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Definition of Hypothesis Testing

The hypothesis is a statement, assumption or claim about the value of the parameter (mean, variance, median etc.).

A hypothesis is an educated guess about something in the world around you. It should be testable, either by experiment or observation.

Like, if we make a statement that “Dhoni is the best Indian Captain ever.” This is an assumption that we are making based on the average wins and losses team had under his captaincy. We can test this statement based on all the match data.

Null and Alternative Hypothesis Testing

The null hypothesis is the hypothesis to be tested for possible rejection under the assumption that it is true. The concept of the null is similar to innocent until proven guilty We assume innocence until we have enough evidence to prove that a suspect is guilty.

In simple language, we can understand the null hypothesis as already accepted statements, For example, Sky is blue. We already accept this statement.

It is denoted by H0.

The alternative hypothesis complements the Null hypothesis. It is the opposite of the null hypothesis such that both Alternate and null hypothesis together cover all the possible values of the population parameter.

It is denoted by H1.

Let’s understand this with an example:

A soap company claims that its product kills on an average of 99% of the germs. To test the claim of this company we will formulate the null and alternate hypothesis.

Null Hypothesis(H0): Average =99%

Alternate Hypothesis(H1): Average is not equal to 99%.

Note: When we test a hypothesis, we assume the null hypothesis to be true until there is sufficient evidence in the sample to prove it false. In that case, we reject the null hypothesis and support the alternate hypothesis. If the sample fails to provide sufficient evidence for us to reject the null hypothesis, we cannot say that the null hypothesis is true because it is based on just the sample data. For saying the null hypothesis is true we will have to study the whole population data.

Simple and Composite Hypothesis Testing

When a hypothesis specifies an exact value of the parameter, it is a simple hypothesis and if it specifies a range of values then it is called a composite hypothesis.

e.g. Motor cycle company claiming that a certain model gives an average mileage of 100Km per liter, this is a case of simple hypothesis.

The average age of students in a class is greater than 20. This statement is a composite hypothesis.

One-tailed and two-tailed Hypothesis Testing

If the alternate hypothesis gives the alternate in both directions (less than and greater than) of the value of the parameter specified in the null hypothesis, it is called a Two-tailed test.

If the alternate hypothesis gives the alternate in only one direction (either less than or greater than) of the value of the parameter specified in the null hypothesis, it is called a One-tailed test.

e.g. if H0: mean= 100 H1: mean not equal to 100

here according to H1, mean can be greater than or less than 100. This is an example of a Two-tailed test

Here, the mean is less than 100. It is called a One-tailed test.

Critical Region

The critical region is that region in the sample space in which if the calculated value lies then we reject the null hypothesis.

Let’s understand this with an example:

Suppose you are looking to rent an apartment. You listed out all the available apartments from different real state websites. You have a budget of Rs. 15000/ month. You cannot spend more than that. The list of apartments you have made has a price ranging from 7000/month to 30,000/month.

You select a random apartment from the list and assume below hypothesis:

H0: You will rent the apartment.

H1: You won’t rent the apartment.

Now, since your budget is 15000, you have to reject all the apartments above that price.

Here all the Prices greater than 15000 become your critical region. If the random apartment’s price lies in this region, you have to reject your null hypothesis and if the random apartment’s price doesn’t lie in this region, you do not reject your null hypothesis.

The critical region lies in one tail or two tails on the probability distribution curve according to the alternative hypothesis. The critical region is a pre-defined area corresponding to a cut off value in the probability distribution curve. It is denoted by α.

Critical values are values separating the values that support or reject the null hypothesis and are calculated on the basis of alpha.

We will see more examples later on and it will be clear how do we choose α.

Based on the alternative hypothesis, three cases of critical region arise:

Case 1) This is a double-tailed test.

Case 2) This scenario is also called a Left-tailed test.

Case 3) This scenario is also called a Right-tailed test.

Type I and Type II Error

So Type I and type II error is one of the most important topics of hypothesis testing. Let’s simplify it by breaking down this topic into a smaller portion.

A false positive (type I error) — when you reject a true null hypothesis.

A false negative (type II error) — when you accept a false null hypothesis.

