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After the coronavirus pandemic, companies have changed their view of the usual organization of the workflow. The focus shifted from the place and time of work to the goal and result. Established models are transforming, giving way to new approaches. With this in the background, many companies see the future behind a hybrid model that combines remote and office work.

Remote work has fundamentally changed people’s perception of the role of work in their lives. Returning to the office is challenging. For example, in five major developed economies, the US, Germany, the UK, France, and Australia, in 2023, only a quarter to a third of office workers who worked remotely during the pandemic returned to the 5-day work week in the office.

Jobs with the option to work remotely receive 2.5 times more responses than similar job offers exclusively in the office. According to a Microsoft study in 31 countries conducted in early 2023, 52% of full-time office workers plan to work remotely over the next year, while almost the same proportion of employers, 50%, plan to bring all their employees back to the office. Managers worry that working from home reduces the efficiency of their subordinates.

Before the start of the pandemic, there was a strict division into “regular work” and “remote work.” Now businesses are looking for hybrid work, while employers have found that employees are in no hurry to return to their jobs. So far, the market has yet to form a unified approach to hybrid work. Each company builds forms in its own way, depending on the specifics of its business. The most optimal solution would be not formal compliance with the policy of “three days in the office, two days working from home” but maintaining a constant dialogue with employees and finding a mutually beneficial solution, whether it’s a startup team or big business.

Benefits and Challenges of Remote Work

More and more services are moving online, so more and more professions are moving to work online. And at this point, a logical question arises: “Why should I go to the office?” And this question is not only by the employees but also by the company management: “Why should I pay for an office if employees can work from home?”

Until 2023, working from home was more of a privilege. Small business and freelancing had their nuances, but if you worked in a large company and could not go to the office, you were lucky. There are people who not only do not lose productivity at home but also increase it by saving time.

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Top 10 IoT Mobile App Development Trends to Expect in 2023

Benefits and Challenges of Office Work

Is There A Compromise?

As a result, we see that remote work is not a universal tool. It is only suitable for some employees and only for some tasks. Employees whose responsibilities are clear, whose tasks are well described, and whose solutions do not involve many meetings remain productive at home. Those with research, management, initiative and communication jobs are more likely to have trouble working remotely.

If you ask employees where they want to work, in the office or at home, most will say: “I want to be able to come to the office sometimes.” So we came to allow employees to go to the office as needed, but even here, everything is not so simple.

Although a “hybrid” is a step towards more flexible work in the future, it can include many variations. The whole point of hybrid work is to give workers the choice of when and where to work. Employees have more autonomy to work whenever they want, not just when they are strictly limited to office hours. Ideally, this is the best option: planning and communication on the one hand and independence and flexibility on the other.

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10 Best Saas Marketing Tools And Platforms For 2023

Hybrid Work and Its Challenges

You can not keep a spot in the office for each employee; it is wasteful. The phrase “To be able to come sometimes” most often means 2-3 times a month. Many employees, having the opportunity to go to the office, rarely do it. Here are the main problems of employees who do not want to go to the office:

“I don’t know anyone there” Employee onboarding process is an important and complex topic, especially when working remotely.

“There’s no one there” Sometimes, it’s better to tie employees’ visits to the office to events, general meetings, or parties. It is better to gather people in chats for those who want to find a company for going to the office. You can gather people in the office as a team for a specific task; later, this mechanism starts to work on its own, and employees self-organize.


The hybrid format of the company’s work is a tool that can give many valuable things, both for the company and its employees. When used correctly, it can significantly reduce staff outflow and increase employee loyalty and productivity. But it needs to be used wisely, as it is only suitable for some.

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What’s The Difference Between Facebook Stories And Messenger Stories

Now that Facebook has introduced the Story feature in its own app as well, you might be wondering, “Wasn’t there Facebook Messenger stories as well that was launched just last week?”

If you are confused with all that’s happening, let me clear your doubts.

Facebook Messenger Stories aka “Your day” feature is completely different from the Facebook app’s Stories. By different we mean both are separate story streams. Whatever you upload to Facebook Story is not reflected in the Messenger Story, while same goes for Messenger Story as well.

However, functionality wise both remain similar i.e. you can enhance your photos and videos with doodles and captions. And, similar to all the other “Stories” of other apps, Stories in both Messenger and Facebook app disappear after 24 hours.

