Trending February 2024 # How & Why Accessibility Matters For Seo # Suggested March 2024 # Top 7 Popular

You are reading the article How & Why Accessibility Matters For Seo updated in February 2024 on the website We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested March 2024 How & Why Accessibility Matters For Seo

Ensuring websites are accessible and usable for everyone should be a primary concern for anyone who works within the online space.

While accessibility is more often seen as the responsibility of developers and designers, there is a lot of overlap in the SEO work we do to make websites accessible and easy for search engines to understand.

However, it isn’t something which is commonly spoken about within SEO, and not typically something that is included in the “need to know” of SEO.

So, I took to Twitter to ask the community if website accessibility is something they consider when working on a site’s SEO.

Hey SEO friends, a quick q, is website accessibility something you consider when working on a sites SEO?

— Ruth⁷ (@rvtheverett) August 10, 2023

I was pleasantly surprised with the results, with over 58% of those who voted saying accessibility is something they always consider, and only 13% saying they generally don’t.

What Is Web Accessibility?

In short, website accessibility is the act of making sure websites are accessible and usable for everyone.

It ensures all users are able to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with a website and encompasses all disabilities which may affect how a user experiences your website.

This includes auditory, cognitive, physical, neurological, and visual.

Accessibility also benefits users with temporary impairments, which may include – a user with a broken arm, or someone recovering from surgery.

It also includes:

Situational impairments, such as:

People on moving trains.

People with limited internet connection.

Environmental impairments, for example:

Being in a brightly lit room.

Not being able to play audio aloud.

Why Is Accessibility Important?

Ensuring the websites we work on are accessible for everyone should be a primary concern for everyone in SEO, as well as the designers and developers we work with.

An accessible website helps all users:

Easily navigate the site.

Improve their experience.

Find information they are looking for.

With the coronavirus pandemic causing the use of the web to further increase, the need for an accessible website has never been greater.

A report from Deque found that 62% of accessibility practitioners surveyed in March and April 2023 reported that “COVID-19 has raised the awareness and impact of accessibility on the digital channel.”

Accessibility is also important for user experience, satisfaction, and loyalty.

There are also legal implications to inaccessible websites.

User Experience

It’s important to look beyond rankings and rather ensure a website is usable for everyone.

This will in turn lead to increased user satisfaction, as well as enhancing brand sentiment and loyalty.

When websites aren’t accessible it can make it incredibly difficult for some users to perform necessary tasks or find the information they are looking for.

Here is a really powerful article on inaccessible web elements that writer Holly Tuke finds most annoying as a screen reader user.

Google are also shifting their focus towards rewarding sites that provide a good user experience.

We know that they are taking accessibility seriously as they want to ensure they include the best sites in search results, and they deem accessible sites to be the best, as they are the easiest to understand and use.

Legal Implications

In addition to being imperative to user experience, an accessible website is also required by law in most cases.

Within the EU, the European Accessibility Act was introduced in 2023.

This act covers products and services such as computers and operating systems, smartphones, and ecommerce platforms.

It requires them to be compatible with assistive technologies, as well as presented in a format appropriate for all users.

In the U.S., website accessibility is covered under the Americans Disability Act (ADA), which was first introduced in 1990. This civil rights law prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities.

Within this act, websites with inaccessible components can be seen as discriminatory and in violation of Title III of the law.

The 2010 UK Equality Act covers website accessibility in the UK and is designed to protect individuals from unfair treatment, while promoting a fair and equal society.

Within this law, site owners are required to anticipate the needs of potential disabled customers and make ‘reasonable adjustments’ for these needs.

There are some notable ADA website compliance lawsuits, such as:

Beyonce’s Website

This lawsuit was filed by Mary Conor, who was looking to buy Beyonce concert tickets, but discovered numerous accessibility errors, such as:

No alt text for images.

Denial of keyboard access.

Lack of accessible drop-down menus.

Domino’s Pizza

A lawsuit was also filed against Domino’s pizza in 2024, due to both the website and app being inaccessible with screen reading software.


In 2023, Nike was sued for also being inaccessible to screen readers.

This lawsuit cited issues with empty links and missing alt text for images.

The 4 Principles of Accessibility

In order to be accessible, a website must meet four principles, known as POUR:






This encompasses removing any barriers that a user may have to accessing your content.

This includes making websites accessible to screen readers by supplying text alternatives and a logical structure.


Focusing mainly on the user interface and navigation, in order to be operable, a website must be able to be usable for all users, despite the device they are browsing on.

This also includes allowing enough time for users to complete any given task.


Users need to be able to understand the information displayed on a webpage, as well as clearly understand the user interface and navigate the site.

This includes having a predictable and consistent navigation.


In order to be robust, a website must be able to be accessed and interpreted by different technologies and platforms, including screen readers.