The probability of committing Type I error (False positive) is equal to the significance level or size of critical region α.

α= P [rejecting H0 when H0 is true]

The probability of committing Type II error (False negative) is equal to the beta β. It is called the ‘power of the test’.

β = P [not rejecting H0 when h1 is true]

Example:

The person is arrested on the charge of being guilty of burglary. A jury of judges has to decide guilty or not guilty.

H0: Person is innocent

H1: Person is guilty

Type I error will be if the Jury convicts the person [rejects H0] although the person was innocent [H0 is true].

Type II error will be the case when Jury released the person [Do not reject H0] although the person is guilty [H1 is true].

Statistically significant

To understand this topic let us consider an example: Suppose there is a candy bar factory which makes 500gm of candy bar every day. One day after the maintenance of the factory, one worker claims that they no more make 500gm of candy, it may be less or more. So on what basis did the worker claim this error??? So where do we draw a line to make a decision about the variation in the weight of candy bars? This decision/boundary is Statistically significant.

Level of confidence

As the name suggests a level of confidence: how confident are we in taking out decisions. LOC(Level of confidence) should be more than 95%. Less than 95% of confidence will not be accepted.

Level of significance(α)

The significance level, in the simplest of terms, is the threshold probability of incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis when it is in fact true. This is also known as the type I error rate.

It is the probability of a type 1 error. It is also the size of the critical region.

Generally, strong control of α is desired and in tests, it is prefixed at very low levels like 0.05(5%) or 01(1%).

If H0 is not rejected at a significance level of 5%, then one can say that our null hypothesis is true with 95% assurance.

P-value

Let’s suppose we are conducting a hypothesis test at a significance level of 1%.

Where, H0: mean<X (we are just assuming a scenario of 1 tail test.)

We obtain our critical value (based on the type of test we are using) and find that our test statistic is greater than the critical value. So, we have to reject the null hypothesis here since it lies in the rejection region. Now if the null hypothesis is getting rejected at 1%, then for sure it will get rejected at the higher values of significance level, say 5% or 10%.

What if we take significance level lower than 1%, would we have to reject our hypothesis then also?

Yes, there might be a chance that the above scenario can happen, and here comes “p-value” in play.

the p-value is the smallest level of significance at which a null hypothesis can be rejected.

That’s why many tests nowadays give p-value and it is more preferred since it gives out more information than the critical value.

For right tailed test:

For left tailed test:

p-value = P[Test statistics <= observed value of the test statistic]

For two tailed test:

Decision making with p-value

We compare p-value to significance level(alpha) for taking a decision on Null Hypothesis.

If p-value is greater than alpha, we do not reject the null hypothesis.

If p-value is smaller than alpha, we reject the null hypothesis.

You're reading Hypothesis Testing: A Way To Accept Or Reject Your Hypothesis Using P

## Adobe Html5 Pack For Dreamweaver Cs5 Released: Accept Flash Isn’T The Only Way Forward

“One of Dreamweaver’s great strengths is its extensibility and it’s encouraging to see that Adobe has wasted no time in providing support for those parts of HTML 5 and CSS3 that are already supported by several browsers,” said David Powers, founder and developer, Foundation PHP. “By adding support through an extension, rather than hard-baking it into the core program, Dreamweaver should be able to keep pace with developments as the specifications and browsers evolve.”

The HTML5 Pack extension includes new code hinting for HTML5 and CSS3 capabilities to enable Dreamweaver users to easily make use of new HTML5 tags. The extension also includes WebKit engine updates and improvements to support video and audio in Dreamweaver CS5’s Live View. With new CSS3 capabilities users can more easily design multi-screen Web pages, with previews of how they will render across multiple browsers and devices. Additionally, the HTML5 Pack features HTML5 starter layouts to the New Document dialog box in Dreamweaver CS5, making it easier for users to accelerate their efforts to design and develop with the latest in emerging Web standards.