In case you are wondering, why have two separate mediums to share Story via FACEBOOK, it’s because they have a different audience. Really different audience. And that has some effect, as even WhatsApp had to bring back old status feature back as About when it faced backlash from majority of its users.

Also read: 8 cool new WhatsApp Status Tips and Tricks

Facebook stories are visible only to your friends, and strictly to your friend list, as of now. You cannot keep your stories public. However, Stories on Messenger are visible to all the people you have interacted with via Facebook Messenger, even if it was just once. They might not be on your friend list. So beware. But the good thing is, you can change the privacy settings for Messenger Stories and restrict it to custom people.

Here is a detailed talk on similarities and differences between Facebook Stories and Messenger stories.

Facebook Stories vs Messenger Stories: the differences

Facebook Messenger Story is also called “Your day”. There is no other name for Facebook Story, it is known by one name “Story”.

Facebook Messenger Story lacks the amazing Facebook filters. Though it comes with its own filters, the quantity and quality are less.

Facebook Messenger doesn’t allow you to change the color of captions, only the background can be changed that is also predefined.

There are more color options present in Facebook Messenger Story.

Unlike Facebook Story, where you have to hold the color to increase the brush size, in Facebook Messenger Story, you have to drag the color towards the left to increase the brush size.

You can flip your photo in Facebook app Story. The feature is missing in Messenger Story.

There is no Direct Messages for Messenger Story that disappears after you have seen them in the Messenger. The replies to your story are sent via the normal Messenger chat. (Though there is a secret conversation feature, but that is not related to stories). Whereas, in the Facebook app, if you send a message through Facebook Direct or reply to the story of your friends, it disappears after the other person has seen it twice.

To pause a story in the Facebook Messenger, just tap it. However, in Facebook app, you have to pinch the story to pause it.

You can hide or mute stories of other people in the Messenger, however, the Facebook app lacks this feature.

As mentioned above, Messenger comes with Privacy features, unlike Facebook Story that published your story to your entire friend list.

Facebook Stories vs Messenger Stories: the similarities

Being from the same developer, the apps feature a lot of commonalities between them. And if you have worked your way through messenger app, you would feel at home on Facebook app too when looking to post a story or two.

Whatever you upload in the story disappears after 24 hours on both apps.

You can add captions and doodle in both of them.

Double tap to switch the camera instantly.

Both allow you to publish media from your gallery.

Both allow you to save the edited photo/video to your gallery.

Both allow you to tap the photo once to move to the next story. Also, swipe to move to the next screen is available on both the apps.

Did Facebook really need stories in the mainstream app?

Bitcoin Vs. Bitcoin Cash: What’s The Difference?

 While Bitcoin has become a household name in the cryptocurrency space, many would-be entrants into the cryptocurrency market suddenly find themselves confronted with a plethora of similarly named Bitcoin derivatives — Bitcoin Cash, Bitcoin SV, Bitcoin gold, Bitcoin diamond — to the casual observer the list seems almost endless.

Are these all Bitcoin? Or these mere counterfeit altcoin knockoffs of the real McCoy?

Related: Why is Ethereum Dropping? 3 Top Reasons

Differences between Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash

Down below we’ll take a look at Bitcoin Cash, the largest Bitcoin relative by far, and examine what separates it from its predecessor.

What is Bitcoin Cash?

Bitcoin Cash is a digital currency based on a separate blockchain that split from the original Bitcoin Blockchain in August 2023 via a hard fork. Bitcoin Cash was created to address some of the scalability issues inherent to Bitcoin and many other first-generation blockchains — specifically transaction speed, and high fees. 

Bitcoin Cash is, at time of this writing, the 13th largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization, currently valued at somewhere around $470 per coin — less than 1% of Bitcoin’s current value of over $52,000. In all meaningful respects, Bitcoin Cash operates exactly like Bitcoin — solely as a medium of exchange — but with a few salient tweaks that we will go into next.

In case you’re unaware of how a hard fork works in blockchain, here’s a quick reminder: a hard fork involves splitting a blockchain’s transactional history in two from a common point – reminiscent of a fork in the road In which two paths diverge. This generally splits up a cryptocurrency’s community and, despite being considered a significant headache for both developers and the stakeholders in the currency, is currently the only choice for developers to add significant functionality or changes to a cryptocurrency’s design. This is due to the immutable nature of the blockchain; you can’t so much as update a blockchain as you can create a new one.