In addition, it must remain accessible throughout updates to all platforms.

The Intersection of SEO & Accessibility

While our SEO work typically focuses on ensuring websites are accessible for search engines, a lot of the areas we focus on also have an impact on the accessibility of the site for users.

In February 2023, Web Aim used its WAVE accessibility engine to analyze the rendered DOM of all pages after scripts and styles were applied, to assess end-user accessibility barriers and web content accessibility guidelines (WCAG) failures.

This study found 98% of homepages had detectable WCAG failures, while 97% of the deeper content pages also failed the accessibility testing.

The biggest factors causing the failures for both of these were low contrast text, missing alt text, and empty links.

We have direct control over two of these three factors:

Alt text

Empty links.

With this in mind, let’s explore the areas of overlap between SEO and accessibility, and share how we can make a positive impact through our work.

1. Page Titles

Page titles are used to provide context and help users to understand what the webpage is about, as well as appearing as the main headline in search results.

Not only do titles allow users to identify whether the information on a page is relevant to them, they also differentiate content when multiple tabs or pages are open. Screen readers will rely on page titles to explain to users when they are navigating between pages.

By optimizing page titles with users in mind, rather than keyword stuffing for bots, SEO best practice and accessibility go hand in hand.

2. Headings

In SEO, the main focus for headings is on the H1 tag to provide an overview of the main content on the page, while H2-H6 tags are used to further define the structure of a page.

Just like search engine crawlers, assistive technologies use headings to quickly navigate a page and move to a particular section of the content.

Similar to SEO best practice, when using heading tags for accessibility it is important to only use one H1, make sure all headings are relevant to the content beneath them and only use headings if there is content below them.

3. Sitemaps

On-site sitemaps are useful for all users to find content they are looking for, especially if the site has a complex navigation.

They are particularly important for accessibility as they provide an overview, and clear access, to all the important pages on the site.

Likewise, for SEO, sitemaps help search engine crawlers find links to other pages on the site, which is especially useful if they are not linked to elsewhere on the site.

4. Anchor Text

Typically screen readers will tab through a page and inform users when a link has been found before announcing the anchor text.

Users will then hit enter to follow the link if they deem it will be useful.

Search engine crawlers also use anchor text to help understand the context of the destination page.

In addition, the sentence the link is contained within is also helpful for both SEO and accessibility purposes.

5. Breadcrumb Links

Used as a secondary navigation, breadcrumbs allow users to navigate back to their original page or top level content, and trace back through the path they took to navigate to the page they are on.

Breadcrumb links are also used to show search engine crawlers and screen readers how a site is structured.

They are also a great way to improve internal linking on a site, particularly for large websites with complex navigation structures.

There are some factors to take into consideration to ensure breadcrumbs are accessible for all users, such as making sure they are placed in the same location across the site.

Similar to internal link anchor text, it is important that breadcrumb links are descriptive, particularly for when screen readers tab through them.

6. Alt Text

Perhaps the most well-known SEO and accessibility intersection is the image alt text, which is used to provide textual alternatives for users with visual impairments.

Alt text is read aloud by screen readers which means they need to be accurate and relevant, rather than stuffed with keywords in an attempt to be optimized for bots.

Alt text is also used to help search engine crawlers understand the context of the image, in order to be displayed in image search.

Machine learning algorithms have progressed rapidly over the last few years, which has led search engines to be able to easily determine if keyword stuffing within alt text is being used.

7. Navigation

A website’s navigation is used to help users easily find what they are looking for, while also displaying the most important pages on the site. This is useful for users, as well as search engine crawlers.

Generally, navigation links are built to be tab-able which means that all keyboards and screen readers are able to read them.

In order to ensure your navigation is accessible, make sure you only include primary pages rather than the entire site.

This can cause confusion for all users, while also displaying to search engine crawlers that you have a flat site architecture.

8. Readability

Making sure any content on a site is readable and digestible is also important for both users and search engines.

Having a simplified reading level of content is one of the best ways to help users who may have cognitive disabilities.

This will also help users whose first language is not the one used on the website, as well as those who may be reading content while distracted.

In order to simplify the readability of a website, it’s important to avoid jargon or difficult language, ensure text is left-aligned, and lists are utilized.

Readable URLs are also important for accessibility, and best practice recommendations include ensuring URLs are easy to read and understand, as well as the use of word separators such as dashes.

9. User Interactions

This is why it is recommended to cut down on the number of physical interactions needed.

If you have a drop-down or accordion on your site, make sure that text is still contained within the source code; this will ensure that both bots and screen readers are able to read the content without needing to perform any user interactions.

However, this hidden text must make sense and reflect what is written on the page, rather than using old school, hidden keyword stuffing methods.

It’s also best practice to avoid using a hover action to reveal any content, unless the hidden content is also included within the source code.

