Trending February 2024 # How To Test A Motherboard # Suggested March 2024 # Top 7 Popular

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In my 30 years of experience as a computer technician, a motherboard is one of the most challenging components to diagnose due to the number of components connected to it.

If a motherboard fails, you could have blue screens, freezing, beeps, inability to detect USB drives and other hardware, and more.  This guide will teach you how to test a motherboard with a multi-meter before installing other PC parts.

You will need the following tools to complete your motherboard diagnostics testing.

A Phillips screwdriver or power switch jumper

A multimeter to check voltages

A working PSU (Power Supply Unit)

A new CMOS battery if necessary

CPU thermal paste

Set the motherboard on a flat, non-conductive surface such as a wooden table.

Install the processor and apply thermal paste.

Attach the CPU cooler and connect it to the motherboard.

Place at least one RAM module into the slot labeled (DIMM 1). 

Attach the GPU to the motherboard and connect the necessary power connector if necessary. Read your GPU manual to verify.

Plug the ATX 24-pin connector from the PSU (Power Supply) into the motherboard.

Connect the monitor to the HDMI connection on the side of the board for onboard graphics or into the GPU if it’s your primary display.

Plug the PSU power cable into a surge protector or wall outlet.

To turn on the computer, use a power switch jumper, or if you do not have one available, you can even use a screwdriver to complete the power circuit shown above.

After verifying a successful POST, turn the PC off by flipping the switch located on the power supply back to the off position.

If the computer boots to the BIOS, you are good to go. Unplug everything, and install the motherboard into your case and install everything as usual. If your motherboard did not POST, retry the steps again, and if it still fails, contact the motherboard manufacturer and request an RMA to get a new motherboard.

Motherboards can be one of the most stubborn components to diagnose due to the sheer number of tiny parts embedded in them. In my experience, when motherboards fail, they typically will not boot, power on, or anything. The following steps can help narrow down your symptoms.

The Power-On-Self-Test or (POST) happens each time you turn on your computer. If your computer is operating normally, you should continue the startup. If you are unable to complete the POST, then proceed to the next step.

Verify that your motherboard is not shorting out on your case. Verify that you have correctly installed stand-off screws in all the correct screw locations inside the case.

Check your system for possible overheating. Open the case and ensure that there is not dust covering the fans, components, and motherboard. If so, use a can of compressed air found at your local hardware store to clean it.

Listen for beep codes when booting your PC. These beep codes will help you identify the faulty component or issue. For a list of beep codes and what they mean, go here.

Use the BIOS to check for updates, download and install them. If no updates are available, restore or reset your BIOS to reverse all settings to default and restart the computer.

If you still cannot access the BIOS because your computer keeps restarting, Replace the CMOS Battery. If your PC continues into BIOS after battery replacement, your motherboard issues should end. But if they do not, continue diagnosis.

Finally, remove all components other than the CPU, the CPU Cooling Fan, and the RAM. If your motherboard boots and POSTs, you will need to add one piece of hardware at a time until you find the faulty component.

If you cannot diagnose your motherboard with the steps listed above, it is time to use a multimeter. You can purchase one at your local hardware store or on Amazon. This one at Amazon sells for less than $13 and works great.

If you have a multimeter, then you will be able to detect issues with the motherboard easily. Even if you have never used a multimeter in the past, I will walk you step-by-step on how to test your motherboard for component failure.

The first thing you want to look for with the multimeter is a short circuit. These are common issues and can happen when there might be a surge in electricity. Below we will be verifying the AC voltage of the motherboard.

Standard 24pin ATX pin layout

Next, remove the motherboard from the case and refer to the layout picture or this ATX 24-pin chart to find the PINs. Using the red lead, test each of the following: (3,5,7,15,17,18, and 19) must have a 0 reading. Anything else indicates a bad PSU connector.

The last test will require you to remove the ATX power adapter and the CPU from the motherboard. Test the same ATX pins located on the motherboard. Any reading other than 0 means there is a problem with the motherboard connector.

Multimeter

To check DC voltages, follow the steps below. The steps here are slightly different than AC voltages.

If you have found that the motherboard has failed, don’t try repairing it on your own. Even if a repair is successful, improper voltage regulation could destroy everything in your computer. It is always better to have an experienced electronic technician repair the motherboard or replace it than venturing to fix it yourself.

With the computer turned off, carefully probe the back of the connector using the black lead.  It should be in contact with one of the negative pins 15,17,18 or 19, registering a 0 voltage.

Use the red lead to probe and verify the following pins:  Pin 16 (green in color) reading between 3-5 volts and Pin 9 (purple color) reading 5 volts.