Related: How to Buy Bitcoin on Cash App

Why Was Bitcoin Cash Created?

Bitcoin Cash was created to address several key scalability issues facing Bitcoin — chief among them, transaction speed. Centralized payment gateway Visa is capable of processing somewhere in the neighborhood of 1700 transactions per second, with most individual transactions completing in a matter of a few seconds for the end-user. Bitcoin, on the other hand, can only process 7 to 10 transactions per second, with transactions taking at least a few minutes for the individual.

During Bitcoin’s big boom in 2023, this dearth in transaction speed only further plummeted under the weight of high traffic, with some transactions taking days at a time to be confirmed and validated. This bottleneck also drives up transaction fees which for years had hovered around a dollar; at the height of the boom in 2023-18, transaction fees peaked at over $50 per transaction and today stand somewhere in the neighborhood of $15.

These lengthy transaction times and incredibly high fees stand as a significant obstacle between Bitcoin and widespread, mainstream acceptance. It’s hard to envision yourself buying a loaf of bread using Bitcoin if the loaf of bread costs $2.99 and the transaction fee is $15. You also can’t exactly stand around at the register for possibly hours or days at a time, waiting for the transaction to be validated. But, if these challenges cannot be solved, it becomes harder to imagine Bitcoin as a full-fledged medium of exchange on par with a traditional Fiat currency.

But addressing these problems isn’t easy.

They stem largely from the foundational design of Bitcoin itself – specifically its 1MB block size. The blockchain serves as a historical record of transactions and is considered an incredibly secure ledger system due to its decentralized nature and the consensus algorithms that ensure its accuracy. To confirm a transaction, a Bitcoin miner has to expend significant amounts of computational power to solve a cryptographic puzzle that must then be verified by the entire network as correct. These transaction histories are added in “blocks” of data to the blockchain where they are set in stone in chronological order for all the world to check and verify. Each block on the Bitcoin blockchain stores one megabyte of transactional data. 

This is where the key difference between Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash lies. Bitcoin Cash raises this one megabyte block size to a total of 32 MB, allowing more transactions to be added at once. This seemingly simple change, however, significantly increases transaction speed and lowers fees, making it much more efficient than Bitcoin vanilla while bringing in a few other considerations, both positive and negative.

Related: Nerdschalk Explains: What is NFT Crypto?

Bitcoin Cash Advantages 

A byproduct of these lower transaction fees is that it makes Bitcoin Cash a better option for smaller, more frequent transactions than the Bitcoin network. Kind of like, well, cash. For example, it’s easier to imagine purchasing that three-dollar loaf of bread for a transaction fee of $0.0023, than it is $10.40. This helps, in part, to reliably envision a future where Bitcoin — in some form — is as readily accepted as USD.

This would promote the exact sort of centralization that blockchain was designed to prevent. 

The more salient problem facing Bitcoin Cash is the lack of confidence in the currency compared to Bitcoin. Bitcoin Cash suffers from comparatively low acceptance relative to its predecessor, meaning lower liquidity and tradeability. This stands as the primary obstacle between Bitcoin Cash and the mainstream adoption that the original Bitcoin is beginning to increasingly enjoy. 

Finally, the major problem for the Bitcoin miners is that while the Proof of Work algorithm is essentially identical to Bitcoin’s, the fact that Bitcoin Cash is currently worth less than 1% of Bitcoin makes mining that much less profitable. By disincentivizing the miners who validate transactions and build the blockchain, the entire system is thrown in doubt – only further exacerbating the aforementioned problems of centralization and lower market penetration, and vice-versa. 

Should I Buy Bitcoin or Bitcoin Cash?

Warren Buffet once said that investors should “be fearful when others are greedy and greedy when others are fearful.”


Apple M1 Vs. M2 Chip: What’s The Difference?

While they share some similarities, notable details are worth differentiating. However, to stay on track, you might want to see everything you need to know about the M1 chip before proceeding.

So Apple’s M1 vs. M2 chip. How are they different? Keep reading to learn more.

Apple’s M1 and M2 by numbers

There’s no justice to the duo’s power without considering some figures and specs. The table below summarizes the notable differences between Apple’s M1 and M2 chips.

M1 vs. M2 chip: Price differences

The 2023 M1-powered MacBook Air starts pricing at $999, which significantly costs less than the 2023 M2-powered MacBook Air, set to hit the market in July 2023 at a starting price of $1,199.

