on the South Asian subcontinent and within the diaspora.
Upper Elementary (Grades 3–5)
The following three picture books are best geared to the upper elementary level, given that they hint at the conflict and violence that engulfed this period.
Chachaji’s Cup, by Uma Krishnaswami, illustrated by Soumya Sitaraman (educator guide here), is the story of an Indian-American boy and his grand-uncle, whose special teacup is the only item that the elder still has from his childhood home. There’s also a brief history of Partition to share with students as well.
Mukand and Riaz, by Nina Sabnani (animated video of the book here), is set in 1947 and tells the story of two boys (Mukand and Riaz) who enjoy playing together. When the news of Partition comes, they must say farewell to each other, and Riaz helps Mukand and his family depart for India safely.
The Moon from Dehradun, by Shirin Shamsi, illustrated by Tarun Lak, is a forthcoming (2023) picture book about a young girl who has to leave her favorite doll behind when her family migrates to Pakistan during Partition.
Middle School (Grades 6–8)
The following two books, which teachers can use at the middle or high school level, offer deeply engaging narratives of individuals and communities during the Partition period.
The Night Diary, by Veera Hiranandani (educator guide here), won the Newbery Honor in 2023; it tells the story of a 12-year-old girl, Nisha, who has a Hindu father and a deceased Muslim mother. Nisha recounts her family’s refugee journey during Partition through a series of letters to her mother.
A Beautiful Lie, by Irfan Master (educator guide here), is a young adult novel set in 1947 during the weeks before Partition. Thirteen-year-old Bilal, a Muslim boy in India, devises an elaborate plot with his friends to keep the news of Partition and its related violence from his dying father, who would find it heartbreaking.
High School (Grades 9–12)
There are several ways to engage high school students in discussing Partition. The following activities align with the emphasis in Common Core on the use of primary sources (Reading Standards 5 and 7 for Literacy in History/Social Studies) as well as most state standards for world history that include 20th-century decolonization movements and Unit 8 in the AP World History (Modern) curriculum, which covers how “colonies in Asia and Africa achieved independence.”
Each of the activities below can build on one another in the suggested sequence, or students can utilize them individually.
1. Watch and discuss a video: This six-minute video from TED-Ed, “Why Was India Split Into Two Countries?” presents an accessible discussion of the basic foundations of Partition. In the three-minute video “Partition of India: One Woman’s Incredible Story,” a woman narrates her story of fleeing with her children during the violence and chaos of Partition.
2. Engage with an archive: The 1947 Partition Archive is a treasure trove of information, with nearly 10,000 oral histories of individuals who survived Partition. An interactive map on its webpage helps students locate stories, explore migration routes, and read summaries of survivors who migrated in different directions. This New York Times article (and video) about the archive, as well as the archive’s YouTube channel, can also be useful for students.
3. Take a virtual museum visit: Have students take a virtual tour of the Partition Museum in Amritsar, India, or the Kolkata Partition Museum and explore online images of collection items, videos, and articles, such as this one from the BBC. Separately, students can explore this series of images of Partition from American photographer Margaret Bourke-White.
4. Read and write poetry: Poetry offers a way to understand the deeply felt traumas of Partition and their legacies. Students can read a few poems such as “Partition” and “They Asked for a Map” in Fatimah Asghar’s book If They Come for Us and the verses on pages 64–65 about Partition in Gayatri Sethi’s book Unbelonging. Students can then write poems individually or in small groups from the perspective of a Partition refugee, or about any related theme in their own family histories pertaining to exclusion, migration, conflict, or displacement.
The additional selected curricula, books, and articles below offer further analyses of Partition and its legacies:
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What Dreyfus Can Teach Us About Darfur Event examined aftermath of 1894 French injustice
At a March 2 forum, Robert Zelnick, a COM professor of journalism, along with French and legal experts, explored why the Dreyfus Affair of the 1890s still resonates today. Photo by Fred Sway
In 1894, French artillery captain Alfred Dreyfus was arrested for treason based on a false accusation. Following two months in prison, which included solitary confinement and psychological torture, the Jewish officer was found guilty in a closed-session court martial and sentenced to life at an island prison off the coast of French Guyana. He was retried five years later and again pronounced guilty.
