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Few women in Australia carry the breadth of leadership experience of former New South Wales premier and Australian senator Kristina Keneally. From politics to sport and now her role as chief executive of the Sydney Children’s Hospitals Foundation – Keneally has experienced it all.

Keneally’s role as CEO of the Sydney Children’s Hospitals Foundation allows her to bring together her passion for children and health with her leadership, change and policy experience.  

“Every day, I get to help improve the care, experiences and opportunities for sick kids and their families. It is a humbling and tremendous opportunity,” she told Forbes Australia.  

What is something from your childhood or youth that drove you to achieve?  

Competing in sports, specifically team sports and contact sports. I learned how to be ambitious, set goals, plan, train, prepare, work collaboratively with my teammates, and accept both victory and defeat gracefully. I learned how to manage conflict, lead others, and take coaching and direction. Sports also allowed me to know the difference between assertiveness and aggressiveness, test my limits for pain and endurance, and understand the benefits of being emotionally and physically strong.  

What is something you do every day that sets you up for success?  

Prepare for the next day before I go to bed at night and get up early in the morning. When my kids were young, I got up early in the morning to do laundry, make dinner, or exercise. Now that the kids are grown, I get up at 5 am every day, put on the exercise clothes I laid out the night before, and sit down for 75 minutes of work. Sometimes I focus on a project; other times, I do tasks and emails. Then I do an hour of exercise – running, yoga or weights.  By 7:30 am, I feel I have already accomplished a great deal and could take on the world.

What was one failure or disappointment that encouraged you to strive higher or do better?  

I was cut from the basketball team at my high school in Toledo, Ohio.  Truth be told, I had been able to coast in basketball up to that point [based] on my height and talent. Being cut proved a great teachable moment. I realised that raw talent on its own does not guarantee success. Hard work is also required. I decided I would never again lose an opportunity because I had failed to put in the effort to earn it. It is ok to try your best and fail, but it is not ok to fail because you didn’t try your best. (I worked hard and got back on the team – in year 11, we were in the top 10 teams in Ohio.)  

What would you like to have done with your life if your career hadn’t taken the path that it did?  

I do not live with regrets. I own my career choices. I have been fortunate to have experienced many different roles and learned something valuable from each one. That being said, I think I would have found satisfaction in being a police detective or perhaps an officer in a national security agency. I like deductive reasoning, and the justice and community service aspects of those roles appeal to me. But, back in the 1980s, national security and policing were not the kinds of jobs that the nuns at my high school recommended young ladies consider for their futures.  

“It is ok to try your best and fail, but it is not ok to fail because you didn’t try your best.”

Kristina Keneally

What is one attribute that you think other people underestimate in you?  

What do you love to do for enjoyment outside of work?  

My greatest peace comes from being outside and physically active – kayaking, bushwalking, stand-up paddling, and trail running. I love being in and around water, making life in Sydney a joy. I also love cooking for friends and family – including my speciality, keto cheesecakes. I went keto during the pandemic, and it has been great for my health, fitness, reducing inflammation and revitalising my enthusiasm for cooking.  

Kristina Keneally during the WNBL 40th Season Launch at Parliament House Basketball Court. Image: Getty

What is the most powerful action you have used to be successful in life, business, and relationships?  

Treat people as you want to be treated – the “Golden Rule”. It is the best guide in any situation. It is also what was instilled in me by my parents, teachers, and my faith – that we have an obligation to help others and make the world a better place than how we found it. A passion for social justice and service drove me to politics in the first place – to contribute to a stronger and fairer society. I’ve left politics, but that passion will never leave.

“Treat people as you want to be treated – the “Golden Rule”. It is the best guide in any situation.”

It is why I love working for the Sydney Children’s Hospitals Foundation now. Every day I get to help improve the care, experiences and opportunities for sick kids and their families.  It is a humbling and tremendous opportunity.  

In moments of pain, how did you manage to keep going? What was the motivator?  

The most painful experience was losing my second child, my daughter Caroline, to stillbirth. I kept going thanks to the unconditional love of my husband Ben, who was experiencing his own grief as well; the hope offered in my first-born son, who was only 15 months old at the time; the care provided by amazing doctors and social workers at the Royal

Women’s Hospital and the Sydney Children’s Hospital in Randwick; and my belief that our human lives – no matter how long or short – have meaning and transformative power in this world.  