Now, start the PC.  Pin 16 (green color) should drop down to 0 volts.  If it doesn’t, this is indicative of a faulty switch.  (Turn off the PC)

Finally, use the red lead on Pin 8 (gray color) should read 5 volts.  Start the computer and press the reset button; now, the voltage will drop down to 0 volts, then go back up to 5 volts.  If not, this is a good indicator that you have a defective RAM slot, and you will need a new motherboard.

FAQs

You don’t have to have a CPU to verify that the motherboard is working and powering connected components like case fans and RGB lighting. I know because I have done this on numerous occasions.

How to test a capacitor on a motherboard?

Unfortunately, there is no way to test the capacitor on a motherboard without removing the capacitor itself. However, you can visually inspect each capacitor for rust, cracks, leaks, or bulges, and this will give you a good idea that the capacitor is damaged.

Can a motherboard be repaired?

A motherboard can be repaired by an experienced electronics technician in many cases and may still be less expensive than a replacement if it is an older PC. If you have to purchase a new motherboard, you may also have to replace the CPU and RAM. 

Is replacing a motherboard worth it?

The fact that the motherboard is responsible for distributing controlled amounts of current throughout the computer and its peripherals makes it very worth it. A failing motherboard could cause surges of current that could potentially destroy your RAM, GPU, CPU, etc. 

What happens if my motherboard is damaged?

If you just purchased your motherboard and it was damaged when you opened it or during installation, it should be under the manufactures warranty. You will need to call the manufacture and request an RMA (Return Merchandise Authorization).

If you have had the motherboard for a long time and it is out of the warranty period, you will need to purchase a new one.

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Where To Buy Intel Z590 Motherboard

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Last Updated: March 16th, 2023

With AMD seemingly taking the lead position in the race for CPU dominance – with their Ryzen 3rd Gen CPUs – it was only a matter of time before Intel fired back with their own, newly-designed, high-performance hardware. Alongside a new line of CPUs, Intel will also be unveiling their new Z590 platform come the 11th of January.

Intel will use CES 2023 as their launchpad for the new hardware, catapulting both the Z590 motherboard and 11th Gen CPUs into the public eye. Whilst it’s not yet clear what the new hardware will bring to the table in terms of performance, it’s safe to say that it should be a huge step forward when compared to their current 10th gen products.

What Is The Z590 Motherboard?

The z590 is Intel’s latest motherboard chipset offering. The new motherboards will come to the table equipped with the LGA1200 socket, meaning they should be compatible with Intel’s recent lineup of 10th CPUs.

As far as 11th Gen CPUs are concerned, buyers looking to purchase a Z590 motherboard on launch day will have to wait until the end of February/early March to get their hands on the new CPUs.

Intel Z590 Motherboard Specifications:

Z590 Chipset

LGA1200 Socket

DDR4 RAM Support

Intel Z590 Motherboard Release Date

Intel has decided to utilize CES 2023 as its launch platform, making the Z590 motherboards available the very same day. That means come the 11th of January, users will be able to access a whole host of Z590 motherboards from all your favourite manufacturers. 

Intel Z590 Price

Whilst the pricing of the Z590 is not yet known, we can draw some conclusions based on the current Z490 launch.

Depending on what motherboards are released, we can expect budget options to be around the $200 marker, mid-range options to be anywhere up to $400, and high-end options to be $450 and above.

Where To Buy An Intel Z590 Motherboard

Like always, all the latest Z590 motherboards will be available from the biggest online retailers – including Amazon, Newegg, Best Buy, and Walmart. We’ll also be posting available stock levels for most of Europe, Canada, and Australia. Below is a list of where to buy the Z590 motherboards available right now.

Remember, we will be updating this list daily leading up to the official launch:

Where To Buy An Intel Z590 Motherboard: US

All the Intel Z590 where to buy links for the major retailers in the US will be listed below. Remember, thanks to recent events, stock levels will likely be lower than normal – meaning, you’ll have to get in early if you want to secure a Z590 motherboard.

Intel Z590 Motherboard Listings, Pre Order, & Prices – Amazon US Intel Z590 Motherboard Listings, Pre Order, & Prices – Best Buy Intel Z590 Motherboard Listings, Pre Order, & Prices – Newegg

Coming Soon

Where To Buy An Intel Z590 Motherboard: UK

UK retailers also haven’t yet started to list Z590 motherboard pages. That said, we will be populating the below retailers with links as and when they go live.