The M1-powered MacBooks have variants, though, with the M1 MacBook Pro selling for as high as $1,299. The 16-inch MacBook Pro with an M1 Max chip will even reduce your savings by $2,499.

Undoubtedly, the M2 generation will also have its variants, and you can only expect that the price of the highest spec will nearly cut your budget scale. In addition to the 2023 MacBook Air, Apple also features the M2 chip in the MacBook Pro (2023). The Pro version will start selling for $1,299 when released in July 2023.

As with M1 MacBooks, you can expect to see more of the M2 variants unveiled in more MacBooks as time rolls.

M1 vs. M2 chip: Neural engine and secure enclave

Source: Apple

Apple’s new M2 chip combines the power of the next-generation neural engine with the secure enclave to amass an efficiency that brings it to a 40 percent better performance than the M1. The secure enclave is typical of all Apple’s SoCs and is the primary encrypting unit in the M series. This hasn’t changed in the M2 chip either.

Most people will admit the M1’s ability to peak at 11 trillion total operations per second (TOPs) is enough to achieve complex computing tasks. However, seeing that M2 chip neural engine can process up to 15.8 trillion TOPs is quite impressive. Such a difference in performance and speed will be too obvious to go unnoticed while operating an M1 and M2-powered MacBook simultaneously.

GPU cores comparison

Source: Apple

Apple says the M2 chip graphic performance is higher than that of M1 by 25 percent and could peak as high as 35 percent. Well, not without expending more power. But that’s a significant improvement.

The GPU in the M2 chip has ten cores, which is now two more than the M1 GPU. Indeed, it’s safe to claim that M2’s GPU is superior to the M1’s. Further, as opposed to the M1’s 2.6 teraflops, the M2 chip delivers 3.6 teraflops at a texture filter rate of 111 gigatexels per second and features a transmission rate of 55 gigapixels per second. All these further bring the M2 chip to the MacBook performance forefront.

M1 vs. M2 chip: CPU cores

Source: Apple

The M1 has a 4+4 CPU core configuration. This hasn’t changed in the M2 chip, and the instruction and data caches on either configuration patch remain the same. But the M2 chip tips its high-performance cores with an expanded shared caching capacity of 16MB as opposed to the M1’s 12MB.

They both have spectacular CPU cores, averagely holding 8 CPU cores, which is higher than what most CPUs could deliver. Even a dual-core CPU is enough to handle most complex tasks.

However, while the M1 chip features 16 billion transistors, the M2 chip extends to 20 billion transistors, handing it more capability to expand to 10 cores. Undeniably, the M1 core blazes in its current form, but the M2 performs 18 percent faster at the same power consumption rate; this is an appreciable improvement.

Unified memory strength 

Source: Apple

As opposed to the M1 chip, which delivers 68GBps memory bandwidth, the M2 processing unit can read and write data at the rate of 100GBps. A memory bandwidth almost 50% faster than the M1’s is worth showing off in a gadget.

Although the M2 chip has two variants currently, you can look forward to more from Apple, considering the firm’s track record of continuous unit upgrades. You’re looking at a possible M1 Ultra-like variant in the M2 chip once Apple starts rolling out M2 versions. And undoubtedly, this will offer far higher bandwidth than the M1 Ultra, which runs at 128GBps.

Although the M1 chip already delivers a 16GB unified memory capacity based on LPDDR4x, which is enough for most arduous tasks, the M2 takes this further to 24GB on an LPDDR5 memory interface. This takes latency further down significantly and reduces power consumption, a typical attribute of LPDDR5.

M1 vs. M2 chip: Power consumption

Considering the specs of the GPU and CPU altogether, both the M1 and M2 chips have improved performance and speed, but, of course, not at the expense of power consumption.

Besides, maximized performance with minimal power consumption isn’t an attribute of many processing units. The M2 chip performs better than the M1 chip in many areas at the same power consumption rate.

Overall, there’s no significant difference in the power consumption rate between M1 and M2. But it’s great to see that the M2 chip maintains the M series power conservation legacy despite all the improvements.

Apple’s M1 or M2 chip: Which is best for you?

Deciding what’s best for you between an M1 and M2 chip depends on some factors. However, I must mention that while the M2 chip is significantly more performant than the M1, an M1 MacBook isn’t out of the game, as it will answer the call on complex computing tasks.