Adobe Dreamweaver CS5 is the latest release of the company’s award-winning authoring tool for designing and building websites. It delivers powerful new tools for PHP programmers supporting popular PHP-based content management systems like Drupal, Joomla and WordPress. Dreamweaver CS5 also delivers a powerful new inspect mode tool for CSS, while in Live View, so that designers can visualize complex interactions of styles for more efficient editing. Built-in support for Adobe BrowserLab is also new in Dreamweaver CS5, making it even easier and faster to test website designs across browsers and operating systems.

Pricing, Availability and System Requirements

Dreamweaver CS5 is available through the Adobe Store, Adobe Direct Sales, and Adobe Authorized Resellers for an estimated street price of \$399 (US). Existing Macromedia Dreamweaver 8, GoLive, Adobe Dreamweaver CS3 or CS4 users can upgrade for an estimated street price of \$199 (US). Dreamweaver CS5 is also included in Adobe Master Collection CS5, Adobe Design Premium CS5 as well as Adobe Web Premium CS5.

## What Is The Best Way To Get Stock Data Using Python?

In this article, we will learn the best way to get stock data using Python.

The yfinance Python library will be used to retrieve current and historical stock market price data from Yahoo Finance.

Installation of Yahoo Finance(yfinance)

One of the best platforms for acquiring Stock market data is Yahoo Finance. Just download the dataset from the Yahoo Finance website and access it using yfinance library and Python programming.

You can install yfinance with the help of pip, all you have to do is open up command prompt and type the following command show in syntax:

Syntax pip install yfinance

The best part about yfinance library is, its free to use and no API key is required for it

How to get current data of Stock Prices

We need to find a ticker of the stock Which we can use for data extraction. we will show the current market price and the previous close price for GOOGL in the following example.

Example

The following program returns the market price value,previous close price value,ticker value using yfinance module −

import yfinance as yf ticker = yf.Ticker('GOOGL').info marketPrice = ticker['regularMarketPrice'] previousClosePrice = ticker['regularMarketPreviousClose'] print('Ticker Value: GOOGL') print('Market Price Value:', marketPrice) print('Previous Close Price Value:', previousClosePrice) Output

On executing, the above program will generate the following output −

Ticker Value: GOOGL Market Price Value: 92.83 Previous Close Price Value: 93.71 How to get Historical data of Stock Prices

By giving the start date, end date, and ticker, we can obtain full historical price data.

Example

The following program returns the stock price data between the start and end dates −

# importing the yfinance package import yfinance as yf # giving the start and end dates startDate = '2023-03-01' endDate = '2023-03-01' # setting the ticker value ticker = 'GOOGL' # downloading the data of the ticker value between # the start and end dates resultData = yf.download(ticker, startDate, endDate) # printing the last 5 rows of the data print(resultData.tail()) Output

On executing, the above program will generate the following output −

[*********************100%***********************] 1 of 1 completed Open High Low Close Adj Close Volume Date 2023-02-22 42.400002 42.689499 42.335499 42.568001 42.568001 24488000 2023-02-23 42.554001 42.631001 42.125000 42.549999 42.549999 27734000 2023-02-24 42.382500 42.417999 42.147999 42.390499 42.390499 26924000 2023-02-27 42.247501 42.533501 42.150501 42.483501 42.483501 20236000 2023-02-28 42.367500 42.441502 42.071999 42.246498 42.246498 27662000

The above example will retrieve data of stock price dated from 2023-03-01 to 2023-03-01.

If you want to pull data from several tickers at the same time, provide the tickers as a space-separated string.

Transforming Data for Analysis

Date is the dataset’s index rather than a column in the example above dataset. You must convert this index into a column before performing any data analysis on it. Here’s how to do it −

Example

The following program adds the column names to the stock data between the start and end date −

import yfinance as yf # giving the start and end dates startDate = '2023-03-01' endDate = '2023-03-01' # setting the ticker value ticker = 'GOOGL' # downloading the data of the ticker value between # the start and end dates resultData = yf.download(ticker, startDate, endDate) # Setting date as index resultData["Date"] = resultData.index # Giving column names resultData = resultData[["Date", "Open", "High","Low", "Close", "Adj Close", "Volume"]] # Resetting the index values resultData.reset_index(drop=True, inplace=True) # getting the first 5 rows of the data print(resultData.head()) Output