Intel Z590 Motherboard Listings, Pre Order, & Prices – Amazon UK Intel Z590 Motherboard Listings, Pre Order, & Prices – Scan Intel Z590 Motherboard Listings, Pre Order, & Prices – Overclockers

Coming Soon

Intel Z590 Motherboard Listings, Pre Order, & Prices – Ebuyer Intel Z590 Motherboard Listings, Pre Order, & Prices – Currys PC World Intel Z590 Motherboard Listings, Pre Order, & Prices – Novatech Where To Buy An Intel Z590 Motherboard: Canada

Unfortunately, major retailers in Canada are yet to post Z590 motherboard listings live yet. However, you can rest assured that when they do, we’ll have all the best places linked below. 

Intel Z590 Motherboard Listings, Pre Order, & Prices – Amazon CA Where To Buy An Intel Z590 Motherboard: Europe

As we know, Europe is usually at the forefront when it comes to the latest hardware releases. For that reason, we’re outlining some of the best places to purchase a Z590 across Europe.

Where To Buy An Intel Z590 Motherboard: France Where To Buy An Intel Z590 Motherboard: Germany Where To Buy An Intel Z590 Motherboard: Spain Where To Buy An Intel Z590 Motherboard: Italy

Coming Soon

Final Word

So, that’s it, all the up to date links for anyone looking where to buy a Z590 motherboard this January. We’ll be keeping this list bang-up-to-date so that you don’t have to scour the web for the best deals on offer. Whether you’re in the US, UK, or Europe, we’ll be updating this page with all the links on where to buy a Z590 motherboard from the internet’s biggest retailers.

How To Find Out Pc Motherboard Model And Serial Number

Knowing the motherboard’s model and serial number can be beneficial while searching for BIOS firmware updates from the manufacturer’s support site. A product’s serial number enables the manufacturer to identify and obtain more details about it, allowing for registration, replacement, or the discovery of suitable parts.

Although the brand, model, and serial number can be retrieved directly from the motherboard by opening the computer case, you can also get this information from within Windows.

Say you need to buy a component for your PC, and you need to check if it’s compatible. The only way to be sure is to check your Motherboard model. So, for example, if you are planning to buy a PCIe card but want to be sure the motherboard has it, you need the exact model and the manual.

To find out which Motherboard you have on your PC, you can check your Motherboard details or model number using any one of these methods:

Run WMIC Command

Run WMIOBJECT Command

Use System Information

Use CPU-Z or HWiNFO

Physically check on Box or Bill, or Find the Manual.

The last method involves opening the cabinet; make sure it is possible, or else you will be forcing it, which may not be a good idea.

1] Run WMIC Command

Open Windows Terminal from Power Menu (WIn + X)

In the Windows Terminal, enter the following command and press Enter:

wmic baseboard get product,Manufacturer,version,serialnumber

The above command will display information about the manufacturer, product version, serial number, and version of your motherboard.

2] Run WMIOBJECT Command

Finding the model and the serial number of a motherboard can also be done using Windows PowerShell.

Open PowerShell or Windows Terminal

On the new window, type or copy and paste the following command and press Enter:

It will display the model number and the serial number of the motherboard.

3] Use System Information

Open Run Prompt, and type msinfo32 and press the Enter key

It will open the System Information, which will detail every hardware detail of the computer

Check for information such as Baseboard Product, Baseboard Version, Manufacturer, and so on.

4] Use CPU-Z or HWiNFO

These are some of the popular software that delivers a more readable way to find the motherboard information. Each of these applications has some extra features that can be useful.

For example, HWINFO can keep track of temperature, while CPU-Z offers a cataloged way of the hardware.

5] Physically check on Box or Bill, or Find the Manual

Sometimes, when you do not have access to your PC and have no option to find the details, you can always check the package your motherboard came with to find the model information. But it will be possible only if you still have it lying around. The model and serial number will be written on a label attached to the box.

Also, you can find the details if you have the bill or a photo. Check the website or your inbox for the tax invoice or bill if you ordered it online.

Another way to check which motherboard you have is to open the Cabinet. If you have a Desktop PC, you should be able to open one side of the cabinet. Most modern desktops offer a glass side which makes it easy to look through and see the motherboard.

OEMs print the model number somewhere on the motherboard; you will have to look closely and search for the same on the internet.

Related: How to find hardware specs for Windows PC

What are the different sizes of a Motherboard?

There are three different sizes of Motherboard— ATX, Micro-ATX, and Mini-ITX. While small sizes save a lot of space, they also cut down on features. So make sure to always check on that. The motherboard is selected based on the cabinet or vice-versa.

What is a BTX Motherboard?

Balanced Technology Extended is an old standard format that Intel introduced. Compared to ATX, it differed when it comes to the placement of chip sockets to maximize airflow over the processor and GPU.