No matter how fast a system is, its speed should ideally corroborate its performance. Indeed, the M1 chip has laid the blueprint for high speed and improved performance in the M series chips with its specs. The M2 chip takes it even further, considering its superiority over the M1 chip.

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Idowu is an avid tech writer and a software surfer who loves covering knowledge gaps in consumer software, including anything related to iPhones. Well, when he’s not reading and learning new things, you’ll find Idowu losing gallantly on a solid chessboard or virtually on Lichess.

Iphone 11 Vs Iphone 13: What’s The Difference?

While the iPhone 13 might be a minor upgrade on the iPhone 12, there’s a bigger difference when comparing it two-generations apart. 

Price & Availability

In true Apple tradition, the iPhone 11 is still part of the official range of smartphones but now at a lower price – from £489/$499. It’s now the second cheapest model in the range still available from Apple with the SE taking the budget crown.

The new iPhone 13 comes in at £779/US$799 which is a little cheaper than the 12 last year in the UK, but the same in the US. However, you get more for your money with double the storage as standard.

The available models are listed below but it’s also worth pointing out that the iPhone range doesn’t come with any EarPods headphones or a charging adapter in the box. It’s part of Apple’s green initiative and means if you need either, they are now optional extras. You only get a cable.

Also, note there is an iPhone 13 mini available from £679/US$699 but we’re comparing the regular edition here.

iPhone 11 prices

64GB – £489/$499

128GB – £539/$549

Get the iPhone 11 from the Apple Store. 

iPhone 13 prices

128GB – £779/$799

256GB – £879/$899

512GB – £1079/$1099

You can grab the iPhone 13 from the Apple Store, and take a look at our  best iPhone buying guide if you’re unsure which is best for you.

Design & Build

The iPhone 13 sticks very much with the design of the iPhone 12. In fact, it’s almost identical meaning it’s more compact and square than the iPhone 11 with its flat sides. The compact size also means it’s lighter at 174g vs 194g despite having the same screen size.

One of the major design differences between the two is that the iPhone 13 supports MagSafe accessories ranging from wallets to chargers. These firmly snap onto the back of the phone keeping things more secure and making wireless chargers easier to use.

Like the iPhone 12, the 13 has a ‘Ceramic Shield’ front giving it four times the drop protection of the iPhone 11. And despite both being IP68 waterproof rated, the 13 is rated to a depth of 6m, double that of the 11.

Since both phones have a Lightning port and notch in the screen, the final design element is colour. They are quite different with the iPhone 11 available in Purple, Yellow, Green, Black White and (Product) Red.

The iPhone 13 comes in the latter but then you have to choose between Starlight, Midnight, Blue and Pink.

Specs & Features

With a two-year gap, it’s no big surprise there are some fairly big differences between the iPhone 11 and 13 when it comes to specs. Having double the storage (plus a 512GB option) and 5G on the new model is just the start really.

You, of course, get the latest chip in the iPhone 13 and although the iPhone 11 is still a perfectly usable device, the A15 Bionic is significantly more powerful and will also future-proof you. 

So, the iPhone 13 is a good upgrade if you like to short a lot of video. For photography alone, the performance will be closer.

Finally, it’s worth noting that the screen sizes are both 6.1in but the iPhone 11 is limited to a fairly basic LCD IPS display. The iPhone 13 comes with a superior Super Retina XDR which offers an OLED panel and HDR support. It’s got a much better contrast ratio and higher brightness, too.

Here is a spec comparison of the iPhone 13 and 11:

 iPhone 13iPhone 11ColoursStarlight, midnight, blue, pink, (product) red Black, green, yellow, purple, white, (product) redDisplay6.1in Super Retina XDR (2532×1170, 460ppi) OLED, HDR6.1in Liquid Retina Display (1792×828, 326ppi) LCD IPSProcessorApple A15 BionicApple A13 BionicStorage128/256/512GB64/128GBRear camera12Mp wide, f/1.6, SS OIS + 12Mp ultra-wide, f/2.4, Smart HDR 412Mp wide, f/1.8, OIS + 12Mp ultra-wide, f/2.4, Smart HDRFront camera12Mp TrueDepth, f/2.2, 4K video, Night Mode, Deep Vision,

HDR video recording with Dolby Vision up to 30 fps

12Mp TrueDepth, f/2.2, 4K videoVideo recording4K at 24/25/30/60fps, 1080p slo-mo at 240fps,