What keeps you up at night?  

Not much.  After so many years in varied high-profile roles with big responsibilities, I have learned how to shut my brain down at night – often by using routines to prepare for sleep and the day ahead. If I had not developed these habits, I would have never gotten any sleep.  

Women in politics: what needs to happen on this front? Are there still challenges?  

So much has changed in the past 20 years – most of it for the better. I am proud to have played a part in that change. I have confidence that the current generation of women in politics will make even bigger and better changes ahead. 

What is something you value more than anything else?  

The love of my family. They are the most important people in my life. I am full of gratitude for their unconditional love for me, and I would do anything to help them – especially my children – achieve their dreams and potential.  

What is next for Kristina Keneally?   

I am fortunate to lead a team of talented and collaborative fundraisers and change agents at the Sydney Children’s Hospitals Foundation. SCHF is the largest children’s charity in Australia and one of the largest children’s hospital foundations in the world.  In the last three years, we have raised $170 million for the Sydney Children’s Hospitals Network. In May, we held the annual Gold Dinner, where the funds raised will help to support projects such as The Centre for Clinical Genetics, palliative care, mental health, critical care and research into rare diseases. At the foundation, we have big ambitions for the next three years – to raise even more funds to support excellent clinical care, the best possible patient experience, and cutting-edge research in kids’ health. For nearly 40 years, SCHF has supported all sick kids: toddlers and teenagers, newborns and the not-yet-borns, those who can be cured, and those who just want a fighting chance.  

I am so excited to help set the Sydney Children’s Hospitals Foundation up for the next 40 years of growth, creating transformative and generational impacts on children’s health.  

 Forbes Australia Issue Five is out now. Tap here to secure your copy and membership.

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Going By The Numbers: Has Compound Been Able To Live Up To Expectations

The DeFi space has seen its own share of ups and downs over the last few months. May’s crash was brutal for tokens from this space too, but they somehow managed to sail through and recover in time.

COMP has, however, been one token that has desperately been trying to inch back to its previous highs. It has, unfortunately, not been able to do so and a couple of fundamental factors have been stalling its recovery.

Thus, having a look at the same would give us a better understanding of where Compound stands at the moment.

Brushing up the basics first

Borrowers, on the other hand, can opt for a secured loan from any pool by depositing some collateral. The basic LTV ratio varies based on the collateral asset but currently ranges from 40% to 75%. In effect, the interest paid varies depending on the borrowed asset. Here, borrowers usually face automatic liquidation if their collateral falls below a specific maintenance threshold.

Evaluating its performance

Since its launch in 2023, Compound’s platform has managed to garner a lot of traction and popularity. People have consistently been locking up their assets on this platform. The TVL growth from $1 billion to $11 billion over the past year is a testament to the same.

Compound’s activity gradually started picking pace in June and July. In fact, as per data from Messari, Compound managed to hit a new ATH in loans and outstanding deposits towards the end of Q3 this year.

Spilling out the numbers – Outstanding loans grew by 57% in the third quarter, owing to an increase in the COMP market’s liquidity. Conversely, during the May crash period, the same had massively shrunk because the liquidity and interest rate factor acted like spoilsports.

However, over the past few months, favorable market conditions and fancy borrowing rates have managed to get back people on board. In effect, COMP’s token value managed to hike slightly. Over the same period [Q3], the outstanding deposits also hiked by 48%.

The aforementioned numbers would have likely been even higher if the whole distribution bug episode hadn’t unfolded.

Here’s the flip side

Nevertheless, since the beginning of 2023, the aggregate utilization ratio has shrunk from 58% to 38%. Simply put, this ratio provides an insight into the extent to which Compound is being used. The deteriorating state of this metric is evidently not a great sign.

Depositors, at this stage, are receiving the least amount of interest they’ve received in Compound’s history. This is, perhaps, one of the contributing reasons to the utilization dip.

Unsurprisingly, the borrowing volume and the deposit volume also significantly shrunk over the same time period, despite the strong loan and deposit growth.