Testing Accessibility

There are several tools which can be used for testing accessibility, including many Chrome extensions which can be run in the browser to evaluate specific web pages. Here are some I have found the most useful while researching accessibility.

WAVE Evaluation Tool

The WAVE Evaluation tool is developed by chúng tôi and provides visual feedback about the accessibility of content by adding icons and indicators onto the page.

It also provides a summary of issues that allows you to drill down into specific errors to find out more information.

axe Web Accessibility Testing

This chrome extension utilizes the axe open source JavaScript library which is developed by Deque Systems.

The axe accessibility testing tool is run within the browser developer tools and identifies accessibility defects on a webpage.

With a clear UI, the tool displays the accessibility issues detected and where they are found on the page.

Siteimprove Accessibility Checker

The Siteimprove Accessibility Checker provides a clear overview of a page’s accessibility issues with clear explanations of how they affect users.

This tool also displays recommendations for fixing the identified issues.

Google Lighthouse

Google’s Lighthouse tool also performs an accessibility audit and provides a score similar to the one used for performance.

However, unlike with the performance audits, each accessibility test is either a pass or fail and the page will not get any points for partially passing.

Weighting is given for each test performed which will generate a final score.

The report also displays the specific elements on the page which are failing the audit.

At Scale with DeepCrawl

We’ve also been able to combine the axe testing tool with a custom JavaScript script and extractions within DeepCrawl.

This has been an exciting way to view violations across a site at scale, together with providing a score and summary.

Further Resources A Final Note on Accessibility

Rather than seeing accessibility as extra work and effort, we should instead remember it is about understanding and empathy.

The web is built for everyone and should be usable by everyone.

It is our responsibility, together with our development and design team, to ensure the websites we work on are accessible for everyone.

More Resources:

Image Credits

All screenshots taken by author, September 2023

You're reading How & Why Accessibility Matters For Seo

How Black Friday Scams Work & How To Avoid Them?

How Black Friday Scams Work & How To Avoid Them?

Facebook Offers

Also Read : How To Keep Cyber Stalkers Away From You?

The Better Business Bureau urges: “Scammers may also sell the page and information that was collected from the “likes” with a more direct threat of gaining access in an attempt to gather credit card numbers that may be stored for certain Facebook apps, passwords or other personal information. New pages created from gathered data may be used to spread malicious software to compromise data or spread malware”.

Fake Products

People who are into fashion could be lured by seeing high-end designer clothes, so some scammers use them to victimize buyers. Once you try to get the merchandise and enter your credit card information and they steal it & misuse it.

Gift Cards

Your Purchase Might Have Delivery Issues

During any festive season or the sale season, it is natural to expect a delay in your delivery. However, you need to make sure the message or email that you are receiving for a delayed delivery is from the merchant.

Amazon happens to be the biggest online shopping website, and if you have a Prime account, are buying things on this Black Friday, be careful from the emails after making a purchase. Scammers send messages in bulk claiming to represent FedEx, Amazon

Fake Email Offers

Most of the retailers and online shopping websites send out emails consisting the discounts and offers available as Black Friday deals, however, not all of them are genuine emails. Usually, the scammers make a duplicate website which mostly looks like any of the famous brands which will act as a foreground and redirect you to suspicious pages which are not distantly related to the real companies.

To make sure you are on the original website, check the web address to see domain name if the brand name is spelt right. You can also check for HTTP whether there is a ‘s’ at the end or not(if there is ‘s’ at the end, this means it is secure to make financial transactions. If you see any of the red flags mentioned, close the window instantly.

How To Avoid Black Friday Deals Scams?

Must Read : 9 Biggest Security Threats of 2023

So, make sure you don’t fall for the huge discounts and lucrative offers, check for all the red flags and then provide your personal information.

On this note, all we want to say is Happy Shopping, stay secure and Enjoy the holiday season!

Quick Reaction:

About the author

Tweak Library Team

How Ecommerce Brands Are Evolving And How To Keep Up

Examples of how build your ecommerce brand in a changing landscape

Research suggests many people are getting fed up of being ‘sold to’ thanks to incessant retargeting, yet we’re buying online more than ever before. That’s the oxymoron of our current ecommerce industry — how to sell, without seeming to sell.

In a saturated marketplace, marketers need to create more immersive shopping and retail experiences. Largely, ecommerce brands are evolving to meet the demands of the fractured user journey and the fractious user.


So what ecommerce evolution (or devolution), can we expect in the coming year? (Before you read on — check out our marketing megatrends for 2023 to be fully informed).

Together in logistical dreams….

A huge logistical evolution has enabled a new breed of digital commerce— the popularity of dropshipping means that traditional logistical challenges are no more. With no need to even hold stock or have an office, ecommerce brands can operate from anywhere.