How do I find out what Motherboard I have without opening the case?

You can use software such as CPU-Z or HWiNFO to find out the exact motherboard model. You can also use the Command Prompt method.

How do I check my Motherboard Specs?

The best way to check is to read the manual or once you have found the exact model number, locate the details online. Most of the OEMs have their motherboard details available online and can give you a clear idea of the motherboard specs.

How to know if Motherboard supports the ATX cabinet?

You mustn’t pick up a small cabinet for our Motherboard. OEMs offer details of this in their product listing. You can check on that, and also make sure to confirm with the support when you are buying it. They are usually marked on the product name.

How to find the Motherboard model when using Linux?

Open Terminal on Linux, Type and execute the following command — sudo dmidecode -t 2 or sudo apt-get install hardinfo. It will display the summary of the motherboard, including the brand, model, and serial number.

Related: How to find out the Computer RAM, Graphics Card/Video memory?

How to find the Motherboard of Macbook? How do I find out my motherboard model?

Read: How to find out Processor Brand and Model on a Windows Laptop?

Where is the serial number stored on the motherboard?

We used two commands to figure out the serial number. That tells us that the serial number is stored in the motherboard’s BIOS or UEFI. If the motherboard is not working, you can check if the serial number is printed somewhere on the motherboard. It is possible that the printed number may not be a complete serial number but only an identifier, so figuring out the invoice is always a better option.

I hope the post was easy to follow, and you could find the Motherboard model of your computer.

40 Questions To Test A Data Scientist On Deep Learning

Introduction

Deep Learning has made many practical applications of machine learning possible. Deep Learning breaks down tasks in a way that makes all kinds of applications possible. This skilltest was conducted to test your knowledge of deep learning concepts.

A total of 853 people registered for this skill test. The test was designed to test the conceptual knowledge of deep learning. If you are one of those who missed out on this skill test, here are the questions and solutions. You missed on the real time test, but can read this article to find out how you could have answered correctly.

Here are the leaderboard ranking for all the participants.

Overall Scores

Below are the distribution scores, they will help you evaluate your performance.

You can access the final scores here. More than 270 people participated in the skill test and the highest score obtained was 38. Here are a few statistics about the distribution.

Mean Score: 15.05

Median Score: 18

Mode Score: 0

Useful Resources

A Complete Guide on Getting Started with Deep Learning in Python

The Evolution and Core Concepts of Deep Learning & Neural Networks

Practical Guide to implementing Neural Networks in Python (using Theano)

Fundamentals of Deep Learning – Starting with Artificial Neural Network

An Introduction to Implementing Neural Networks using TensorFlow

Fine-tuning a Keras model using Theano trained Neural Network & Introduction to Transfer Learning

6 Deep Learning Applications a beginner can build in minutes (using Python)

Questions & Answers

1) The difference between deep learning and machine learning algorithms is that there is no need of feature engineering in machine learning algorithms, whereas, it is recommended to do feature engineering first and then apply deep learning.

A) TRUE

B) FALSE

Solution: (B)

Deep learning itself does feature engineering whereas machine learning requires manual feature engineering.

2) Which of the following is a representation learning algorithm?

A) Neural network

B) Random Forest

C) k-Nearest neighbor

D) None of the above

Solution: (A)

Neural network converts data in such a form that it would be better to solve the desired problem. This is called representation learning.

3) Which of the following option is correct for the below-mentioned techniques?

AdaGrad uses first order differentiation

L-BFGS uses second order differentiation

AdaGrad uses second order differentiation

L-BFGS uses first order differentiation

A) 1 and 2

B) 3 and 4

C) 1 and 4

D) 2 and 3

Solution: (A)

Option A is correct.

 

4) Increase in size of a convolutional kernel would necessarily increase the performance of a convolutional neural network. 

A) TRUE

B) FALSE

Solution: (B)

Kernel size is a hyperparameter and therefore by changing it we can increase or decrease performance.

 

Question Context 

Now you want to use this model on different dataset which has images of only Ford Mustangs (aka car) and the task is to locate the car in an image.

5) Which of the following categories would be suitable for this type of problem?

A) Fine tune only the last couple of layers and change the last layer (classification layer) to regression layer

B) Freeze all the layers except the last, re-train the last layer

C) Re-train the model for the new dataset

D) None of these

Solution: (A)

 

6) Suppose you have 5 convolutional kernel of size 7 x 7 with zero padding and stride 1 in the first layer of a convolutional neural network. You pass an input of dimension 224 x 224 x 3 through this layer. What are the dimensions of the data which the next layer will receive? 