Known as the Dreyfus Affair, the case caused a media stir, pitting the army and the Catholic Church against liberals and the intelligentsia and sparking anti-Jewish riots throughout France. The Dreyfus proceedings shone a light on anti-Semitism at the highest levels of French government and the military, as well as on the prejudice entrenched in French culture at large. The aftermath eventually led to the separation of church and state in France and planted the seeds for a sovereign Jewish state. Dreyfus was pardoned after his second trial, but was not fully exonerated until 1906.
On March 2, the New Center for Arts and Culture and Boston University’s Florence & Chafetz Hillel House presented a symposium called Catalyst to History: Why Dreyfus Matters. Panelists included Alan Dershowitz, a professor of law at Harvard University, Jeffrey Mehlman, a University Professor and College of Arts and Sciences professor of French literature, and Robert Zelnick, a College of Communication professor of journalism and national security studies. Dan Abrams, chief legal affairs correspondent for NBC News, moderated.
BU Today spoke with Zelnick to find out why this case lives on.
Secondly, anti-Semitism is still widespread in the world, probably less so in Europe than it was during the period of the Dreyfus Affair. But all you have to do is check in with Hezbollah or Hamas and see what their charters have to say about Jews. I would add one other thing. The kinds of dehumanization that lead to massacres and bloodbaths, to the most extreme form of discrimination against peoples, aren’t limited to the Jewish people today. Obviously we saw it in Rwanda. We see it in Darfur. We see it to a far lesser extent in Kenya, as they break into tribes after a disputed election. So the more the world studies Dreyfus and events like Dreyfus, the earlier someone will recognize a situation that can lead to tragedy.
On the other side, there were a small handful of liberal and much more tolerant papers, the most prominent of which was run by Georges Clemenceau. That was the paper that eventually published Zola’s “J’accuse,” which was widely read and appreciated by the pro-Dreyfus crowd. Whether it was as influential in its time as it has become in the years since is a matter for legitimate scholarly debate, but it was a tremendously courageous act. It may have had its greatest impact, though, in the international arena. It could well have increased the pressure that France felt prior to the 1900 World’s Fair.
Catalyst to History: Why Dreyfus Matters was held in conjunction with the exhibition The Power of Prejudice: The Dreyfus Affair, also presented by Florence and Chafetz Hillel House and NCAC. Featuring documents, cartoons, film, video, and other artifacts, The Power of Prejudice is at BU’s 808 Gallery through April 6. The gallery’s hours are 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. Tuesdays through Fridays; 1 to 5 p.m. Saturdays and Sundays; admission is free and open to the public.
Caleb Daniloff can be reached at [email protected].
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It’s easy to say that students lie to teachers all the time. Frankly, everyone, including teachers, has a lie in them, and these untruths keep the schooling process rolling along. When adults say, for instance, that they develop rules with the students, chances are that students often develop rules that teachers already thought of anyway. Or, when adults say that a student can’t use the restroom during certain parts of the day “Just because,” rather than “Because the hallways is crowded, and I don’t want you distracted from the lesson in the classroom,” that’s just one more micro-fib in a collage of fibs that we tell children.
Thus, it also works as a signal to the teacher that, perhaps, the student can’t learn the material. The teacher, human and serving 30 students at a time, will focus away and leave that student to his or her own devices rather than insisting, “Try your best.” The teacher might stay away from the student, hovering over and hoping that her or she will come back into the fold again. The student often won’t.
This statement is perhaps the worst possible offender, and we have layers to this that we ought to unravel. If students say it often enough, they can prevent themselves from giving an honest effort toward learning the material. The student gets to fall back while the teacher explains and re-explains the material, which might have gone from a more implicit, constructivist explanation to a straight-up “This is what you do!”
But my push today is to talk about the lies that students tell, specifically the ones that keep them from growing into the best students possible.
There are levels to “I can’t do this” that don’t get discussed, either. The current discussion around lack of effort focuses on “grit,” the cure for lack of effort — and with good reason. Paul Tough’s book How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and The Hidden Power of Character gives you a sense that he believes, with the right level of effort and conditions that help translate effort into success, any child can overcome his or her disposition.