At the same time, online mega-brands like Amazon are heavily investing in their logistical framework, even opening up physical stores. By investing in all the latest delivery tech, from delivery drones to shipping routes, Amazon are trying to buy up a delivery network that will enable them to offer next-day or same-day delivery almost anywhere in the world.

Will the future of the industry revolve around who can get their products to consumers the fastest? Yes, probably.

It’s important that brands not only focus on fast and frequent delivery, but also the quality of the delivery experience — from packaging to emails, an awesome delivery experience should not just be an afterthought. Personalised packaging, fun copy, delivery follow-up phonecalls — be creative; but also recognise that almost nothing trumps speed and accuracy.

Humanising the conversion funnel — pay attention

Old-hat sales peddled at business schools around the world doesn’t readily translate into a social-media fuelled relational economy. Instead, successful ecommerce businesses have humanised the conversion funnel by honing in on customer experience, rather than pushing for sales at every opportunity. Creating holistic conversion funnels is supported by data mining— with more data, brands are able to get granular and track minute customer actions.

The increased sophistication of conversion-tracking gives brands the chance to build relationships with customers and clients through web content. A big part of that has been user-generated content —  and everyone is doing it — from B2C fashion brands, to B2B software startups. The beauty of user-generated content is that it’s content with a much longer shelf-life, and better engagement rates, than promotional marketing messages.

Focusing on infinitesimal customer decisions, as well as overall brand consideration, gives ecommerce companies the chance to invest in longevity.

Sage’s Instagram completely bypasses their product — opting for small business and entrepreneur stories instead. It certainly makes for a more engaging and colorful feed — a great strategy for brands with less ‘photogenic’ products.

Make sure that your conversion funnel is not oversimplified, and that you are tracking customers along the whole of their journey with you. If you haven’t already, start using UGC as part of your content strategy.

Localised influencers & community management

Rather than sell to huge audiences, brands need to sell to small captive communities; so many have gone out scouting for micro-influencers — people who don’t have millions of followers, but have the right ones. The beauty of this more targeted, localised influencer marketing is that brands can save both time and money by reaching a more susceptible audience faster.

With community management comes crowdsourcing and funding, and crowdfunded ecommerce businesses are becoming increasingly common.

See whether your business can start to create a sense of community around your products, services, and people. Get out there and be visible — that’s the first crucial step. You need to start working on and refining your brand voice. 

Digital thoroughbreds come out to play

Ecommerce is growing up, and becoming increasingly divorced from retail. Abandoning traditional retail models makes ecommerce businesses much more competitive and agile.  Ecommerce brands skip retail altogether, favouring a digital strategy that revolves around social media and bought content. Ecommerce brands will take on CRO specialists, UX designers, and SEOs in order to compete in a forward-thinking marketplace.

There’s now truly a specialist store for everything — from hot sauce and matcha tea, to matte nail varnish and vegan leather bike accessories. Whether it’s a fad or not, doesn’t matter — these niche stores serve a small, yet dedicated, specialist audience and disrupt the traditional ‘get it all here’ retail model. Consumers are increasingly looking for one-of-the-kind products.

Think about how well your brand serves a niche need, and whether you have a good grip on your current competition? Is there an emerging market or start up coming up behind you? Try to stay one step ahead — with the route to market being so quick, you need to be super switched on.

The next web is visual and spoken

Is selling online via a traditional website dying? Mobile, social media, VR, AR, wearables, IoT, Alexa – merchants are having to adapt to new sales environments fast — and most of these environments are completely led by visual content or spoken words.

One of the most exciting recent developments is the imminent arrival of visual commerce — shoppers buying products straight from pictures and videos. An integrated experience where users can search for (and buy) similar products to the ones they snap on their smartphones, isn’t that far away. Brands needs to be at the forefront of these new visual trends — trailing behind could be fatal.

At the same time, brands shouldn’t just focus on the ‘here and now’ either. So if visual interfaces are of the now (or the very soon) — could the next ecommerce be no interface at all?  Gartner predicts that by 2023, digital assistants will recognise customers by face and voice across channels, and by 2023, 85 percent of customer interactions will be managed without a human (source). We could be eventually heading towards a completely AI-led environment where storefronts come together for a user, only to be swiftly disassembled when they leave.

Keeping in mind that these are some of the potential industry developments, what can we all do as marketers? Certainly investing in visually-appealing content, social selling, and looking into voice search seem like a good place to start. You don’t have to throw a lot of budget at this right now, but you do need to constantly think about your future (and in the UK, you may qualify for corporation tax relief under Research & Development).

So what can merchants today do to keep up with the latest ecommerce developments?

Review your logistical framework and your ability to deliver products fast, or develop an alternative delivery and packaging model (subscription boxes)

Review your conversion funnel and include user-generated content in your sales funnel

Work with local micro-influencers more — start your first outreach campaign

Get as clued up as possible on the latest digital developments

Appeal to a committed niche market

Invest heavily in visual content — including GIFs and live video

Start thinking about the next stage of commerce NOW.