A) 217 x 217 x 3

B) 217 x 217 x 8

C) 218 x 218 x 5

D) 220 x 220 x 7

Solution: (C)

 

7) Suppose we have a neural network with ReLU activation function. Let’s say, we replace ReLu activations by linear activations.

Would this new neural network be able to approximate an XNOR function? 

Note: The neural network was able to approximate XNOR function with activation function ReLu.

A) Yes

B) No

Solution: (B)

If ReLU activation is replaced by linear activation, the neural network loses its power to approximate non-linear function.

 

8) Suppose we have a 5-layer neural network which takes 3 hours to train on a GPU with 4GB VRAM. At test time, it takes 2 seconds for single data point. 

Now we change the architecture such that we add dropout after 2nd and 4th layer with rates 0.2 and 0.3 respectively.

What would be the testing time for this new architecture?

A) Less than 2 secs

B) Exactly 2 secs

C) Greater than 2 secs

D) Can’t Say

Solution: (B)

The changes is architecture when we add dropout only changes in the training, and not at test time.

 

9) Which of the following options can be used to reduce overfitting in deep learning models?

Add more data

Use data augmentation 

Use architecture that generalizes well

Add regularization

Reduce architectural complexity

A) 1, 2, 3

B) 1, 4, 5

C) 1, 3, 4, 5

D) All of these

Solution: (D)

All of the above techniques can be used to reduce overfitting.

 

10) Perplexity is a commonly used evaluation technique when applying deep learning for NLP tasks. Which of the following statement is correct?

A) Higher the perplexity the better

B) Lower the perplexity the better

Solution: (B)

 

11) Suppose an input to Max-Pooling layer is given above. The pooling size of neurons in the layer is (3, 3).

What would be the output of this Pooling layer?

A) 3

B) 5

C) 5.5

D) 7

Solution: (D)

Max pooling works as follows, it first takes the input using the pooling size we defined, and gives out the highest activated input.

 

12) Suppose there is a neural network with the below configuration. 

If we remove the ReLU layers, we can still use this neural network to model non-linear functions.

A) TRUE

B) FALSE

Solution: (B)

 

13) Deep learning can be applied to which of the following NLP tasks?

A) Machine translation

B) Sentiment analysis

C) Question Answering system

D) All of the above

Solution: (D)

Deep learning can be applied to all of the above-mentioned NLP tasks.

 

14) Scenario 1: You are given data of the map of Arcadia city, with aerial photographs of the city and its outskirts. The task is to segment the areas into industrial land, farmland and natural landmarks like river, mountains, etc.

Deep learning can be applied to Scenario 1 but not Scenario 2.

A) TRUE

B) FALSE

Solution: (B)

Scenario 1 is on Euclidean data and scenario 2 is on Graphical data. Deep learning can be applied to both types of data.

 

15) Which of the following is a data augmentation technique used in image recognition tasks?

Horizontal flipping

Random cropping

Random scaling

Color jittering

Random translation

Random shearing

A) 1, 2, 4

B) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

C) 1, 3, 5, 6

D) All of these

Solution: (D)

 

16) Given an n-character word, we want to predict which character would be the n+1th character in the sequence. For example, our input is “predictio” (which is a 9 character word) and we have to predict what would be the 10th character.

Which neural network architecture would be suitable to complete this task?

A) Fully-Connected Neural Network

B) Convolutional Neural Network

C) Recurrent Neural Network

D) Restricted Boltzmann Machine

Solution: (C)

Recurrent neural network works best for sequential data. Therefore, it would be best for the task.

 

17) What is generally the sequence followed when building a neural network architecture for semantic segmentation for image?

A) Convolutional network on input and deconvolutional network on output

B) Deconvolutional network on input and convolutional network on output

Solution: (A)

 

18) Sigmoid was the most commonly used activation function in neural network, until an issue was identified. The issue is that when the gradients are too large in positive or negative direction, the resulting gradients coming out of the activation function get squashed. This is called saturation of the neuron.

That is why ReLU function was proposed, which kept the gradients same as before in the positive direction.

A ReLU unit in neural network never gets saturated.

A) TRUE

B) FALSE

Solution: (B)

ReLU can get saturated too. This can be on the negative side of x-axis.

 

19) What is the relationship between dropout rate and regularization?

Note: we have defined dropout rate as the probability of keeping a neuron active?

A) Higher the dropout rate, higher is the regularization

B) Higher the dropout rate, lower is the regularization

Solution: (B)

Higher dropout rate says that more neurons are active. So there would be less regularization.

 

20) What is the technical difference between vanilla backpropagation algorithm and backpropagation through time (BPTT) algorithm?