HDR video recording with Dolby Vision up to 30 fps, Cinematic mode

4K at 24/30/60fps, 1080p slo-mo at 240fpsBiometric securityFace IDFace IDWirelessBluetooth 5.0, Wi-Fi 6 802.11axBluetooth 5.0, Wi-Fi 6 802.11ax5GYesNoWireless charging

MagSafe and Qi


Apple Pay (NFC)YesYesWaterproofingIP68 (6m)IP68 (3m)Dimensions71.5×146.7×7.65mm75.7 x 150.9 x 8.3mmWeight174g194gPriceFrom £779/$799From £489/$499Buy SIM-free Order Now Order NowBuy on contract  Order Now


The age-old ‘should I upgrade?’ question that iPhone 11 owners may be pondering is much easier than when the 12 arrived.

If you can afford it, the iPhone 13 is superior in various ways with more storage (as standard and options), has 5G, better IP68 waterproofing and MagSafe.

It also has the latest processor, XDR display, camera technology and other things like a Ceramic Shield front. All of this comes in a more compact handset, as long as you can find a colour you like.

Usb 3.0 Vs 3.1 Vs 3.2 – What’s The Difference?

USBs have been a real game changer for the world of technology, and they’ve been constantly evolving since the introduction of USB 1.0 in 1996.

Talking about the changes, each generation of USB 3 brought noticeable improvements, which were generally well received by users. The naming convention on the other hand, was a disaster.

Both the official and marketing names were revised multiple times. For instance, USB 3.0 was renamed as USB 3.1 Gen 1, and renamed again as USB 3.2 Gen 1×1. While the latter is the currently used name, some people still prefer the older names, which adds to the confusion.

If you’re (understandably) confused as well, the table below should be helpful.

Original NamesRevised NamesCurrent NamesOld Marketing NameCurrent Marketing NameUSB 3.0USB 3.1 Gen 1USB 3.2 Gen 1×1SuperSpeedSuperSpeed USB 5 Gbit/sUSB 3.1USB 3.1 Gen 2USB 3.2 Gen 2×1SuperSpeed +SuperSpeed USB 10 Gbit/sUSB 3.2USB 3.2 Gen 2×2SuperSpeed USB 20 Gbit/sThe naming of various iterations of USB 3.X

For ease of reading, we’ve organized the sections below in chronological order with the current generation-based naming convention, i.e., USB 3.2 Gen 1×1, 2×1, and 2×2.

USB 3.2 Gen 1×1, originally introduced as USB 3.0 in November 2008, had several significant improvements over USB 2.0, its predecessor. 

The revised USB 2.0 standard supported all types of connectors from Type-A to Mini-AB. USB 3.0 dropped support for the mini connectors and instead supported new versions of Type-A, Type-B, Type-C, Micro-A, Micro-B, and Micro-AB connectors.

The USB 3.0 Type-A connectors were backward compatible with the USB 2.0 version. However, this is not the case for the rest of the connectors, as the other versions don’t physically match. You’ll need an adapter to use these USB 3.0 connectors with a USB 2.0 port.  

With these connectors, USB 3.0 specified 150 mA or 0.6 W current for one unit load devices, and up to 900mA or 4.5 W for max six load devices at 5 V. Additionally, USB 3.0 ports could bump the available current up to 1.5 A or 7.5 W if implementing the USB Battery Charging Specification.

And most importantly, USB 3.0, which was marketed as SuperSpeed, introduced max transfer speeds of up to 5 Gbit/s, a massive 10x increase from USB 2.0’s Hi-Speed USB.

USB-IF introduced the USB 3.1 standard in 2013, and this is where the rebranding mess began. USB 3.0 was renamed to USB 3.1 Gen 1, while USB 3.1 was marketed as USB 3.1 Gen 2, or SuperSpeed +. 

USB 3.1 Gen 1 superseded USB 3.0, meaning it had the same specs, with 5 Gbit/s max bandwidth over a single lane using 8b/10b encoding.

USB 3.1 Gen 2 improved on these specs with a new max data transfer rate up to 10 Gbit/s with 128b/132b encoding. Of course, this was only a theoretical max. But the real-world max speeds were still very impressive at over 7Gbit/s.

While the connector types didn’t change from USB 3.0 to 3.1, one significant difference was the use of USB Power Delivery (PD) standard. The revised USB PD Rev 2.0 standard was released as part of the USB 3.1 suite, which updated USB PD to support various USB-C features such as Alternate Mode.

