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In a normal scenario, whenever you identify any error during test execution, you would stop the test, fix the error and re-run the test.

But JUnit has a slightly different approach. With JUnit error collector, you can still continue with the test execution even after an issue is found or test fails. Error collector collects all error objects and reports it only once after the test execution is over.

In this tutorial, you will learn-

Why use Error Collector?

While writing a test script, you want to execute all the tests even if any line of code fails due to network failure, assertion failure, or any other reason. In that situation, you can still continue executing test script using a special feature provided by JUnit known as “error collector.”

For this, JUnit uses @Rule annotation which is used to create an object of error collector. Once the object for error collector is created, you can easily add all the errors into the object using method addError (Throwable error). As you know, that Throwable is the super class of Exception and Error class in Java. When you add errors in this way, these errors will be logged in JUnit test result .

The benefit of adding all errors in an Error Collector is that you can verify all the errors at once. Also, if the script fails in the middle, it can still continue executing it

Note: In the case of using simple assert or try/catch block , using error collector method won’t be possible.

Sample code

To understand more on Error Collector, see below code example which demonstrates how to create an Error Collector object and add all the errors in that object to track the issue :

package guru99.junit; import org.junit.Rule; import org.junit.Test; import org.junit.rules.ErrorCollector; public class ErrorCollectorExample { @Rule public ErrorCollector collector = new ErrorCollector(); @Test public void example() { collector.addError(new Throwable("There is an error in first line")); collector.addError(new Throwable("There is an error in second line")); collector.checkThat(getResults(), not(containsString("here is an error"))); be logged in. } } What is @Rule in jUnit?

JUnit provides special kind of handling of tests, Test Case or test suite by using @rule annotation. Using @rule, you can easily add or redefine the behaviour of the test.

There are several built-in rules provided by JUnit API that a tester can use, or even you can write our own rule.

See below line of code, which shows how to use @rule annotation along with Error Collector:

@Rule public ErrorCollector collector= new ErrorCollector(); Example using ErrorCollector

To understand error collector, let’s create a class and a rule to collect all the errors. You will add all the errors using addError(throwable) here.

See below code which simply creates a rule which is nothing but creating “Error Collector object.” Which is further used to add all the errors in order to report the issue at the end:

ErrorCollectorExample.java

package guru99.junit; import org.junit.Assert; import org.junit.Rule; import org.junit.Test; import org.junit.rules.ErrorCollector; public class ErrorCollectorExample { @Rule public ErrorCollector collector = new ErrorCollector(); @Test public void example() { collector.addError(new Throwable("There is an error in first line")); collector.addError(new Throwable("There is an error in second line")); System.out.println("Hello"); try { Assert.assertTrue("A " == "B"); } catch (Throwable t) { collector.addError(t); } System.out.println("World!!!!"); } }

TestRunner.java

Let’s add above test class in a test runner and execute it to collect all errors. See below code:

package guru99.junit; import org.junit.runner.JUnitCore; import org.junit.runner.Result; import org.junit.runner.notification.Failure; public class TestRunner { public static void main(String[] args) { Result result = JUnitCore.runClasses(ErrorCollectorExample.class); for (Failure failure : result.getFailures()) { System.out.println(failure.toString()); } System.out.println("Result=="+result.wasSuccessful()); } }

Output:

See the failure trace which traces all the errors in one place:

Benefits of JUnit ErrorCollector

You can use JUnit assertion for functional or GUI validation e.g.

assertEquals(String message, Object expected, Object actual) which compare that two objects are equals.

Similarly, assertTrue(Boolean condition) asserts that a condition is true.

Using assertion, validation test becomes easy. But one major issue is that test execution will stop even if a single assertion fails.

Test continuity and recovery handling is crucial to test automation success. Error Collector is the best way to handle such kind of scenarios.