On executing, the above program will generate the following output −

[*********************100%***********************] 1 of 1 completed Date Open High Low Close Adj Close Volume 0 2023-03-02 28.350000 28.799500 28.157499 28.750999 28.750999 50406000 1 2023-03-03 28.817499 29.042500 28.525000 28.939501 28.939501 50526000 2 2023-03-04 28.848499 29.081499 28.625999 28.916500 28.916500 37964000 3 2023-03-05 28.981001 29.160000 28.911501 29.071501 29.071501 35918000 4 2023-03-06 29.100000 29.139000 28.603001 28.645000 28.645000 37592000

The above converted data and data we acquired from Yahoo Finance are identical

Storing the Obtained Data in a CSV File

The to_csv() method can be used to export a DataFrame object to a CSV chúng tôi following code will help you export the data in a CSV file as the above-converted data is already in the pandas dataframe.

# importing yfinance module with an alias name import yfinance as yf # giving the start and end dates startDate = '2023-03-01' endDate = '2023-03-01' # setting the ticker value ticker = 'GOOGL' # downloading the data of the ticker value between # the start and end dates resultData = yf.download(ticker, startDate, endDate) # printing the last 5 rows of the data print(resultData.tail()) # exporting/converting the above data to a CSV file resultData.to_csv("outputGOOGL.csv") Output

On executing, the above program will generate the following output −

[*********************100%***********************] 1 of 1 completed Open High Low Close Adj Close Volume Date 2023-02-22 42.400002 42.689499 42.335499 42.568001 42.568001 24488000 2023-02-23 42.554001 42.631001 42.125000 42.549999 42.549999 27734000 2023-02-24 42.382500 42.417999 42.147999 42.390499 42.390499 26924000 2023-02-27 42.247501 42.533501 42.150501 42.483501 42.483501 20236000 2023-02-28 42.367500 42.441502 42.071999 42.246498 42.246498 27662000 Visualizing the Data

The yfinance Python module is one of the easiest to set up, collect data from, and perform data analysis activities with. Using packages such as Matplotlib, Seaborn, or Bokeh, you may visualize the results and capture insights.

You can even use PyScript to display these visualizations directly on a webpage.

Conclusion

In this article, we learned how to use the Python yfinance module to obtain the best stock data. Additionally, we learned how to obtain all stock data for the specified periods, how to do data analysis by adding custom indexes and columns, and how to convert this data to a CSV file.

## China Is Testing A New Long

In November 2023, a Chinese J-16 strike fighter test-fired a gigantic hypersonic missile, successfully destroying the target drone at a very long range.

Looking at takeoff photos, we estimate the missile is about 28 percent of the length of the J-16, which measures 22 meters (about 72 feet). The puts the missile at about 19 feet, and roughly 13 inches in diameter. The missile appears to have four tailfins. Reports are that the size would put into the category of a very long range air to air missile (VLRAAM) with ranges exceeding 300 km (roughly 186 miles), likely max out between 250 and 310 miles. (As a point of comparison, the smaller 13.8-foot, 15-inch-diameter Russian R-37 missile has a 249-mile range).

This is a big deal: this missile would easily outrange any American (or other NATO) air-to-air missile. Additionally, the VLRAAM’s powerful rocket engine will push it to Mach 6 speeds, which will increase the no escape zone (NEZ), that is the area where a target cannot outrun the missile, against even supersonic targets like stealth fighters.

VLRAAM

The new, larger missile’s added value is not just in range. Another key feature: its large active electronically scanned (AESA) radar, which is used in the terminal phase of flight to lock onto the target. The AESA radar’s large size—about 300-400% larger than that of most long range air-to-air missiles—and digital adaptability makes it highly effective against distant and stealthy targets, and resilient against electronic countermeasures like jamming and spoofing.

The VLRAAM’s backup sensor is a infrared/electro-optical seeker that can identify and hone in on high-value targets like aerial tankers and airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) radar aircraft. The VLRAAM also uses lateral thrusters built into the rear for improving its terminal phase maneuverability when engaging agile targets like fighters.