A) Unlike backprop, in BPTT we sum up gradients for corresponding weight for each time step

B) Unlike backprop, in BPTT we subtract gradients for corresponding weight for each time step

Solution: (A)

BPTT is used in context of recurrent neural networks. It works by summing up gradients for each time step

 

21) Exploding gradient problem is an issue in training deep networks where the gradient getS so large that the loss goes to an infinitely high value and then explodes.

What is the probable approach when dealing with “Exploding Gradient” problem in RNNs?

A) Use modified architectures like LSTM and GRUs

B) Gradient clipping

C) Dropout

D) None of these

Solution: (B)

To deal with exploding gradient problem, it’s best to threshold the gradient values at a specific point. This is called gradient clipping.

 

22) There are many types of gradient descent algorithms. Two of the most notable ones are l-BFGS and SGD. l-BFGS is a second order gradient descent technique whereas SGD is a first order gradient descent technique.

In which of the following scenarios would you prefer l-BFGS over SGD?

Data is sparse

Number of parameters of neural network are small

A) Both 1 and 2

B) Only 1

C) Only 2

D) None of these

Solution: (A)

l-BFGS works best for both of the scenarios.

 

23) Which of the following is not a direct prediction technique for NLP tasks?

A) Recurrent Neural Network

B) Skip-gram model

C) PCA

D) Convolutional neural network

Solution: (C)

 

24) Which of the following would be the best for a non-continuous objective during optimization in deep neural net?

A) L-BFGS

B) SGD

C) AdaGrad

D) Subgradient method

Solution: (D)

Other optimization algorithms might fail on non-continuous objectives, but sub-gradient method would not.

 

25) Which of the following is correct?

Dropout randomly masks the input weights to a neuron

Dropconnect randomly masks both input and output weights to a neuron

A) 1 is True and 2 is False

B) 1 is False and 2 is True

C) Both 1 and 2 are True

D) Both 1 and 2 are False

Solution: (D)

In dropout, neurons are dropped; whereas in dropconnect; connections are dropped. So both input and output weights will be rendered in useless, i.e. both will be dropped for a neuron. Whereas in dropconnect, only one of them should be dropped

 

26) While training a neural network for image recognition task, we plot the graph of training error and validation error for debugging.

What is the best place in the graph for early stopping?

A) A

B) B

C) C

D) D

Solution: (C)

You would “early stop” where the model is most generalized. Therefore option C is correct.

 

27) Research is going on to solve image inpainting problems using computer vision with deep learning. For this, which loss function would be appropriate for computing the pixel-wise region to be inpainted?

Image inpainting is one of those problems which requires human expertise for solving it. It is particularly useful to repair damaged photos or videos. Below is an example of input and output of an image inpainting example.

A) Euclidean loss

B) Negative-log Likelihood loss

C) Any of the above

Solution: (C)

Both A and B can be used as a loss function for image inpainting problem.

A) Sum of squared error with respect to inputs

B) Sum of squared error with respect to weights

C) Sum of squared error with respect to outputs

D) None of the above

Solution: (C)

29) Mini-Batch sizes when defining a neural network are preferred to be multiple of 2’s such as 256 or 512. What is the reason behind it?

A) Gradient descent optimizes best when you use an even number

B) Parallelization of neural network is best when the memory is used optimally

C) Losses are erratic when you don’t use an even number

D) None of these

Solution: (B)

 

30) Xavier initialization is most commonly used to initialize the weights of a neural network. Below is given the formula for initialization.

If weights at the start are small, then signals reaching the end will be too tiny.

If weights at the start are too large, signals reaching the end will be too large.

Weights from Xavier’s init are drawn from the Gaussian distribution.

Xavier’s init helps reduce vanishing gradient problem.

Xavier’s init is used to help the input signals reach deep into the network. Which of the following statements are true?

A) 1, 2, 4

B) 2, 3, 4

C) 1, 3, 4

D) 1, 2, 3

E) 1, 2, 3, 4

Solution: (D)

All of the above statements are true.

 

31) As the length of sentence increases, it becomes harder for a neural translation machine to perform as sentence meaning is represented by a fixed dimensional vector. To solve this, which of the following could we do?

A) Use recursive units instead of recurrent

B)Use attention mechanism

C) Use character level translation

D) None of these

Solution: (B)

32) A recurrent neural network can be unfolded into a full-connected neural network with infinite length.

A) TRUE

B) FALSE

Solution: (A)

Recurrent neuron can be thought of as a neuron sequence of infinite length of time steps.

 

33) Which of the following is a bottleneck for deep learning algorithm?