What developments excite you the most?

How To Resolve It ?

As flooded with innumerable users, this most popular video sharing platform has become a part of our daily schedule and we cannot think to spare a single day without it.

While watching or searching for some video on YouTube, you may confront some technical glitch like YouTube an error occurred.  Just need to check if the video is somehow uploaded with errors!

You may also need some up gradation or reinstallation. Following some basic troubleshooting, you will be able to fix it by clearing the cache or by changing the video quality.

Sometimes the problem YouTube an error occurred may be due to the DNS change in some settings.

Some users have reported that the problem occurs in your tube flash player and once you reinstall it the problem gets cured.

Whatever may be the reason, these are quite common issues and through this article, we shall try to explore every feasible way to fix it easily and effectively.

Disabling Shockwave flash is another option you may choose to combat with the YouTube an error occurred please try again the later related issue.

When you are using browser plugins, like Shockwave Flash, we suggest you update to the latest available version to solve any sort of compatibility issues.

This is a small workaround you may try by following the below-mentioned steps in  details:

Step 1: First of all open your browser and input about: addons in the address bar.

Step 2: Now from there move on to the Plugins option and check for Shockwave Flash. From the menu displayed now, select the option – Never Activate.

Step 3: You may encounter some error and fail to complete the steps. For this, we recommend you to try it again after a while and make sure that you disable Shockwave Flash.

The remarkable simple option can fix the problem with YouTube at once. This Forget About This Site is an amazing feature of Firefox and you will be able to clear cache, cookies, or the saved passwords.

Follow the steps given below to accomplish the process:

Step 1: First of all, go to the browsing history of Firefox. Now search your history and find a YouTube link.

When you are facing an error occurred please try again later on youtube, we recommend you to try this fix to change the DNS.

Just try changing the settings and put some default value and you will revert back to the default DNS. You may also choose to install a VPN which in turn will give you extra security and privacy.

Follow the steps mentioned below:

Step 3: Then from the provided list, select Internet Protocol Version 4 [TCP/IPv4] and choose Properties.

Step 4: Verify the DNS server address and proceed to set The Preferred DNS Server Address to and the Alternate DNS Server address to After you have finished doing so, hit the OK button to save the changes.

Now check whether the problem persists. This way you compel your Internet Connection to follow the DNS provided by google instead of the default one. 

By disabling the Hardware Acceleration, you can fight back many problems as this may give birth to several other problems.

Some users have reported that this has resolved problems instantly. Follow the steps mentioned below to execute the procedure:

Step 1: Open Menu in Firefox and choose Options. Now find the Performance section from there.

Step 2: Now, uncheck the Use Recommended Performance Settings and Use Hardware Acceleration when you find them.

Step 3: After you finish the process restart your Browser and attempt to play a YouTube video.

If you are still muddling with the YouTube an error has occurred, try this remarkably easy workaround.

You can change the quality of your video by selecting the Gear Icon and choose to play with another quality.

You may have to repeat this step for each video you choose to see as this is a workaround.

There are always the latest audio drivers available for your sound cards. Pay a visit to the website of the manufacturer or your motherboard and you will find the latest drivers.

You only need to download and install them. After you accomplish the update, check whether the issue with YouTube an error has occurred is solved. If this could not resolve your problem, try another process.

If you stack your cache with information, your system will get slower. This will generate lots of other problems along with this YouTube related issue.

By clearing these you can raise the loading time of your preferred web pages and enjoy better performance.

Step 1: Go to the Menu bar and select the Library from there. Then choose History. Now, choose Clear Recent History.

Step 2: Now select from there, the Cache And Cookies option, and press the Clear Now button.

Step 3: After you have removed Cache And Cookies, restart your browser.

You can also choose a tool to remove cache and cookies from your browser instead. There are various available options, and you can select from there.

If your Cookies are disabled somehow, enable it to resolve the problem while playing your YouTube Video.

Here I am providing you the steps to enable the cookies:

Step 2: Visit the Privacy And Security Section and choose Content Settings. Now search and find Cookies And Other Sites.

Step 3: Now block the Third-Party Cookies setting and check that it is disabled.

After you have finished the process, check whether you can play the videos on You Tube.

Sometimes this simple unusual trick may fix your problem while playing YouTube videos.

Simply plug in your headphones or speakers to your Device when you are playing your preferred YouTube videos.

You may have a built-in speaker, in this case, connect the headphones to solve the problem. In the taskbar, you will get a red cross sign. Check it and connect the speakers or headphones and play your video.

Some problems in your antivirus may trigger the YouTube error, so some users have reported that by repairing or uninstalling them, they could fix the issue.