Glide

This 2023 study in a Chinese scientific journal discusses the flight path and performance of a VLRAAM, which flies 15 km upward of its launching fighter to a 30 km altitude, and is guided by a combination of long range radars (like Chinese AEWC planes) and satellite navigation, before divebombing at hypersonic speeds onto enemy aircraft, including stealth fighters, stealth bombers and AEWC aircraft.

Interestingly, the ability to glide may be a key feature as well. A 2023 research paper by Zhang Hongyuan, Zheng Yuejing, and Shi Xiaorong of Beijing Institute of Control and Electronics Technology linked to the VLRAAM development suggests that the midcourse portion of the VLRAAM’s flight will occur at altitudes above 30 km (about 18.6 miles). Flying at such low pressure, low drag high altitudes would allow the VLRAAM to extend its range (similar to hypersonic gliders). The high altitude also makes it difficult for enemy aircraft and air defenses to shoot it down midflight. Finally, high altitude flight means that the VLRAAM would have a high angle of attack against lower flying targets, which reduces the response time for enemy evasive action.

Divine Eagle at War

The Divine Eagle is shown here in both offensive operations (providing targeting for smart bombs to strike enemy SAM, communications, bunkers and ballistic ICBMs) as well as defensive operations (detecting American stealth aircraft before they enter China airspace).

Another researched VLRAAM function is datalinking; the papers called for the VLRAAM to be embedded within a highly integrated combat networks. It is envisioned as just part of a larger wave of networked solutions aggregated through multiple Chinese systems. For example, a J-20 stealth fighter wouldn’t mount the missile (the VLRAAM is too large to fit in the J-20’s weapons bay), but could use its low observable features to fly relatively close in order to detect enemy assets like AEW&C aircraft (which are vital to gather battlespace data for manned and unmanned assets, but subsonic in speed and less able to evade missiles). Then before breaking off contact, the J-20 would signal a J-16 400 km (249 miles) away (outside the range of most air to air missiles) providing it the data needed to launch the VLRAAM at the target. This would offer China a longer range version of present U.S. tactics that involve using the fifth generation F-22 as a sensor for 4th generation fighters as the “shooters.”

The Future is Here

In operation, the VLRAAM will provide J-20 stealth fighters with long range “aerial artillery” to even the odds against numerically superior air forces, while giving new life to J-11 and J-16 fighters. It can also give J-15 carrier fighters a long range interception capability to defend Chinese naval forces.

The gains in range and speed of the VLRAAM pose another significant risk to the concepts of the U.S. military’s “Third Offset.” U.S. operations are highly dependent on assets like aerial tankers, dedicated electronic warfare aircraft, and AEW&C. For example, without aerial tankers, the relatively short range of the F-35s would become even more of a liability in long range operations in the South China Seas and Taiwan Straits. Similarly, without AEW&C aircraft, F-22s would have to use onboard radars more, raising their risk of detection. Even for stealthy tanker platforms like the planned MQ-25 Stingray drone and proposed KC-Z tanker will be vulnerable to VLRAAMs if detected by emerging dedicated anti-stealth systems such as the Divine Eagle drone and Yuanmeng airship.

By pushing the Chinese air defense threat bubble hundreds of miles out further, they also offer to turn the long range tables on the putative U.S. “Arsenal” Plane concept, a Pentagon plan to launch missiles from non-stealthy planes from afar. In sum, VLRAAM is not just a big missile, but a potential big deal for the future of air warfare.

You may also be interested in:

Come Look at China’s Coolest New Missiles

Chinese Air to Air Missile Hits Target, Spooks USAF General

Divine Eagle, China’s Enormous Stealth Hunting Drone, Takes Shape

Beyond the J-20: The Many Planes of China China Builds Its own ‘Wild Weasel’ to Suppress Air Defenses

## How To Lock Your Mouse To A Specific Screen When Using A Multi

More and more people are starting to use multiple monitor setups, so it’s a surprise Windows hasn’t yet included a hotkey function that allows users to lock their mouse cursor to a particular screen. If you are using more than one monitor and sometimes get frustrated when your mouse ventures too far, this guide will show you how to lock it to a particular screen.

How to Get More Accurate Color Representation on your Monitor.