A) Data related to the problem

B) CPU to GPU communication

C) GPU memory

D) All of the above

Solution: (D)

Along with having the knowledge of how to apply deep learning algorithms, you should also know the implementation details. Therefore you should know that all the above mentioned problems are a bottleneck for deep learning algorithm.

 

34) Dropout is a regularization technique used especially in the context of deep learning. It works as following, in one iteration we first randomly choose neurons in the layers and masks them. Then this network is trained and optimized in the same iteration. In the next iteration, another set of randomly chosen neurons are selected and masked and the training continues.

A) Affine layer

B) Convolutional layer

C) RNN layer

D) None of these

Solution: (C)

Dropout does not work well with recurrent layer. You would have to modify dropout technique a bit to get good results.

 

35) Suppose your task is to predict the next few notes of song when you are given the preceding segment of the song.

For example:

The input given to you is an image depicting the music symbols as given below,

Your required output is an image of succeeding symbols.

Which architecture of neural network would be better suited to solve the problem?

A) End-to-End fully connected neural network

B) Convolutional neural network followed by recurrent units

C) Neural Turing Machine

D) None of these

Solution: (B)

CNN work best on image recognition problems, whereas RNN works best on sequence prediction. Here you would have to use best of both worlds!

 

36) When deriving a memory cell in memory networks, we choose to read values as vector values instead of scalars. Which type of addressing would this entail?

A) Content-based addressing

B) Location-based addressing

Solution: (A)

A) Affine layer

B) Strided convolutional layer

C) Fractional strided convolutional layer

D) ReLU layer

Solution: (C)

Option C is correct. Go through this link.

 

Question Context 38-40

GRU is a special type of Recurrent Neural Networks proposed to overcome the difficulties of classical RNNs. This is the paper in which they were proposed: “On the Properties of Neural Machine Translation: Encoder–Decoder Approaches. Read the full paper here. 

38) Which of the following statements is true with respect to GRU?

Units with short-term dependencies have reset gate very active.

Units with long-term dependencies have update gate very active

A) Only 1

B) Only 2

C) None of them

D) Both 1 and 2

Solution: (D)

 

39) If calculation of reset gate in GRU unit is close to 0, which of the following would occur?

A) Previous hidden state would be ignored

B) Previous hidden state would be not be ignored

Solution: (A)

 

40) If calculation of update gate in GRU unit is close to 1, which of the following would occur? 

A) Forgets the information for future time steps

B) Copies the information through many time steps

Solution: (B)

 

End Notes

If you missed out on this competition, make sure you complete in the ones coming up shortly. We are giving cash prizes worth $10,000+ during the month of April 2023.

If you have any questions or doubts feel free to post them below.

Check out all the upcoming skilltests here.

Related

5 Best Cables For Motherboard To Buy

5 Best Cables For Motherboard To Buy

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If for whatever reason your PC’s motherboard cable failed on you, or if you’re building a new PC from scratch, you will need to buy some new motherboard cables that are good and that will last for a very long time.

Normally, whenever you buy a motherboard, it should come packaged with all of the cables that it needs. However, if you don’t trust those packaged deals, then you should check out our list of the best cables you could buy for your motherboard.

Keep in mind that there are several cables that go in and out of a motherboard, so this list contains a few of each category.

Note: Deals are subject to change. Keep in mind that the price tag often varies. We recommend going on the vendor’s website to check the price. Some of the products may be out of stock by the time you’ve made your purchasing decision. So, hurry up and hit the buy button.

Extend cable length of existing power supply

Every wire is individually sleeved in white

Compatible with all PSU’s

The cable is sensitive to physical damage

Check price

The Silverstone PP07-MBW is an individually sleeved extension power cable set with a single Motherboard 24-pin connector that is useful for systems with larger cases.

It behaves within regular limits, and the design is great for users that have open-case PCs and want their cable management to look sleek and smooth.

Lengthens the connection between an existing power supply and the 24 pin connection on a motherboard

24 PIN POWER CABLE extends the power connector from an ATX power supply to a motherboard power connection to provide

Strain relief on the connections of your computer case components

Great to route the motherboard power cable away from a CPU fan

Overall low-quality materials

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The Cable Matters 24-Pin ATX Power Supply Extension Cable provides you with a convenient way of extending the cable from an SFX or ATX power supply.

You can also use it to extend the length of the ATX 24-Pin power supply cable for better cable management for better airflow from the fan.

Specifically designed to connect motherboards and host controllers to internal Serial ATA hard drives and DVD drives

Fast SATA III Speeds of up to 6 Gbps

Backward compatible with SATA I, II, III hard drives

Can reach connections in small cases

Has a flexible jacket to allow an efficient and organized installation in tight computer cases

Plugs bend fairly easily

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Expert tip:

Because it is easy to install, it is a great cable to buy when having multiple PCs to wire up, and you can install your latest hard drives fast and efficiently, and thanks to the latching clips, they will stay there securely.