Even though Q3 has been a comparatively ‘quiet’ quarter for Compound, it does have the potential to flip to the upside in Q4. The Compound community has quite a lot to look forward to. The launch of Compound Chain, for instance, will aid in the influx of new people into the Compound ecosystem. In effect, this will better the state of the utilization metric.

Quite similarly, one can expect the protocol’s revenue to also get back to its previous highs. Only when the aforementioned factors, in conjunction, play out as expected, market participants should expect COMP’s valuation to get back close to its $900 May highs.

If that doesn’t really happen, the DeFi token will find it challenging to get past its $300 range.

Expand Your Reach: A Guide To Live Conference Coverage

There are dozens of great digital marketing conferences every year. SEJ Summit, Pubcon, State of Search, Content Marketing World – the list goes on and on. There is no way for any one person to attend all the conferences in our industry. Which is why live tweeting and blogging conferences is so popular. We all suffer from at least a little FOMO.

It can also be a great way to grow your blog and your social media channels. Live coverage can range from live tweeting to sharing behind the scenes pictures on Instagram or Snapchat to writing full blog posts covering your favorite sessions.

The Benefits of Live Conference Coverage

We all suffer from FOMO – the fear of missing out. What if Google lets something slip and I wasn’t there to witness it?? What if I miss out on making great connections because I didn’t make it to the after parties? What if Scott Stratten shares an awesome new strategy that would help me grow, but I wasn’t there??

Live coverage allows people who couldn’t make the conference to still get a taste of the action, so sharing this content gets eyes on your blog and social media channels.

People attending the conference tend to follow the hashtags, so using the right one could help you connect with people IRL. Plus, conferences themselves tend to like and retweet articles and photos from their own conference, which could give you some added exposure.

5 Ways to Offer Live Conference Coverage

There are several ways to offer live conference coverage, but really anything is up for grabs. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat. Just make sure you offer live coverage that makes sense for each platform.

Here are a few ideas.

Live-Tweet Your Favorite Sessions

Share pictures, stats, and sound bites live from the sessions you attend. Gauge how often to tweet on your following and how active you normally are. If you go from Tweeting once a week to 200 times in one day, you may find yourself unfollowed. If you are generally pretty active, then you might be just fine. A good rule of thumb is five to seven tweets per hour-long session. But if you are at, say, an Apple conference, you could definitely get away with more. It really depends.

Make sure to use the correct hashtag – don’t just guess. For example, Pubcon’s hashtag is just #pubcon not #pubcon2024 or #pubconvegas. Also, make sure to look up the speaker’s Twitter handle and include that as well.

Facebook Live A Panel or Part of A Session

Facebook Live allows you to easily share a live streaming video with your entire newsfeed. Currently, Live videos get a ton of engagement, as everyone in your feed gets a notification that you are live. That makes them an ideal choice for conference coverage!

Just make sure the sound is decent and include the hashtag for the conference in the description. Here is an example of a well-done Facebook Live at SEJ Summit.

Watch more of our SEJ Facebook Live sessions on our Facebook channel.

Write A Recap Post

Recap posts are a great way to share what you learn, and an easy way to add to your editorial calendar. You don’t need to offer blow-by-blow coverage, either. This post I wrote for Content Marketing World includes just a few lessons learned from sessions I attended.

You could also write a post with takeaways from the whole conference and share one lesson from each session. For example, “5 Lessons from Content Marketing World 2024”, or similar. I really like this one by BlueGlass titled 84 Things We Learned Last Week at Pubcon. I read it mostly because I was impressed by the number!

I do recommend planning the sessions you want to attend ahead of time and considering what sessions people who aren’t in attendance would most likely be interested it. For example, a keynote by a Google executive or a celebrity is likely to be popular.

Be sure to share your posts as soon as possible to get the most use out of event hashtags. For example, since it is unlikely that people are searching the Pubcon hashtag two weeks after the event, we publish our day one recap the next day.

Share Behind the Scenes Pictures on Instagram or Snapchat

One of the best parts of attending a conference is the after parties and networking events. Instagram and Snapchat are an ideal place to share candid photos from after parties. (Just be sure they are appropriate!) Also, make sure to tag the people in your photos and use the correct hashtag.

Share Selfies (And Photos With Other Attendees!)