First, try to repair the software but if you still see that the issue persists go for uninstallation. You can also find a solution by a simple update of the software to the latest version.

You may also try to use another antivirus instead and check whether the issue is solved this way!

This is a very common procedure to uninstall and then reinstall the browser in order to fix the error that occurred during watching our favorite YouTube Video.

Some users have reported being successful to address the YouTube error after they tried this measure.

While you uninstall your browser, it will delete all the history, cookies, or passwords. After you have successfully uninstalled the browser, proceed to reinstall it. Hope after that your problem with be solved.

Hope this article helped you to address the youtube an error occurred error and you are able to continue with your favorite videos.

Pgp Encryption: How It Works And How You Can Get Started

Don’t let the name “Pretty Good Privacy” mislead you. PGP encryption is the gold standard for encrypted communication and has been used by everyone from nuclear activists to criminals since its invention in 1991. While the execution is complex, the concept is simple: you can encrypt text, making it unreadable to anyone who doesn’t have the key to decode it.

How Does PGP Encryption Work?

Imagine you want to send someone a letter but don’t want anyone except the recipient to be able to read it. The best way to do this is to write the letter in code, but you can’t send the code key along with the letter, as that’s not very secure.

PGP encryption gets around this problem using public key encryption. Everyone is assigned two keys: a public one that you can share with everyone and a private one, which you keep to yourself. What makes this system possible is that the codes only work one way. If Key A encrypts a file, Key A cannot reverse the process and decrypt it. Only its pair, Key B, can do that. Here’s how it usually works:

Write down your message.

Find your friend’s public key. He can email it to you, have it listed on a site, etc.

Run a computer program that uses the public key to convert the message to code.

Send the message. Anyone who intercepts it will only see gibberish.

Your friend receives the message and runs it through his private key to decode it, restoring it to plain text.

This is a vastly simplified explanation of the process, but it covers the basics behind PGP encryption. If you want a more technical, mathematical explanation, Hackernoon breaks it down in much more detail.

What Can I Use PGP Encryption For?

PGP is most often used for encrypting emails, and there are many services to help you do that. ProtonMail is one great example of an encrypted email service that uses full end-to-end encryption. Beyond that, you can use your imagination: PGP can encrypt any text you need and can even be used on whole directories and drives. Investigative journalists often list their public keys online to make it easier for anonymous sources to get in touch with them, and sellers on darknet markets often use it to ensure their customers’ personal information stays secret.

How Do I Get Started?

Getting your own key pair is actually much easier than it sounds. You don’t need to understand anything at all about cryptography. You just have to figure out a few simple programs.

Install Encryption Program

Download Gpg4win. This is a free (though you can donate or just choose $0 when prompted) set of encryption packages and tools. For macOS, check out GPG Suite. You can also add PGP to Linux. As I use Windows, I’ll go through the Windows process.

Install Gpg4win. Make sure GnuPG (the actual encryption package) and Kleopatra (a nice user interface) are installed. The other components are optional, but it can’t hurt to have them.

How to Generate Encryption Keys

Once everything is installed, find the Kleopatra program on your computer and open it.

Go to the “File” tab and select “New Key Pair.” Or, choose “New Key Pair” under the “Certificates” tab. The second option is available only the first time you use the tool.

Since you want PGP keys, select “Create a personal OpenPGP key pair.”

If you want to attach your key to your identity, real or fake, you can enter that information here. Otherwise, you can skip this step. If you want to protect your key with a passphrase (which is more secure), check the “Protect the generated key with a passphrase” box.

From the same dialog box, visit “Advanced Settings” and make sure “RSA” is selected. Change the default 2048 to 4096; this level of encoding makes your encryption pretty much impenetrable and doesn’t really slow you down during normal use.

If you didn’t check the passphrase box in Step 4, you won’t be asked for a passphrase.

You now have a public and private key! If you want, you can back these up in a separate file somewhere, or you can email/publicly upload your public key.

How to Back Up and View Your Keys

Open any text-editing app, like Notepad. Any application that supports .asc files will work.

Open the file with your text editor to see your public key! Beautiful, isn’t it?

You can export your private key by following the same process, except select “Backup secret keys” instead of “Export” in Step 1. Make sure you store this in a safe location or just keep it inside Kleopatra; it’s perfectly accessible there.

These public and private keys can be used with any program that works with PGP, and Kleopatra itself can actually encrypt and decrypt files using your keys. If you want to take them for a test run, try encrypting a text file with your public key and decrypting it with your private key. Use the “Sign/Encrypt” and “Decrypt/Verify” options in Kleopatra.

Frequently Asked Questions How can I safely backup my key(s) once created?

Ideally, you’ll want to store them off your device. This ensures if anyone gains access to your device, they can’t access your keys. Plus, if your device becomes corrupted, you want a backup elsewhere. Consider using a secured USB device or external drive. For extra security, encrypt or password protect the drive.