Summary:

Junit error collector allows a test to continue even after the first issue is found and test fails at the end

Error collector collects all error objects and reports it only, after all, the test execution over

The benefit of adding all errors in an Error Collector is that you can verify all the errors at once

Error collector simply adds errors using method addError(throwable err) provided by ErrorCollector.java.

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Calculator (Example With Excel Template)

Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula (Table of Contents)

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What is the Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula?

The term “cost-benefit analysis” refers to the analytical technique that compares the benefits of a project with its associated costs. In other words, all the expected benefits out a project are placed on one side of the balance and the costs that have to be incurred are placed on the other side. The cost-benefit analysis can be executed either using “benefit-cost ratio” or “net present value”.

The formula for a benefit-cost ratio can be derived by dividing the aggregate of the present value of all the expected benefits by an aggregate of the present value of all the associated costs, which is represented as,

Benefit-Cost Ratio = ∑PV of all the Expected Benefits / ∑PV of all the Associated Costs

The formula for net present value can be derived by deducting the sum of the present value of all the associated costs from the sum of the present value of all the expected benefits, which is represented as,

Net Present Value = ∑PV of all the Expected Benefits – ∑PV of all the Associated Costs

Example of Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula (With Excel Template)

Let’s take an example to understand the calculation of Cost-Benefit Analysis in a better manner.

You can download this Cost-Benefit Analysis Excel Template here – Cost-Benefit Analysis Excel Template

Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula – Example #1

Let us take the example of a financial technology start-up which is contemplating on hiring two new programmers. The promoter expects the programmers to increase the revenue by 25% while incurring an additional cost of $45,000 in the next one year. The help promoter decides whether to go ahead with the recruitment based on cost-benefit analysis if the revenue of the company in the current year is $220,000 and the relevant discount rate is 5%.

Solution:

PV of Benefit is Calculated as:

PV of Benefit= $55,000 / (1 + 5%)

PV of Benefit = $52,380.95

PV of Cost is Calculated as:

PV of Cost = $35,000 / (1 + 5%)

PV of Cost = $33,333.33

Benefit-Cost Ratio is calculated using the formula given below

Benefit-Cost Ratio = ∑PV of all the Expected Benefits / ∑PV of all the Associated Costs

Benefit-Cost Ratio = $52,380.95 / $33,333.33

Benefit-Cost Ratio = 1.57x

Net Present Value is calculated using the formula given below

Net Present Value = ∑PV of all the Expected Benefits – ∑PV of all the Associated Costs

Net Present Value = $52,380.95 – $33,333.33

Net Present Value = $19,047.62

Therefore, both the method of cost-benefit analysis suggests that the promoter should go ahead with the recruitment.

Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula – Example #2

Let us take the example of two projects to illustrate the use of cost-benefit analysis. The sum of the present value of expected benefits from Project 1 is $50 million with the sum of the present value of associated costs of $30 million. On the other hand, the sum of the present value of expected benefits from Project 2 is $10 million with the sum of the present value of associated costs of $5 million. Discuss which project is better based on cost-benefit analysis.

Solution:

Benefit-Cost Ratio is calculated using the formula given below

Benefit-Cost Ratio = ∑PV of all the Expected Benefits / ∑PV of all the Associated Costs

For Project 1

Benefit-Cost Ratio = $50,000,000 / $30,000,000

Benefit-Cost Ratio = 1.67x

For Project 2

Benefit-Cost Ratio = $10,000,000 / $5,000,000

Benefit-Cost Ratio = 2.00x

Net Present Value is calculated using the formula given below

Net Present Value = ∑PV of all the Expected Benefits – ∑PV of all the Associated Costs

For Project 1

Net Present Value = $50,000,000 – $30,000,000

Net Present Value = $20,000,000

For Project 2

Net Present Value = $10,000,000 – $5,000,000

Net Present Value = $5,000,000

Explanation

The formula for cost-benefit analysis can be calculated by using the following steps:

Step 1: Firstly, Calculate all the cash inflow from the subject project, which is either revenue generation or savings due to operational efficiency.