Conference selfies are a great way to show how much fun you are having. But, they can also be a great networking tool. Ask a new friend to take a selfie, share it on Twitter with the conference hashtag and tag their Twitter handle.

Or, you can be cool like Matt Siltata and bring a prop to encourage people to take photos. (It is worth mentioning that Matt’s beard has its own Twitter handle, because of course it does.)

Get Your Networking On

Offering live coverage of a conference is a pretty easy way to grow your online presence. But it can also be a great way to network, both online and in real life. “Hey, it has been great talking to you! Can we take a selfie for me to include in my recap post?” is an easier ask than “Hey, we should do something…sometime.”

Want to learn more about how to get the most out of networking at conferences? Check out this episode of Marketing Nerds with Kelsey Jones, Debbie Miller, and Amanda Russell.

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Image Credits: 

Featured Image: Deposit Photos

Everything Big Tech Knows About A Baby By The Time It’s Born

Veronica Barassi is a professor in Media and Communications at the School of Humanities and Social Sciences at the University of St. Gallen in Switzerland. She is the author of Activism on the Web: Everyday Struggles against Digital Capitalism and Child Data Citizen: How Tech Companies Are Profiling Us from before Birth, from which this article is adapted. This story originally featured on MIT Press Reader.

“Track your period, ovulation, symptoms, moods, and so much more in one beautiful app!” So begins a promotional blurb for Ovia, one of several fertility apps on the market boasting its ability to monitor women’s health and fertility cycles.

Tens of millions of prospective parents use fertility apps like Ovia, in addition to Google and other sites to search for information on how to conceive, meaning the datafication of family life can begin from the moment in which a parent thinks about having a baby. After conception, many of these families move on to pregnancy apps, the market for which has also grown enormously in recent years.

Tracking the health of the unborn and women is certainly not new, yet with the use of pregnancy apps, this surveillance and tracking has reached a new level. These apps are enabling a situation whereby corporations have access to a grab bag of personal data on the unborn, including not only health markers like weight and heart rate, but also cultural background, the parents’ thoughts, family ties, and family medical history, to name a few.

Once a baby is born, parents might use baby trackers or wearables to manage the baby’s routine and record sleep times, feeds, and bowel movements. Again, documenting these behaviors is not new. Families of newborns have historically jotted this information in journals. When my first daughter was born, my mother showed me the journal that she kept of me as a newborn. Written in black ink on yellow pages and in my mother’s familiar handwriting, there was a list of feeding times, naps, and diaper changes. She kept the journal in a drawer of her study and no one outside our family had access to it. Consequently, even if the tracking of the baby, like the tracking of the unborn, has always existed, baby apps—with their charts, reports, and interactive elements—have greatly transformed this historical practice and given it a new datacentric dimension.

Why data tracking matters

Some would describe parents’ attachment to data as a form of “data obsession” or “data fetishism.” Yet anthropological literature on the fetish shows that humans often don’t fetishize objects (or data) as a form of lunacy, they fetishize them because these objects embed, represent, and remind them of their social relationships. At times, parents form a deep emotional bond with their data-tracking technologies because these technologies enable them to live and experience the important relationships in their lives. A user of one of the pregnancy apps that I analyzed, for instance, described the app as her “best buddy” helping her through “all the stages of pregnancy.”

Data tracking for family life matters, and it matters for a variety of reasons that reflect the plurality of data that we produce. We record data because we want to capture instances of our experience, and we feel an emotional bond to some of the data that we produce. On the day I discovered I was pregnant with my first daughter, I took a picture of my body with the Photo Boot app on my MacBook. Every week for nine months I documented my pregnancy. I also used the computer to take screen grabs of my sister’s and my friends’ reactions to the news of my pregnancy after I told them on Skype. I saved all my pictures in a folder, titled “family.” That data was so special to me — irreplaceable. When I thought I had lost it because my computer had crashed, I felt lost, angry, and terribly upset; when my tech-savvy friend told me that no harm had been done, I was excited and relieved.

Long before data-tracking technologies, everyday life was documented with precision in personal diaries. family journal, via 1909 Ventilo

Data tracking in family life has a long history and a profound emotional dimension. But in the past, parents who used journals to track their families’ routines owned and controlled the data that they produced, because like my mother they owned their journals and often kept them in safe places. Today this data is stored, processed, and profiled in ways that escape parental knowledge and control.