Yet for some, the argument has taken a twist to mean that, rather than trying to address structural and pedagogical issues in our schools, we ought to focus only on the attitudes espoused by our students. If they try hard enough, that argument goes, and if they work longer and harder than their peers, they too will surmount the incredible odds against them and acquire a proper education.
To an extent, I believe this, as I am a product of a poverty-stricken neighborhood. I was fortunate to go to good public and private schools (including Head Start) throughout my formative years. With enough effort, I made it out of the hood — only to teach in a neighborhood similar to the one where I used to live. My teaching reflects this, too. I have high expectations for my students, and I keep in mind that I should ask questions before getting emotionally bent out of shape around a student’s lack of compliance with the assignment.Strategies for Comprehension
Thus, here are some solutions for the student who says, “I can’t do this!”1. Ask why before all else.
Don’t just ask, “Why?” and let the answer linger. Often, the student will just say, “Because I don’t.” Your next question could be, “What part do you get?” Once you reach the point where they’re unsure, ask follow-up questions from that point onward. Push for them to answer questions rather than listen to your personal line of reasoning out the material. If they can vocalize the process and demonstrate understanding before you take them through it step by step, then let them do it. And keep asking why in the meantime.2. Give breaks within reason.
Some of my students just need a genuine break. This isn’t about being soft, though I try not to run my classroom like a jail. If adults constantly bombard them with speeches they call lessons, then these students have had an entirely passive experience of education that doesn’t allow them to think for themselves. If you see a student who looks tired or has a hard time concentrating, firmly ask him or her to take a break just to breathe. Letting students take a small break might energize them again.3. Make modifications to how you teach and how they learn.
The push for higher standards, rigor and accountability often means that our students’ humanness gets pushed to the wayside in some classrooms. We try to force students to see the material the way we estimate that a test-maker would, rather than developing lessons that work for as many students as possible. For instance, instead of using definitions from the textbooks, let students create explanations for the words. These explanations should come as close as possible to the definitions that you would create.4. Teach students the art of the good question.
Unlike many of my colleagues, I do believe in smart questions (and not-so-smart questions). We ought to teach students how to ask questions that clarify, expound or enhance meaning. Students ask a lot of questions, and we ought to encourage them to get in the habit of questioning. Yet, we can differentiate between asking a question that adds value and a question that doesn’t.
All together, this means we can only control our own actions as educators in the classroom. We can teach students to persevere. We can teach students to work harder, and to see the fruits of their efforts in the learning they do. We can ask them to translate these attitudes to their lives overall.
We as educators must also keep in mind the vast personal experiences they bring into class, especially if they don’t get what we’re trying to teach them. Sometimes, there are a lot of things they’re not getting for reasons we can’t imagine, and it’s our job to provide sustenance in the meantime.
October is National Bullying Prevention Month, and it is important to discuss how educators can create classrooms of tolerance and empathy, fully inclusive of the students with disabilities. In the spirit of the good, the bad, and the ugly, let’s discuss the laws around bullying, the potential civil rights violations, and the legal risks involved with bullying students with documented disabilities. Then we’ll move onto preventative measures and how we can create an inclusive and self-governing classroom in which students set the tone for kindness and inclusion.
The Bad and the Ugly
Unlike some forms of bullying, bullying students with a documented disability can result in enormous legal consequences and financial liability for the school district involved. It is important to remember that bullying and harassing a student in a “protected class”, such as race, national original, religion, sex, and disability, is not only detrimental but a violation of the student’s civil rights. There are several laws in place to protect students with disabilities and as the protector of these students, please do your homework and comply.
I have worked and consulted on several egregious cases in local school districts. In most of the cases, a well-intentioned teacher became overwhelmed and let it affect his/her judgment. If you feel this overwhelm coming on, call an administrator or make a deal with a colleague, don’t let stress turn into unintentional bullying.
The Good (and the How to Incorporate It)
My hope is that the following tips will allow you to create a climate of tolerance and inclusion and to minimize stress so that the onus of preventing bullying doesn’t fall on you and you alone.