Connects the latest Serial ATA hard drives or optical drives to a power supply

Ideal for those that want to install PCs quickly

Can connect new SATA HDDs and optical drives to older power supplies with 4 pin Molex ports

Compatible with 5V SATA devices connecting to 12V ATX power supplies

Isn’t build to last

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When it comes to straightforward computer building, you need all the appropriate tools for the job. This includes a cable that can easily connect ATA hard drives or optical drives to a power supply.

If that’s all you need, then you should get the Cable Matters 4 Pin Molex to SATA Power Cable, as it is built to do just that, and it does it while respecting performance standards.

End 1 has an IDC 40 Female port

End 2 has 2 IDC 40 Female port

Wire gauge of 30 AWG

Meets or exceeds all safety requirements and is both UL and RoHS-rated

May be subject to mispackaging

Check price

The StarTech IDE and EIDE cable is an IDE cable designed to connect internal devices in your computer to the Motherboard while providing better overall airflow.

You can use this cable to connect CD-ROMs, zip drives, hard drives, DVD-ROMs, CD burners, etc, and it is indeed built to last and work within and above standards.

If the motherboard is considered the heart of the PC, then the cables that go to and from it are probably the blood vessels, and we all know how good it is to have those in healthy conditions.

The same can be said about motherboard cables, so you always want to have the best available.

It’s enough for just one of those cables to fry and one component, if not the entire PC, will be out for the count until you can find a replacement.

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Difference Between Antibody Test And Pcr Test

Testing has use beyond only establishing whether or not a person has a virus. After a virus has been identified, its severity must be assessed to decide whether or not hospitalisation is necessary. Diagnostic tests and antibody tests are two types of testing. Molecular testing and antigen tests are two subsets of diagnostic procedures. Therefore, PCR tests are classified as a type of molecular test that looks for viral DNA. Blood antibody testing are one method of monitoring antibody levels.

What is Antibody Test?

Immunoglobulins, also known as gamma globulin proteins, are the building blocks of antibodies. Vertebrate blood and other bodily fluids include antibodies. They aid vertebrate immune systems in recognising and eliminating pathogens. This is why detecting antibodies in the blood is what an antibody test does. The human body naturally generates antibodies for self-defense, however vaccination may be used to artificially increase antibody production.

Testing for certain antibodies in the blood can reveal whether or not a person has been exposed to a particular virus or infection. The test only reveals whether or not the subject was previously infected, not whether or not they are now sick. A previous infection with SARS-CoV-2, for instance, is evidenced by a positive result for COVID-19 antibodies.

What is PCR Test?

Monitoring gene expression, determining the number of food-borne pathogens, determining the amount of a virus, and making a clinical diagnosis are just few of the many uses for the powerful molecular test known as polymerase chain reaction (or PCR). In vitro PCR is a laboratory technique for the enzymatic production of targeted DNA sequences.

Differences: Antibody Test and PCR Test

The following table highlights the major differences between Antibody Test and PCR Test −

Characteristics

Antibody Test

PCR Test

Significance

The antibody test and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test are the gold standards for determining whether or not a patient has contracted a virus. These two methodologies have continued to dominate COVID-19 testing even after the current coronavirus epidemic.

In contrast to tests that rely on antibodies or the body’s immunological response, polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) may detect the presence of antigens directly.

Test

A history of infection can be deduced from a blood antibody test. Due to the fact that antibodies are usually produced by the body a few days after an infection, rather than before, this test cannot be used to detect whether or not a person is currently sick.

However, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is a diagnostic tool for identifying infections in their earliest stages, before antibodies have had time to build. In vitro PCR is a laboratory technique for the enzymatic production of targeted DNA sequences.

To detect the presence of a virus, it first multiplies a small section of DNA many times over (by the millions or billions) before analysing the results.

Procedure

Tests for antibodies in the blood can reveal whether or not a person has been infected with a particular virus or other infection in the past.

The method identifies the virus indirectly by examining the body’s defences against it.

DNA polymerase is an enzyme that causes DNA to duplicate in cycles, and this is what a PCR test does to amplify a specific section of DNA.

The test looks for the virus’s genetic material in a fluid sample taken from the nose or throat passages.

Conclusion

Antibodies play an important role in the immune system by assisting in the detection and destruction of invading pathogens. Detecting antibodies in the blood is what an antibody test does.

The PCR test provides definitive results, allowing for the isolation of infected individuals to prevent the spread of the virus.

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