As parents buy into the promises of data tracking, they produce large amounts of children’s data that is then archived, analyzed, and sold; hence, they play an active role in the datafication of children. However, the datafication of children does not only occur because parents play an active role and use data-tracking technologies. In fact, not all parents use pregnancy and baby apps, and many parents that I met during my research often complained that data tracking was “too much work.”

This article is adapted from Veronica Barassi’s book “Child Data Citizen: How Tech Companies Are Profiling Us from before Birth.“ MIT Press

Yet even among those families who do not use mHealth apps or wearables, children are nevertheless datafied from before birth. This is because they are exposed to the business models and the data-brokering practices of surveillance capitalism, which enable companies to track children from before conception.

The datafication of children: no way out

In her article published in Time magazine in 2014, she explained that trying to hide her pregnancy made her look and feel like a criminal, because she had to employ different tactics such as using Tor as browser to access content of the BabyCenter. She thus came to the conclusion that trying to avoid becoming a “pregnant data subject” made her look not only like a rude family member or an inconsiderate friend, but like a bad citizen. For mothers-to-be like Vertesi, it is impossible not to be tracked and profiled as data subjects. In fact, the tracking of pregnancy and early infancy has become a fact of our datafied lives under surveillance capitalism, which families cannot avoid.

Early infancy is just the beginning of the datafication of children and their families. As children grow up, parents search Google with age-specific queries and land on web pages such as those of chúng tôi or chúng tôi that are already structured around age (getting pregnant, baby, toddler, preschooler, big kid) and share this information with others.

However, the datafication of families and children is not only happening because families use apps, search engines, or social media, but also because, with the extension of surveillance capitalism, the society around them (e.g., the school, doctor, bank) is increasingly becoming automated and data driven. From doctor’s appointments to schools, from supermarkets to home technologies, family life is being surveilled, tracked, and analyzed in almost unimaginable ways.

The datafied family and surveillance capitalism

One of the big changes brought by surveillance capitalism is the introduction of the cultural belief that data offers us a deeper form of knowledge. According to Viktor Mayer-Schönberger and Kenneth Cuckier, the authors of an internationally renowned book on the big data revolution,

When I interviewed Mike, a Los Angeles-based father of two kids aged 12 and 5 years in 2023, I asked him if he could imagine the data flows that came out of his family life. Mike laughed, looked up, and said, “massive amounts; unimaginable amounts.” Mike was aware that his family was being datafied not only because he used specific technologies (e.g., social media), but also because all the services that he encountered in his life were increasingly becoming data driven and automated (e.g., the energy suppliers, schools, doctors, among others). When Mike described the different data flows that came out of his family, he told me that he could remember a time when “There was not so much data out there.” In the last 10 years, he believed, something changed. There was a shift in the ways in which “society understood and valued personal data” and consequently in the amounts of data that was produced and collected. He described this transformation as a gradual push by companies, firms, and institutions to make you produce more and more data so that they could track it and profile it.

Mike and Dan perceived the transformation as gradual. Yet there is something profoundly unequal about the different ways in which the datafication of society has impacted highly educated or high-income families on the one hand and low-income or less educated families on the other.

The unequal impact of datafication of families

Both Mike and Dan were highly educated with high income and experienced the datafication of family life as a gradual transformation. Their experience of change radically clashed with the experience of those parents who came from a low-income or less educated background and who told me that they experienced the transformation as sudden, unexpected, and difficult to deal with.

Alexandra, for instance, was a low-income Hungarian immigrant working in London. Alexandra was married to Sid, who was from Nigeria, and had two children aged 8 and 10 years. She and her husband suddenly realized that their data was constantly collected because all the services around her were being digitized. “[There is so much data] because everything changed, everything went online. Like online banking, I am resisting it, but they make it impossible to go to the branch because they are closing branches down, so I end up using it. I don’t do much with it because I don’t understand it much,” she told me when we spoke in 2024.