1. Stop the Harrumph
Students are wonderfully perceptive. Students with disabilities grow up with the idea that they are always a “problem” or a total inconvenience. In fact, I often work with university students unwilling to ask for accommodation because of one bad experience or one teacher expressing their unwillingness or reluctance to accommodate. Allow the IEP to serve as a guide on how to specifically accommodate one student and generally accommodate all students.
2. Teach Self-Advocacy
Why would you want this challenge? Because if students are comfortable confronting you, they will be comfortable confronting a potential bully.
3. Create a Culture of Respect and Tolerance
Many articles on Edutopia speak of how teachers can create this culture in the classroom, however a favorite practice to prevent bullying is to allow students to set the normatives and the Constitution of the classroom and set up mechanisms for enforcement.
4. Share Your Experiences
Talk about you own experiences with difference, its direct relationship with bullying, and who made the difference in your life. As a teacher and occasional speaker, I talk of my own difference, that I am a woman with a disability, the invisible disability of lupus. I speak about how I have had experienced stigmatization in my academic journey and the importance of having a voice and allies.
Think about the times you have experienced bullying because of something you cannot change and be the first one to be vulnerable in the classroom. In order to create a classroom where difference is discussed, explored and valued, use your own vulnerability to allow others to share.
5. Empower Bystanders
Peers stop at least 50 percent of bullying. Let that sink in! Wow. We rarely discuss the importance of empowering non-disabled heteronormative peers, yet without this embedded into pedagogy, students stop a lot of bullying. What if we could make this 80 percent?
Talk about the importance of being a Good Samaritan, why it is important to use your voice for the voiceless, and great subject matter centric examples of people who would be more comfortable remaining silent but instead courageously spoke out against oppression.
As someone who has worked in this intersection for a long time, it will be a welcome shift when bullies are shut down by an empowered majority as opposed to a given tacit approval by scared and uniformed peers.
When a child goes off to college, life at home can be a challenge–or an opportunity
Experts offer tips on when to step in and when to stay back
Your expectations are high, of course, but be ready for adjustments
Put down the iPhone, it’s time for your student to make their own doctor’s appointment
The phone calls typically start coming in mid-October—as midterms approach.
That’s when many students, facing mounting academic pressure and overwhelmed by pangs of homesickness, feel a meltdown coming and call home to unload on their parents. It’s a conversation that makes parents anxious, too, and spurs them to want to jump in with a life preserver.
Resist that urge, says Kristine Gilchrist-Minasidis, director of the University Service Center, the place students and parents can call with questions or problems. Gilchrist-Minasidis has been working with parents and students making the transition to college for more than a decade, and she’s familiar with this annual October anxiety uptick.
“Think critically before jumping in,” she warns parents. “Ask yourself the question: does my student need something from me or just a comforting and reliable person to talk to?”
That’s not to say, however, that all calls home (or lack thereof) should be treated the same. When should a parent intervene? And when sit on the sidelines? It depends on the situation, says Carrie Landa, director of Behavioral Medicine and associate director of clinical services at BU’s Student Health Services. Gilchrist-Minasidis agrees. Landa has worked with students and parents for years as well and both have some pointers for parents of freshmen. Because you’re making a transition too.Discern
Students may call their parents to vent feelings they’re not comfortable sharing with peers. And those conversations will usually help students feel better afterwards. That means that as a parent, once the call ends, your work is done (even if it leaves you feeling miserable).
Pay attention, however, to situations that signal deeper student distress, Landa says. For example, the daughter who had been thriving academically and is now struggling to get passing grades or the son who was a social butterfly in high school and now has no relationship with his roommate and eats alone.
“If a parent sees their student struggling in more subtle ways, have a conversation,” Landa says. “Remind them about resources on campus. Encourage them to reach out if they need to. Think about what helped them in high school and see if it’s possible to replicate it at BU. And most important, remind them to find balance in their academic and social life.”
Parents may also want to reach out to someone at the University with any concerns or learn about student services, among them the University Service Center, 617-617-358-1818; the Dean of Students, 617-353-4126; Residence Life, 617-353-4380; Disability Services, 617-353-3658; the Educational Resource Center, 617-353-7077; or Student Health Services Behavioral Medicine, 617-353-3569.