Step 2: Next, Calculate all the cash outflow into the project, which are the costs incurred in order to maintain and keep the project up and running.

Step 3: Next, Calculate the discounting factor based on the current pricing of assets with a similar risk profile.

Step 4: Next, based on the discounting factor, calculate the present value of all the cash inflow and outflow. Then, add up the present value of all the cash inflow as ∑PV of all the expected benefits and outflow as ∑PV of all the associated costs.

Step 5: Now, the formula for a benefit-cost ratio can be derived by dividing aggregate of the present value of all the expected benefits (step 4) by aggregate of the present value of all the associated costs (step 4) as shown below.

Benefit-Cost Ratio = ∑PV of all the Expected Benefits / ∑PV of all the Associated Costs

Step 6: Now, the formula for net present value can be derived by deducting the sum of the present value of all the associated costs (step 4) from the sum of the present value of all the expected benefits (step 4) as shown below.

Net Present Value = ∑PV of all the Expected Benefits – ∑PV of all the Associated Costs

Relevance and Use of Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula

The importance of cost-benefit analysis lies in the fact that it is used for assessing the feasibility of an opportunity, comparing projects, appraising opportunity cost and building real-life scenario-based sensitivity testing. In this way, this technique helps in ascertaining the accuracy of an investment decision and provides a platform for its comparison with similar proposals.

Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula Calculator

You can use the following Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula Calculator

∑PV of all the Expected Benefits ∑PV of all the Associated Costs Benefit-Cost Ratio   Benefit-Cost Ratio = ∑PV of all the Expected Benefits =

∑PV of all the Associated Costs

0

= 0

0

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula. Here we discuss how to calculate the Cost-Benefit Analysis Formula along with practical examples. We also provide a Cost-Benefit Analysis calculator with a downloadable excel template. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

Encapsulation In Java Oops With Example

What is Encapsulation in Java?

Encapsulation in Java is a mechanism to wrap up variables(data) and methods(code) together as a single unit. It is the process of hiding information details and protecting data and behavior of the object. It is one of the four important OOP concepts. The encapsulate class is easy to test, so it is also better for unit testing.

In this tutorial, you will learn-

Learn Encapsulation with an Example

To understand what is encapsulation in detail consider the following bank account class with deposit and show balance methods

class Account { private int account_number; private int account_balance; public void show Data() { } public void deposit(int a) { if (a < 0) { } else account_balance = account_balance + a; } }

Suppose a hacker managed to gain access to the code of your bank account. Now, he tries to deposit amount -100 into your account by two ways. Let see his first method or approach.

Approach 1: He tries to deposit an invalid amount (say -100) into your bank account by manipulating the code.

Now, the question is – Is that possible? Let investigate.

Usually, a variable in a class are set as “private” as shown below. It can only be accessed with the methods defined in the class. No other class or object can access them.

If a data member is private, it means it can only be accessed within the same class. No outside class can access private data member or variable of other class.

So in our case hacker cannot deposit amount -100 to your account.

Approach 2: Hacker’s first approach failed to deposit the amount. Next, he tries to do deposit a amount -100 by using “deposit” method.

But method implementation has a check for negative values. So the second approach also fails.

Thus, you never expose your data to an external party. Which makes your application secure.

The entire code can be thought of a capsule, and you can only communicate through the messages. Hence the name encapsulation.

Data Hiding in Java

Data Hiding in Java is hiding the variables of a class from other classes. It can only be accessed through the method of their current class. It hides the implementation details from the users. But more than data hiding, it is meant for better management or grouping of related data.

To achieve a lesser degree of encapsulation in Java, you can use modifiers like “protected” or “public”. With encapsulation, developers can change one part of the code easily without affecting other.

Getter and Setter in Java

Getter and Setter in Java are two conventional methods used to retrieve and update values of a variable. They are mainly used to create, modify, delete and view the variable values. The setter method is used for updating values and the getter method is used for reading or retrieving the values. They are also known as an accessor and mutator.