As multi-monitor setups become more and more popular, it would be great to see Windows incorporate a hotkey system that allows you to lock your mouse to a specific screen in the near future. For the time being, while we wait for Windows to get on board, there is an alternative program you can use to lock your mouse to a single screen.

The program is called Cursor Lock and is a small utility that allows you to confine your mouse to a selected area on your screen. Gamers will find this exceptionally handy, especially when gaming in windowed mode. Cursor Lock isn’t strictly for gamers though, anyone who has problems keeping their mouse within a selected area should definitely give the program a go. For a tiny utility, Cursor lock has a large assortment of features and options, some of which are listed below.

The ability to open one program and lock another allows Cursor Lock to work well with launcher programs.

Allows you to confine the cursor to window borders, as well as a screen.

Customizable hotkeys for complete manual control of locking in any situation.

Alternate locking modes that run in the background.

Highly optimized and efficient locking program that uses practically no memory or CPU (the best part)

How to Lock your Mouse to a Specific Screen on Multi Monitor Setups.

Once you have downloaded Cursor Lock, installation is the same as any Windows program you have installed in the past. When the program is installed, which only takes a moment, it will automatically launch. At first glance, you will notice the program has three main option tabs.

Shortcuts: Is the main menu for full customization and program control.

Hotkeys: Allows you to set personalized hotkey controls.

Defaults: Usage log options.

Program Mode: Lets you setup up cursor lock to respond to specific programs. (most often used for gaming)

User Mode: Manual Hotkey control

User-Strict Mode: More Manual Hotkey control.

Setting up Games and Programs.

The App ID number is the 5 or 6 digit number after app/ in the address bar. Below is an example.

Once you have the App ID, you will need to enter the following into the Open Program Args box: -applaunch with a space followed by the App ID number. If you have entered it correctly it should look something like the below example.

-applaunch 203160

Note: If at any stage you encounter a bug and your screen won’t unlock you can use the Windows key to open the start menu and select Unlock from the options under Cursor Lock.

Creating a Simple Lock/Unlock Hotkey to Keep your Mouse on a Specific Screen.

If you are only looking for create a simple Lock/Unlock Hotkey the process is really easy. Simply switch to the Hotkey tab, tick the Hotkeys Enabled box, then tick the Toggle Lock Hotkey box. Now enter the Hotkey you would like to use. For the final step, go back to the Shortcuts tab and make sure you have selected the User Mode option.

Personally, this is my favorite way to use Cursor Lock, it’s far easier than setting up personalized program controls. It allows you to run games in Windowed Mode and use your other monitors whenever you press the hotkey. It’s perfect if you are playing an RPG, with a walkthrough guide open on your other monitor. One press of a hotkey will lock the cursor to your game screen and another press will unlock, it allowing you to scroll the guide down to your current position.

Note: If at any stage you encounter a bug and your screen won’t unlock you can use the Windows key to open the start menu and select Unlock from the options under Cursor Lock.

Uninstalling Cursor Lock.

If you would like to uninstall Cursor Lock from your computer you will notice that there is no uninstall feature present. To remove Cursor Lock from your computer simply:

Delete the directory that you installed Cursor Lock too.

Delete the Start Menu folder for Cursor Lock (if you enabled it on installation)

Once you have done both, the program will be removed from your computer. If you would like to make sure it’s gone, you can double check with CCleaner.

If at any stage you get stuck during the setup process or need help, the developer’s page is full of FAQ and solutions, which will no doubt help you with any issues you are having.

A Hotkey Based Alternative Program.

If you are just looking for a hotkey based program, with a basic setup process, look no further than Dual Monitor Tools. This light weight program has tons and tons of customizable hotkey options. Some of which I wouldn’t have even thought were needed. However once spending some time using them, quite a few I hadn’t considered using in past became invaluable.

## Linkedin Takes On Xing, Or The Other Way Around?!

I wanted to follow up on my post LinkedIn versus Xing (aka Open BC) from November earlier, but did not get around to it until now. I did not expect such an interest in this topic when I wrote my post on a quite Sunday afternoon when I noticed that my OpenBC homepage was redirected to chúng tôi The fact that they are working on the re-branding was nothing new. I blogged about it back in September already.