When concerns are brought to the University, officials will engage the appropriate people to meet with the student in real time, Landa says, to ensure that they’re safe.
Gilchrist-Minasidis says staff in her office are also available to talk about an issue or course of action. “Sometimes talking over a situation with a knowledgeable University staff member will help you feel better,” Gilchrist-Minasidis says.Have realistic expectations
Your son or daughter who is 18 and older is an adult. That’s more than a symbolic number. The University Service Center, for example, can tell parents what a student’s options are, but cannot disclose information about the student, including their grades or healthcare information. Colleges and universities must have legal permission from students in order to release any information about their grades, as outlined by the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.
And be forewarned: the center is not a concierge service. University staff will not go to your child’s dorm room to ensure that they get up on time for class. (Yes, that’s been requested.)Communicate
Parents and students should also talk about who will be responsible for handling financial details, like semester payments, aid renewal materials, and scholarship applications.
A parent paying all or part of the college tuition bill needs to have a conversation with their student about their expectations when it comes to sharing information like grades, Gilchrist-Minasidis says. Students can authorize the release of grades and other information on the University’s ShareLink site.
“Define a successful semester,” Gilchrist-Minasidis says. “Anticipating concerns and mapping out potential strategies will alleviate stress on the part of both students and parents.”
Talk with your daughter or son about your expectations regarding the frequency of your communication, whether by phone, email, or text. Do you need to keep in touch once a month, once a week, or every two days?
If your student ignores an agreed-upon plan, have another conversation about it. Try to keep an open dialogue, and remember—be flexible if they are struggling with maintaining a communication routine. This is all new to them.Don’t panic
If you don’t hear from your son or daughter, text them directly and ask for a one-word answer to the question, “R U safe?” If you still don’t hear, consider the possibilities. Maybe your student has lost their phone charger and is waiting for a new one to arrive from Amazon.
The University can conduct a wellness check if there is significant concern about a student’s safety, Landa says. But that’s typically a last resort, after emails and texts have gone unanswered.
Wellness checks are sometimes conducted by campus police, who will go to a student’s dorm or residence. But bear this in mind: having a campus police officer show up at a dorm room can be scary, awkward, or embarrassing for a student if they are, in fact, completely fine and maybe just not in the mood to connect with mom or dad.
Gilchrist-Minasidis says parents can benefit from getting to know the cell phone numbers of their son’s or daughter’s roommates or even trading cell phone numbers with them. But again, dialing that number should be a last resort.Recognize a crisis
Parents should always intervene if a student talks about suicide, harming themselves, or hurting someone else. There are several services on campus available to help parents navigate such circumstances or to call in emergencies.
“The BUPD and Behavioral Medicine are always available to field these types of concerns and discuss possible next steps,” Landa says.
You can reach the BUPD 24 hours a day at 617-353-2121. Behavioral Medicine has a 24/7 on-call service for mental health emergencies at 617-353-3569.
Concerned parents can help their son or daughter by encouraging them to make an appointment with one of the behavioral health counselors on campus. However, it is the student who must take that initiative. Parents cannot make the appointment for their child. Gilchrist-Minasidis says her office is one of many at BU that will work with students to give them the information they need to get help.Keep confident
Reassure your son or daughter that any new endeavor can be challenging. They are not alone. And remember that parenting is hard, but that students are savvy. “You taught them well. Let them learn and grow,” Gilchrist-Minasidis says. “We think they’re going to learn and grow better if they succeed on their own.”
In accordance with the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992, the Government of India created the Securities and Exchange Board of India on April 12, 1992, with the goals of developing and regulating the securities market as well as protecting the rights of investors in securities. The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), which has its main headquarters in Mumbai, Maharashtra, also has four regional offices in Ahmedabad, Chennai, Delhi, and Kolkata. When SEBI was first established in 1988 as a non-statutory agency to oversee the securities market, it later received statutory status on January 30, 1992. FormationWhat does the Act Define?