For Mariana, like Alexandra, the change was quite sudden, and she felt that she lacked the skills to cope with it. Mariana was a Mexican immigrant who worked as a cleaner in Los Angeles and was a widow with four children, aged 11 to 23 years. “I know nothing about technologies” she told me when I started her interview. In contrast to her children who “were always on their phones or tablets,” Mariana managed not to use an email or a smartphone up until 2023. Then something changed; she was forced to go online. The school of her youngest children (11 and 13) started to rely on an online platform for homework and internal communications. She felt that she had no choice; she had to learn because she wanted to support them. Once she started going online, she suddenly became aware of social media and of how much information her children were posting online. “It was shocking and worrying, I did not know what to do,” she told me.

Mariana’s and Alexandra’s interviews were thus strikingly different from Mike and Dan. For them, the datafication of family life — which went hand-in-hand with the digitization of services — was more of a shock than a gradual process. They felt isolated and felt that they lacked the knowledge and skills to cope with the change.

The different experiences of Mike, Dan, Mariana, and Alexandra speak to the fact that social inequality plays a fundamental role in the way in which the datafication of family life and children is experienced and dealt with.

This inequality was also reflected in the ways in which they understood data privacy. If we compare Mariana’s and Mike’s understanding of the implications of the datafication of family life, they are strikingly different. Mike, like so many other parents that I worked with, felt that “he would prefer for the data to be private” but that “he had nothing to hide.” For Mariana, “the data out there was scary,” and a real concern, as she could clearly see how it could impact and harm her and her family.

It is precisely because the society around them is becoming more and more data-driven that parents no longer have a choice but to sign terms and conditions and give their consent for the lawful processing of children’s data. Despite that current data protection regulations focus a lot on parental consent, under surveillance capitalism, the notion of informed consent is exceptionally problematic. This is because, in the everyday life of families, digital participation is no longer only voluntary but increasingly more coerced as parents are forced to comply with data-driven and automated systems.

Datafied children and the problem with consent

One day in Los Angeles in 2023, my family was invited to join a group of friends at an indoor play area in a shopping mall in the Valley. That day we had been stuck in traffic for more than an hour. When we arrived at the play area, P (who at the time was 4 years old) and A (at the time 6 months old) were hungry, frustrated, and whiny. As soon as I reached the counter to purchase the tickets, the employee behind the desk asked me to write down my children’s names, dates of birth, home address, my phone number, and email. I was also given the option to note my social media accounts. I felt annoyed. Why did I need to provide all that information simply to be allowed access to a play area? I really did not want to write down my children’s birth data and home address.

On an average family day, parents join new services, download new apps, connect with others on social media, or buy the latest home devices. In doing this, they sign off on the terms and conditions of a variety of services and give their meaningful consent that provides companies the right to lawfully process their children’s data. During my research, however, I came to the conclusion that—as it happened to me that day at the play area—the consent that most parents give is not informed or meaningful.

A great majority of the parents that I interviewed did not read the terms and conditions. This is not surprising. To read data policies requires an enormous amount of time that parents often do not have. In 2008, Aleecia McDonald and Lorrie Faith Cranor, two internet privacy scholars, calculated that reading all the privacy policies of the websites that users encountered in daily life would take approximately 201 hours a year for each US user. Their calculation was based on the fact that to read an average policy takes from 8 to 10 minutes and that at the time, according to the data of Nielsen/Net Rating, an average US user would visit 119 websites annually. Our digital environments have changed dramatically in the last 10 years, and there is no way to calculate how much time it would take for an average user to read all the privacy policies.

Parents do not read terms and conditions because they would never find the time to read them. They also do not read them because they feel they have no choice: either they agree to the terms of service or they would not have access to important services in their life. This lack of choice is understood as the privacy trade-off in which users give up personal data just to be able to access specific platforms and services. Some experts have described this act as digital resignation because people resign to give up their personal data to enjoy a service. They argue that digital resignation has not only become a shared and normalized practice among users, but it is also constantly cultivated by corporations who encourage and reinforce it.

The day that I found myself signing off the terms and conditions of the play area, I resigned to give up the data of my children. I felt the pressure: Either I agreed to give up that data, or I had to tell my daughter that we were not going to meet her friends. In my daily life I am constantly coaxed into acts of digital resignation. Although I try to protect my children’s privacy, on a daily basis I buy into the privacy trade-off. During my research, however, I realized that surveillance capitalism does not only rely on the cultivation of digital resignation but also on the systematic coercion of digital participation. This is because, in many instances, the parents I was working with, and myself included, were not just resigning to digitally participate, they were actually forced to do so.