I just had signed up for the OpenBC Pro account and thought that I do a comparison with LinkedIn from my point of view as user of both services.

I did not know that the relaunch of OpenBC as Xing just happened aÂ few hours earlier which is one of the main reason that it got that much attention. If you want to learn more about the changes to the Interface at Xing, check H. Dean Hua’s Blog who analyzed the changes in great detail

I was engaged in several interesting discussions at forums, xing groups and blogs that discussed the subject and of course at SEJ; for example the discussion at the Xing Group: “Entrepreneurs Playground”Â  (requires Xing account but no group membership to read).

H. Dean HuaÂ  from Sachi Studio Web Design wrote about what happened at his blog and I also had some direct communication with him and discussed the issue. It was not cool, but judge for yourself.

The IPO of Open BC in Germany was going well, the issue price of 30 Euros increased quickly and is risen by over 10% within less than two months to over 33 Euros (see graph) and puts the value of the company at about 175 Million Euros.

LinkedIn is still privately held and does not show any indication to change that anytime soon.

The re-branding in October changed the name of the website, but not the name of the company. I was also first looking for Xing and found another Asian company with that name, before I realized my mistake and looked up the financial information under there company Name OPEN BUSINESS CLUB.

The Open Business Club Stock Symbol is: chúng tôi and it’s ISIN (International Securities Identifying Number) number is: DE000XNG8888.

LinkedIn is still the king on the block with about 8.5-9 million members (December data) compared to 1.5-2 million xing members. While Xing plans to break intro the American market and even more into the huge untapped Asian market does LinkedIn work on their expansion in Europe, especially Germany.

But LinkedIn plans to launch a German version of the service very soon and wants to give Xing some hard times at it’s own home turf. LinkedIn intents to catch up with Xing regarding number of members in Germany by the end of 2007.

Based on that is LinkedIn ahead of Open Business Club, but the last word was not spoken yet.Â  I am certain that this is not the last story this year that will have the names of the two services in it.

I used it twice and did not find it very useful. I ended up linking up with the person where I answered a generic question about general book recommendations and after that engaged in some communication, which had more to do with his background and mine than with the original question and answer.

Loren Baker, owner of SEJ, did also a test almost a month ago, but I don’t know what came out of that. Maybe he can share his experiences with the new feature.

LinkedIn was founded in March 2003 and had at the beginning to fight with losses before they figured out how to monetize the service. LinkedIn is since early 2006 also profitable.

Next to the much higher membership fees for their professional subscriptions does LinkedIn also monetize the pages of paid and free memberships via Google AdSense Ads.

Free LinkedIn Tools are the FireFox Companion, Outlook ToolbarÂ  , IE Toolbar, Jobs Insider for IE and Firefox and Email Signature Creator (OutlookÂ®, Outlook Express, Mozilla Thunderbird, Yahoo! Mail). LinkedInÂ  Buttons (requires login) for your website.

Open Business Club was founded in November 2003 and were profitable pretty much from the start, even though they are a 100% ad-free zone and offer more services to free membership accounts and charge less for their professional services.

The openBC platform serves as the infrastructure for corporate groups, including IBM, McKinsey, Accenture and others.

Premium Groups. The chúng tôi openBC Premium Groups were developed for major global communities, from university and corporate alumni groups to leading business magazines and multinational organizations. This social software offering enables effective management and growth of existing communities within the professional context of openBC.

As well as creating stronger ties with the people that matter and brand exposure to an international business network, Premium Groups also offer sustainable business models for operators. See Groups and Premium Groups information, Events Calendar, Premium World BenefitsÂ  (regional).

More information to the two services are available at my original post in November 2006.

Even though the two services are different in certain aspects and are also used a bit different am I convinced that the two eventually fight for the same customers. I don’t know if businesses are willing to have their employees maintain accounts at both services.

I believe that the two will eventually provide the same types of services and options and let the user decide how to use it exactly. The question will then be, if the market is big enough for both companies or not.

Future will tell.

Cheers!

Owner and operator of chúng tôi an Internet marketing resources portal for marketers, web developers and entrepreneurs.

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