In order to control the securities market, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) was originally constituted as a non-statutory entity in 1988. In compliance with the SEBI Act 1992, it received legislative authority on January 30, 1992. On April 12, 1992, SEBI attained autonomy and was immediately established as the Government of India’s capital markets regulator. The Security and Exchange Board of India has four regional offices, including one each in New Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, and Ahmedabad, and its main office is in Mumbai, Maharashtra.Major Features of the Act
Major features of the SEBI Act include −
Investor protection − SEBI’s main goal is to safeguard the rights and interests of stock market participants by directing them toward a positive environment and guarding the money at stake. Avoiding fraud and other trading-related malpractices was SEBI’s primary goal when it was established, along with regulating the activities of the stock market.
Promoting just and proper functioning − SEBI was founded to keep the stock exchange and the capital market operating properly. They have been given instructions to monitor the operations of financial intermediaries and effectively control the securities market.
Setting Balance − SEBI must maintain a balance between statutory regulation and the securities industry’s self-regulation.
Creating a code of conduct − In order to prevent frauds and other wrongdoings brought on by intermediaries like brokers, underwriters, and other persons, SEBI is needed to create and control a code of conduct. The operations of SEBI cover a broad range of topics. It has the authority to set rules, regulations, directions, and so on for the primary and secondary securities markets. The guidelines and standards of SEBI also apply to intermediaries and certain financial institutions that operate in the securities markets.
The following branches are subject to SEBI regulation −
Participants, depositors, and custodians
Trust deeds and debenture trustees
Insider trading, merchant bankers who work for FIIs, and mutual funds
Share transfer agents, portfolio managers, financial counselors, and registrars of capital issues
Venture capital funds, stockbrokers, sub-brokers, underwriters, bankers to the offerings, and significant share purchases and takeovers.Critical Analysis of the Act
It publishes policies on information disclosure and operational openness for the protection of investors, issue pricing, bonus and preferential issues, and other financial instruments. The Preamble of SEBI states that the Security and Exchange Board of India’s main responsibilities include supporting the growth and regulation of the securities market as well as safeguarding the interests of investors in securities. The following three categories, which together make up the securities market, are also within the purview of SEBI −
Those who issue securities
Intermediaries in the investors market
Mutual fund regulations
The following are prohibited holdings by a sponsor of a mutual fund, an affiliate, or a group firm, which includes the asset management company of a fund: (a) 10% or more of the ownership and voting rights in the asset management company or any other mutual fund. A representative from an asset management business is not permitted on the board of any other mutual fund.
A shareholder is not permitted to directly or indirectly own 10% or more of a mutual fund’s asset management business.
A sectoral or thematic index has a 35% weight limit on any single stock and a 25% weight limit on individual stocks.
A minimum trading frequency of 80% is required for each index member.
Prior to debut, SEBI must receive a compliance status report from new funds.
All liquid schemes must hold a minimum of 20% in liquid assets, such as cash, Treasury bills, repo on G-Secs, and government securities (G-Secs).Conclusion
Each index member is obliged to trade at least 80% of the time. AMCs are expected to evaluate and guarantee compliance with the criteria at the end of each calendar quarter. The elements of the indexes should be published on their website for public access. SEBI must obtain a compliance status report from new funds prior to their launch. Cash, Treasury bills, repo on G-Secs, and government securities must make up at least 20% of the assets held by all liquid schemes (G-Secs).
A minimum of 80% of the time must be spent trading for each index member. At the conclusion of each calendar quarter, AMCs are required to assess and ensure compliance with the requirements. The components of the indexes should be made available to the public on their website. Prior to the launch of new funds, SEBI must receive a compliance status report from such funds. All liquid schemes should hold at least 20% of their assets in cash, treasury bills, repo on G-Secs, and government securities (G-Secs).Frequently Asked Questions
Q1. What is an example of a Securities and Exchange Board of India regulation (SEBI)?
Ans. By enforcing sanctions, SEBI forbids insider trading and takeover offers.
Q2. Name one safeguard provided by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
Q3. What is the main function of SEBI development?
Ans. The SEBI carries out research and disseminates data that is beneficial to all market players.
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