The following code is an example of getter and setter methods:

class Account{ private int account_number; private int account_balance; public int getBalance() { return this.account_balance; } public void setNumber(int num) { this.account_number = num; } }

Abstraction vs. Encapsulation

Often encapsulation is misunderstood with Abstraction. Lets study-

Encapsulation is more about “How” to achieve a functionality

Abstraction is more about “What” a class can do.

A simple example to understand this difference is a mobile phone. Where the complex logic in the circuit board is encapsulated in a touch screen, and the interface is provided to abstract it out.

Advantages of Encapsulation in Java

Encapsulation is binding the data with its related functionalities. Here functionalities mean “methods” and data means “variables”

So we keep variable and methods in one place. That place is “class.” Class is the base for encapsulation.

With Java Encapsulation, you can hide (restrict access) to critical data members in your code, which improves security

As we discussed earlier, if a data member is declared “private”, then it can only be accessed within the same class. No outside class can access data member (variable) of other class.

However, if you need to access these variables, you have to use public “getter” and “setter” methods.

Stack In C++ Stl With Example

What is std::stack?

A stack is a data structure that operates based on LIFO (Last In First Out) technique. The std::stack allows elements to be added and removed from one end only.

The std::stack class is a container adapter. Container objects hold data of a similar data type. You can create a stack from various sequence containers. If no container is provided, the deque containe will be used by default. Container adapters don’t support iterators, so it can’t be used to manipulate data.

In this C++ tutorial, you will learn

Stack Syntax

Type – is the Type of element contained in the std::stack. It can be any valid C++ type or even a user-defined type.

Container – is the Type of underlying container object.

Member Types

Here are stack member types:

value_type- The first template parameter, T. It denotes the element types.

container_type- The second template parameter, Container. It denotes the underlying container type.

size_type- Unsigned integral type.

Operations in Stack

A C++ stack supports the following basic operations:

push – It adds/pushes an item into the stack.

pop – It removes/pops an item from the stack.

peek – Returns the top item of the stack without removing it.

isFull – Checks whether a stack is full.

isEmpty – Checks whether a stack is empty.

Stack Implementation

Step 1) We initially have an empty stack. The top of an empty stack is set to -1.

Step 2) Next, we have pushed the element 5 into the stack. The top of the stack will points to the element 5.

Step 3) Next, we have pushed the element 50 into the stack. The top of the stack shifts and points to the element 50.

Step 4) We have then performed a pop operation, removing the top element from the stack. The element 50 is popped from the stack. The top of the stack now points to the element 5.

push() and pop()

The stack::push() functions adds new item to the top of stack. The stack size is increased by a 1 after the insertion. The function takes this syntax:

stack.push(value)

The value is the item to insert into the stack.

The stack:: pop() function removes the top element of the stack. This is the newest item of the stack. The stack size is reduced by 1 after the removal. Here is the function syntax:

stack.pop()

The function takes no parameters.

Example 1:

using namespace std; int main() { st.push(10); st.push(20); st.push(30); st.push(40);

st.pop(); st.pop();

while (!st.empty()) { cout << ‘ ‘ << st.top(); st.pop(); } }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Include the iostream header file in our code to use its functions.

Include the stack header file in our code to use its functions.

Include the std namespace in our code to use its classes without calling it.

Call the main() function. The program logic should be added within this function.

Create a stack st to store integer values.

Use the push() function to insert the value 10 into the stack.

Use the push() function to insert the value 20 into the stack.

Use the push() function to insert the value 30 into the stack.

Use the push() function to insert the value 40 into the stack.

Use the pop() function to remove the top element from the stack, that is, 40. The top element now becomes 30.

Use the pop() function to remove the top element from the stack, that is, 30. The top element now becomes 20.

Use a while loop and empty() function to check whether the stack is NOT empty. The ! is the NOT operator.