Can I encrypt files to store in the cloud?

Yes. You can manually encrypt files using the method above. You can also use something specifically designed to encrypt cloud drives, such as Rclone.

Image credit: geralt via Pixabay

Crystal Crowder

Crystal Crowder has spent over 15 years working in the tech industry, first as an IT technician and then as a writer. She works to help teach others how to get the most from their devices, systems, and apps. She stays on top of the latest trends and is always finding solutions to common tech problems.

Subscribe to our newsletter!

Our latest tutorials delivered straight to your inbox

Sign up for all newsletters.

By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Policy and European users agree to the data transfer policy. We will not share your data and you can unsubscribe at any time.

How To Connect Django Database?

Introduction to Django Database

Django uses SQL, a Structured Query Language, to perform different operation crud operations. Typically SQL contains the complex query for creating, updating, and deleting data. Django supports databases such as Oracle, MySQL, SQLite, PostgreSQL, and MariaDB; we can use anyone per our requirements. On the other hand, Django supports many other features of all types of databases. For example, Django usually has an ORM feature, Object Relational Mapper; it allows the developer to map the data between the Django application model and database without any SQL queries; the ORM uses the model classes to interact with data.

Start Your Free Software Development Course

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Overview of Django Database

The Django structure is a free, open-source system that fosters web applications. This Python-based structure comprises verification, content administration, and data set communications that you can use to make any web application.

Django’s most impressive and valuable highlight is its Object-Relational Mapper (ORM). The ORM allows designers to plan information between application models and data sets without composing SQL questions. For example, the Object-Relational Mapper will plan object credits characterized in Django model classes to the comparing fields in the data set and communicate with the information as essential from a given data set. This allows engineers to quickly foster their applications, eliminating the need to compose separate SQL questions for information base exchanges.

The Django system Model-View-Template (MVT) engineering is planned so designers can change the frontend visual construction of an application without influencing the fundamental backend rationale. This is particularly valuable while connecting with information bases. When a Django web application is designed, an SQLite information base is naturally made.

How to Connect Django Database?

We know that Django supports different types of databases; here, we will see how we can connect Django with MySQL as follows:

First, we need to consider the following prerequisites as follows:

Installation of MySQL server with 5.7 + version

Installation of Python 3.0+ version

Here consider we already installed MySQL and Python and follow the below steps as follows:

First, we need to create a virtual environment with the help of the below command as follows:


mkdir stud_management cd stud_management

After that, we need to set the virtual environment for the newly created project, so we need to install the virtual environment using the below command.


pip install virtualenv virtualenv env

Now we have a virtual environment, so start the Django project using the below command.


django-admin startproject stud_management cd stud_management django-admin startapp student

Now we can check the chúng tôi file of our application, as shown below code.


INSTALLED_APPS = [ 'django.contrib.admin', 'django.contrib.auth', 'django.contrib.contenttypes', 'django.contrib.sessions', 'django.contrib.messages', 'django.contrib.staticfiles', ' student ', ]

Now we need to run the server with the help of the below command as follows.


python chúng tôi runserver

After executing the above command, we get an IP address on the terminal, as shown below screenshot.


Next, we need to create a new database in MySQL workbench, or we can use the shell for creating a database.

After logging into MySQL, we will get the following screenshot below.

Creating Django Database

Now let’s see how we can create a database in Django as follows:

Here we will see the MySQL database in different steps as follows:

Of course, when we made our first application and began the server, you probably saw another record in your task registry named ‘db.sqlite3’. The record is an information base document where every one of the information that you will create will be put away as shown below screenshot as follows.

First, we need to make some changes in the chúng tôi file as follows:


DATABASE = { 'deafult': { 'ENGINE':django.db.backends.sqlite3, 'NAME':os.path.join(DIR,'db,sqlite3'), } }


In the above example, we can see how to establish a database connection; here, we have two different terms as follows:

ENGINE: It determines the library used when associated with a specific site. In the end, we need to put the record, “Django.db.backends.sqlite3”, which is the Python library for the sqlite3 data set and will make an interpretation of your Python code to the data set language.

NAME: Here, you will have the name of the information base you are utilizing and the area of your data set. This boundary changes as indicated by the information base you are using. Here you can explore different avenues regarding the information base document.

Now we need to execute the below command as follows:


python chúng tôi migrate python chúng tôi runserver


After executing the above command, we see a new database was created, as shown in the screenshot below.

First, we need to open MySQL on the terminal and connect with the server, as shown in the below screenshot.