Children today are the very first generation of citizens to be datafied from before birth, and we cannot foresee—as yet—the social and political consequences of this historical transformation. What is particularly worrying about this process of datafication of children is that companies like Google, Facebook, and Amazon are harnessing and collecting multiple typologies of children’s data and have the potential to store a plurality of data traces under unique ID profiles. It is for this reason that we need to break down children’s different data flows and analyze the practices, beliefs, and structures that make these flows possible. Only by doing so can we grasp the complexity and breadth of the datafication of children.

Junit Errorcollector @Rule With Example

In a normal scenario, whenever you identify any error during test execution, you would stop the test, fix the error and re-run the test.

But JUnit has a slightly different approach. With JUnit error collector, you can still continue with the test execution even after an issue is found or test fails. Error collector collects all error objects and reports it only once after the test execution is over.

In this tutorial, you will learn-

Why use Error Collector?

While writing a test script, you want to execute all the tests even if any line of code fails due to network failure, assertion failure, or any other reason. In that situation, you can still continue executing test script using a special feature provided by JUnit known as “error collector.”

For this, JUnit uses @Rule annotation which is used to create an object of error collector. Once the object for error collector is created, you can easily add all the errors into the object using method addError (Throwable error). As you know, that Throwable is the super class of Exception and Error class in Java. When you add errors in this way, these errors will be logged in JUnit test result .

The benefit of adding all errors in an Error Collector is that you can verify all the errors at once. Also, if the script fails in the middle, it can still continue executing it

Note: In the case of using simple assert or try/catch block , using error collector method won’t be possible.

Sample code

To understand more on Error Collector, see below code example which demonstrates how to create an Error Collector object and add all the errors in that object to track the issue :

package guru99.junit; import org.junit.Rule; import org.junit.Test; import org.junit.rules.ErrorCollector; public class ErrorCollectorExample { @Rule public ErrorCollector collector = new ErrorCollector(); @Test public void example() { collector.addError(new Throwable("There is an error in first line")); collector.addError(new Throwable("There is an error in second line")); collector.checkThat(getResults(), not(containsString("here is an error"))); be logged in. } } What is @Rule in jUnit?

JUnit provides special kind of handling of tests, Test Case or test suite by using @rule annotation. Using @rule, you can easily add or redefine the behaviour of the test.

There are several built-in rules provided by JUnit API that a tester can use, or even you can write our own rule.

See below line of code, which shows how to use @rule annotation along with Error Collector:

@Rule public ErrorCollector collector= new ErrorCollector(); Example using ErrorCollector

To understand error collector, let’s create a class and a rule to collect all the errors. You will add all the errors using addError(throwable) here.

See below code which simply creates a rule which is nothing but creating “Error Collector object.” Which is further used to add all the errors in order to report the issue at the end:

package guru99.junit; import org.junit.Assert; import org.junit.Rule; import org.junit.Test; import org.junit.rules.ErrorCollector; public class ErrorCollectorExample { @Rule public ErrorCollector collector = new ErrorCollector(); @Test public void example() { collector.addError(new Throwable("There is an error in first line")); collector.addError(new Throwable("There is an error in second line")); System.out.println("Hello"); try { Assert.assertTrue("A " == "B"); } catch (Throwable t) { collector.addError(t); } System.out.println("World!!!!"); } }

Let’s add above test class in a test runner and execute it to collect all errors. See below code:

package guru99.junit; import org.junit.runner.JUnitCore; import org.junit.runner.Result; import org.junit.runner.notification.Failure; public class TestRunner { public static void main(String[] args) { Result result = JUnitCore.runClasses(ErrorCollectorExample.class); for (Failure failure : result.getFailures()) { System.out.println(failure.toString()); } System.out.println("Result=="+result.wasSuccessful()); } }


See the failure trace which traces all the errors in one place:

Benefits of JUnit ErrorCollector

You can use JUnit assertion for functional or GUI validation e.g.

assertEquals(String message, Object expected, Object actual) which compare that two objects are equals.