In terms of power, USB PD introduced Power Rules which defined normative voltage levels at 5 V, 9 V, 15 V, and 20 V. Fixed power profiles were also dropped, meaning power supplies could support maximum source output power ranging anywhere from 0.5 W to 100 W.

USB-IF released USB 3.2 in August 2023, and this is where the naming convention really became an issue. USB 3.0, which was rebranded as USB 3.1 Gen 1, was absorbed by USB 3.2 and once again rebranded as USB 3.2 Gen 1×1.

This can get confusing, but as one of our readers put it, thinking of anything referring to Gen 1 as 3.0 could be an easy way to remember.

Similarly, USB 3.1 was renamed as USB 3.2 Gen 2×1, while USB 3.2 was branded as USB 3.2 Gen 2×2. The old marketing names, SuperSpeed and SuperSpeed + were also changed to SuperSpeed 5 Gbit/s and SuperSpeed 10 Gbit/s. Following this trend, the marketing name for USB 3.2 was SuperSpeed 20 Gbit/s.

As evident from the brand name, USB 3.2 operates with dual-lane differential SuperSpeed pairs and uses 128b/132b encoding to offer max speeds of up to 20 Gbit/s. 

Another very noticeable change with USB 3.2 was that it deprecated all connector types aside from the USB Type-C connector. USB-C specifies a symmetrical connector with 12 A pins on top and 12 B pins at the bottom. Because of the rotational symmetry, you needn’t worry about the correct orientation as with other connector types.

The exclusive use of USB-C meant that the implementation of features such as Alternate Mode was also much more prevalent with USB 3.2. For instance, with the DisplayPort alt mode, you could transfer both USB and Video data simultaneously.

To recap, here are the main differences as detailed in the sections above:

USB 3.0USB 3.1USB 3.2Form FactorUSB 3.0 specified the use of Type-A, Type-B, Type-C, Micro-A, Micro-B, and Micro-AB chúng tôi connector types remained consistent in USB 3.1USB 3.2 specified the exclusive use of Type-C, and dropped support for all other connector types.Power DeliveryThe standard USB 3.0 specification supports up to 4.5 W of chúng tôi USB PD, USB 3.1 can support up to 100 W of chúng tôi 3.2 also supports up to 100 W of power with USB PD.Max BandwidthUSB 3.0 supported a theoretical max bandwidth of 5 Gbit/s.USB 3.1 supported a theoretical max bandwidth of 10 Gbit/s.USB 3.2 supported a theoretical max bandwidth of 20 Gbit/s.

Aside from these major technical differences, there are a few more things worth talking about, starting with the pricing. Each iteration of USB 3 saw the use of improved technology, which subsequently meant increased product prices on the customer’s end.

The exact price difference between the generations differs according to the product, but you can always count on the newer generation products with better specs to cost higher than the older ones.

Second, is the matter of appearance. USB 3.0 originally used blue colored ports, whereas USB 3.1 adapted teal colored ports instead. Some manufacturer’s also use purple or violet for USB 3.1 ports.

While in previous iterations of USB, red color was adapted on those ports/connectors which was limited to charging, USB 3.2 Gen 2×2 adapted this color wholly.

Finally, let’s talk about actual implementation. With how immensely popular the USB standard is, implementing a new version worldwide is a herculean task that takes years. USB 2.0 had 8 years to establish itself as a standard.

On the other hand, USB 3.0 only had around 4 years between its introduction and the release of USB 3.1. It’s the same story with USB 3.1 and USB 3.2. In fact, USB 3.2 was the likely the least popular, as by the time it’s implementation actually began in 2023, USB4 was already introduced.

USB4, which is based on the Thunderbolt 3 protocol, is currently the latest and fastest USB standard. Aside from doubling the data signaling rates compared to it’s predecessor, USB4 brought forth numerous improvements, which deserve an article of their own.

As modern devices are already adopting USB4, the implementation of USB 3.2 has been quite limited. Recently, the EU proposed mandatory USB-C, which further impacts the usage of USB 3.0 and USB 3.1 as well.

While this doesn’t bode well for USB 3, it’s likely a good thing for USB in general, and users as well. Even though USB4 products are slightly more expensive, the numerous improvements make it well worth it. And the prospect of a universal connector type is always welcome as well.

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