Now here, we need to create a new database with the help of the below screenshot as follows:


create database dsample;


After execution of the above query, we can see the newly created database as shown below screenshot as follows:

Now we need to update the chúng tôi file as follows:


DATABASES = { 'default': { 'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.mysql', 'NAME': 'dsample', 'USER': 'root', 'PASSWORD': '******', 'HOST': '', 'PORT': '8080', } }

After that, we need to install mysqlclient packages with the below command as follows:


pip install mysqlclient

Now run the migration command.

Finally, change the database as per our requirements.


With the help of the above article, we saw about the Django database. From this article, we saw basic things about the Django database and the features and installation of the Django database, and how we use it in the Django database.

Recommended Articles

We hope that this EDUCBA information on “Django Database” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.

How To Create Drupal Cms?

Introduction to Drupal CMS

Drupal CMS is defined as, it is a free and open-source Content Management System that can authorize, control, and bring out our content. It has been constructed on the PHP surrounding. It is controlled below the General Public License, which can provide the privilege of copying and sharing with others. It can be utilized for searching web hosting of our Drupal website, acquiring the user interface, and setting up a new front page, etc. Content Management System is a software having a group of equivalent programs which can be utilized for generating and controlling the various kind of virtual or connected content.

Start Your Free Software Development Course

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

What is Drupal CMS? How to Create Drupal CMS?

Given below shows how to create drupal cms:

Step 1: Installation of Drupal

Let us see the installation process of Drupal, which is the same as many platforms. For manual installation, first, we need to have a local environment. As a pre-requisite, an MYSQL database and installed Drush are required, which the site has been utilized.

If we are using Drush for downloading, then you have to use a command line, and the command will be:


"drush dl –drupal-project-rename=docroot",

For changing the directory, “cd docroot/”:

After installation, we need to configure the installation in which we can approach the site by utilizing the standard URL, which will present you with the Drupal installation. We have to select the language through it.

Then we have to select the installation profile, either standard or minimal, which standard can be selected by beginners.

After completion of the needful section, the installer can be appended to the Drupal software on our website.

After completing the installation, we can arrange the setting and details of our site.

After filling in all the needful details, we can be able to save the settings, and we can see the admin toolbar has numerous key options.

Step 2: To begin generating the content

This can take you to the content page, which is empty for the first time.

If we want to generate, then select Add content, then we need to select the content type.

We can also utilize the editing interface for appending the body of the article.

We can also be able to append the tags and images.

We can arrange the article setting.

We can edit every section by enlarging the options which it holds.

Current Landscape

Drupal 9 became the latest version of it is Drupal 10, which is the latest version of the main open-source CMS to become DXP. Drupal versions are coming so fast with the backward compatibility, and it provides simple upgrade ways for websites which is already updated.

Landscape Architecture Foundation is a non-profit liberal organization established in 1966 with the aim to defend, refine, and upgrade the environment. It already has the website, which TOKY establishes, but they need to construct the Landscape Performance series. Drupal has been selected by Landscape due to its ability of views, which can authorize us to construct strong searching and clarifying functionality that can be utilized already in case studies, quick fiction library, benefit toolkit, and also the gathering part. It can merge views with the structural architecture of Drupal; we can simply present various content types in a multitude of ways.

Benefits of Drupal CMS

There are some benefits of Drupal CMS:

Security: Drupal provides firm security, which can make a well-liked solution for the government as well as enterprise-level clients. The security team of Drupal is devoted to recognizing and surveying the possible risk in Drupal core and contributed modules also.

Flexibility: Drupal has been honored as the best pliable content management system. It is simple to generate and control an extensive variety of content coming out of videos to weblogs. Due to its flexibility, it is ideal for generating interesting websites.

Performance and scalability: Drupal can manage an unexpected point in traffic, which is finer than most CMS. Expandability of it can enlarge the traffic on websites.

Customizability: It is 100% customizable due to the above 40,000 modules, and plug-ins are improving the functionality of the websites.

Accessibility and ability to integrate marketing tools: It is executed for availability which can make sure to provide comprehensive experiences to the users.

User experience: Drupal is customer-centric and has various contents for the realization that gives users the correct experience that they expect. The layout of it also authorizes generating landing pages and re-utilized the pages.

Custom Experiences

The custom CMS has been specially modified to help the project pre-condition, and it can be converted into more popularity. It means that a development team can be able to construct substitutes suitable for the marketing and brand dimensions. However, it can happen if the company has time and economics on its side to assemble the required substitute.


In this article, we conclude that Drupal is a flexible Content Management System that can authorize control of the content types with videos, text, blogs, menus, etc. It can have numerous templates for constructing applications, so this article is helpful in understanding the concept of Drupal CMS with its benefits.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Drupal CMS. Here we discuss the introduction and steps to create drupal CMS along with some benefits and custom experiences. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Update the detailed information about How & Why Accessibility Matters For Seo on the website. We hope the article's content will meet your needs, and we will regularly update the information to provide you with the fastest and most accurate information. Have a great day!