Similarly, assertTrue(Boolean condition) asserts that a condition is true.

Using assertion, validation test becomes easy. But one major issue is that test execution will stop even if a single assertion fails.

Test continuity and recovery handling is crucial to test automation success. Error Collector is the best way to handle such kind of scenarios.


Junit error collector allows a test to continue even after the first issue is found and test fails at the end

Error collector collects all error objects and reports it only, after all, the test execution over

The benefit of adding all errors in an Error Collector is that you can verify all the errors at once

Error collector simply adds errors using method addError(throwable err) provided by

How To Upload A Video To Youtube – Step By Step Guide

YouTube is the biggest video platform worldwide boasting over 2 billion users, 79 percent of whom own a YouTube account.

If you’re a content creator, you can share your music video, vlog, tutorials, or other video content with that massive user base. Plus, if your content is great, you can grow your audience, increase your influence, and monetize your YouTube channel.

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However, getting your content on YouTube isn’t as easy as just recording and editing the video, uploading, and throwing it out into the world. There are many elements involved in setting up, customizing, and uploading a video.

Whether you want to inspire, entertain, educate, or sell something to your target audience, this step-by-step guide will show you how to upload a video to YouTube.

How To Upload a Video To YouTube

Before you can upload a video to YouTube, you need to create a YouTube account or sign in if you already have one. All you need is to create a Google account. Your YouTube account will have a channel where your videos can live on the platform, and viewers can find your video content.

How To Upload a Video To Youtube Using a Browser

Note: Your internet connection and the size of the video file will determine how fast your video will be uploaded. For YouTube, the best video file format is MP4 as this gives you high quality videos that are smaller in size.

Next, fill out the title and description of your video, among other details. If you want your video to rank for specific keywords, this is a good place to enter those keywords based on what your target audience is searching for.

You can also add tags, a custom or auto-generated thumbnail, add your video to a YouTube playlist, upload closed captions, and indicate if the video is made for kids or not, among other options.

Add video elements such as cards and an end screen that shows viewers related videos to promote related content, websites, and calls to action.

The following are your four Visibility choices:

Public:The video you upload will go live immediately. However, you can choose to premiere it to start a specific time and set a countdown so that your viewers can watch as they interact with others.

Unlisted: The video is live, but only those with the link to the video can watch. It won’t be shown in the search results immediately.

Private: Only you and those you choose to watch the video can view it.

Schedule: Allows you to set a specific date and time when the video will go live on YouTube.

Note: If you’re not ready to share the video with the world, set it to private or unlisted once you publish it. This gives you time to check that everything you want is in place before you share it with your preferred audience or with the public and start promoting it.

Once your video has been uploaded to YouTube, you can change the permissions to control who can access the video, add video watermarks, and more.

How To Upload a Video To Youtube From a Phone

You can use the web browser or install the YouTube app on your Android phone or iPhone to upload a video to YouTube.

Go to chúng tôi tap the three dots menu at the upper right side of the screen.

Use the same steps described above to upload your video to YouTube from a web browser on your phone.

To upload a video to YouTube using the YouTube app, download and install the free YouTube app on your Android phone or iPhone, and then sign in to your Google account.

Tap the camcorder icon at the top, next to the search button.

Next, you’ll see two options: Record and Go Live. To upload the video, select it from the video files YouTube displays from your phone.

Fill out the details of the video such as title, description, location, and the visibility options: Public, Private, Unlisted, or Scheduled.

Next, select whether the video is made for kids or not, and if you want the video to be restricted to an adult audience so that it doesn’t show up in certain areas of YouTube.

How To Upload a Video To YouTube Using Third-Party Software

Some professional video editing tools like iMovie allow you to upload a video to YouTube directly from the software itself. Uploading a video to YouTube from video editing software helps you stay focused on your work by uploading your video from the same platform where you created it. 

If you prefer to export your video and upload to YouTube directly, you can still use the browser or YouTube app steps above.

Get Your Message Out To The World

YouTube makes it fast, free, and easy for content creators to upload their own videos and reach a large audience. We hope you were able to upload your video to YouTube using the steps above. Check out our Online Tech Tips channel on YouTube for more personal computing tips and tricks. 

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