Printing the current contents of the stack on the console.

Call the pop() function on the stack.

End of the body of the while loop.

End of the main() function body.

Stacks have inbuilt functions that you can use to play around with the stack and its values. These include:

empty()- checks whether a stack is empty or not.

size()- returns the size of stack, that is, number of elements in a stack.

top()- accesses stack element at the top.

Example 2:

using namespace std; { while (!ms.empty()) { cout << ‘t’ << ms.top(); ms.pop(); } cout << ‘n’; } int main() { st.push(32); st.push(21); st.push(39); st.push(89); st.push(25);

cout << “The stack st is: “; createStack(st); cout << “n st.size() : ” << st.size(); cout << “n st.top() : ” << st.top(); cout << “n st.pop() : “; st.pop(); createStack(st); return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Include the iostream header file in our code in order to use its functions.

Include the stack header file in our code in order to use its functions.

Include the std namespace in our program in order to use its classes without calling it.

Create the function createStack that we can use to create the stack mystack. The stack will hold a set of integers.

The beginning of the body of the createStack function.

Create an instance of the mystack datatype and giving it the name ms.

Use the while loop and the empty() function to check whether the stack is empty.

The start of the body of the while loop.

Use the top() function stored at the top of the stack. The t character will create a new tab.

Use the pop() function to delete the element at the top of the stack.

End of the body of the while loop.

Print a blank line on the console.

End of the body of the createStack function.

Call the main() function. The program logic should be added within the body of the main() function.

The start of the body of function main().

Create a stack object st.

Use the push() function to insert the element 32 into the stack.

Use the push() function to insert the element 21 into the stack.

Use the push() function to insert the element 39 into the stack.

Use the push() function to insert the element 89 into the stack.

Use the push() function to insert the element 25 into the stack.

Print some text on the console.

Call the createStack function to execute the above insert operations into the stack.

Print the size of the stack on the console alongside other text.

Print the element at the top of the stack on the console.

Print some text on the console.

Delete the element at the top of the stack. It will then return the elements remaining in the stack.

Call the createStack function to execute the above operations.

The program must return value upon successful completion.

End of the body of function main().

emplace() and swap()

These are other inbuilt stack functions:

emplace()- constructs then inserts new element to top of stack.

swap()- exchanges stack contents with another stack’s contents.

Example 3:

using namespace std; int main() {

st1.emplace(12); st1.emplace(19);

st2.emplace(20); st2.emplace(23);

st1.swap(st2);

cout << “st1 = “; while (!st1.empty()) { cout << st1.top() << ” “; st1.pop(); }

cout << endl << “st2 = “; while (!st2.empty()) { cout << st2.top() << ” “; st2.pop(); } }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Include the iostream header file in our code to use its functions.

Include the stack header file in our code to use its functions.

Include the cstdlib header file in our code to use its functions.

Include the std namespace in our code to use its classes without calling it.

Call the main() function. The program logic will be added within the body of this function.

Declare a stack named st1 to store integer values.

Declare a stack named st2 to store integer values.

Use the emplace() function to insert the integer 12 into the stack named st1.

Use the emplace() function to insert the integer 19 into the stack named st1.

Use the emplace() function to insert the integer 20 into the stack named st2.

Use the emplace() function to insert the integer 23 into the stack named st2.

Use the swap() function to swap the contents of the two stacks, st1 and st2. The contents of the stack st1 should be moved to the stack st2. The contents of the stack st2 should be moved to the stack st1.

Print some text on the console.

Use the while statement and the empty() function to check whether the stack st1 is not empty.

Print the contents of the stack st1 on the console. The ” ” adds space between the stack elements when printing them on the console.

Execute the pop() function on the stack st1 to remove the top element.

End of the body of the while statement.

Print some text on the console. The endl is a C++ keyword for end line. It moves the mouse cursor to the next line to begin printing from there.

Use the while statement and the empty() function to check whether the stack st2 is not empty.

Print the contents of the stack st2 on the console. The ” ” adds space between the stack elements when printing them on the console.

Execute the pop() function on the stack st2 to remove the top element.

End of the body of the while statement.

End of the body of the main() function.

Stack in STL

The STL (Standard Template Library) comes with template classes that provide common C++ data structures. Therefore, a stack can also be implemented in STL. We simply include this library in our code and use it to define a stack.

The above syntax declares a stack st to elements of data type T.

Example 3:

using namespace std; int main() { st.push(12); st.push(19); st.push(20); cout << st.top(); cout << st.size(); }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Include the iostream header file in our code to use its functions.

Include the stack header file in our code to use its functions.

Include the cstdlib header file in our code to use its functions.

Include the std namespace in our code to use its classes without calling it.

Call the main() function. The program logic should be added within the body of this function.

Declare a stack st to store integer data.

Add the element 12 to the stack.

Add the element 19 to the stack.

Add the element 20 to the stack.

Print the element at the top of the stack on the console.

Print the size of the stack on the console.

End of the body of the function main().

Summary:

A stack is a data structure that operates based on the LIFO (Last In first Out) technique.

The std::stack only allows items to be added and removed from one end.

The std::stack class is a container adapter, holding items of a similar data type.

A stack can be created from various sequence containers.

If you don’t provide a container, the deque container will be used by default.

The push() function is for inserting items into the stack.

The pop() function is for removing the top item from the step.

The empty() function is for checking whether a stack is empty or not.

‘It’s The Best Guide’: Kristina Keneally’s ‘Golden Rule’ To Live By

Few women in Australia carry the breadth of leadership experience of former New South Wales premier and Australian senator Kristina Keneally. From politics to sport and now her role as chief executive of the Sydney Children’s Hospitals Foundation – Keneally has experienced it all.

Keneally’s role as CEO of the Sydney Children’s Hospitals Foundation allows her to bring together her passion for children and health with her leadership, change and policy experience.  

“Every day, I get to help improve the care, experiences and opportunities for sick kids and their families. It is a humbling and tremendous opportunity,” she told Forbes Australia.  

What is something from your childhood or youth that drove you to achieve?  

Competing in sports, specifically team sports and contact sports. I learned how to be ambitious, set goals, plan, train, prepare, work collaboratively with my teammates, and accept both victory and defeat gracefully. I learned how to manage conflict, lead others, and take coaching and direction. Sports also allowed me to know the difference between assertiveness and aggressiveness, test my limits for pain and endurance, and understand the benefits of being emotionally and physically strong.  

What is something you do every day that sets you up for success?  

Prepare for the next day before I go to bed at night and get up early in the morning. When my kids were young, I got up early in the morning to do laundry, make dinner, or exercise. Now that the kids are grown, I get up at 5 am every day, put on the exercise clothes I laid out the night before, and sit down for 75 minutes of work. Sometimes I focus on a project; other times, I do tasks and emails. Then I do an hour of exercise – running, yoga or weights.  By 7:30 am, I feel I have already accomplished a great deal and could take on the world.

What was one failure or disappointment that encouraged you to strive higher or do better?  

I was cut from the basketball team at my high school in Toledo, Ohio.  Truth be told, I had been able to coast in basketball up to that point [based] on my height and talent. Being cut proved a great teachable moment. I realised that raw talent on its own does not guarantee success. Hard work is also required. I decided I would never again lose an opportunity because I had failed to put in the effort to earn it. It is ok to try your best and fail, but it is not ok to fail because you didn’t try your best. (I worked hard and got back on the team – in year 11, we were in the top 10 teams in Ohio.)  

What would you like to have done with your life if your career hadn’t taken the path that it did?  

I do not live with regrets. I own my career choices. I have been fortunate to have experienced many different roles and learned something valuable from each one. That being said, I think I would have found satisfaction in being a police detective or perhaps an officer in a national security agency. I like deductive reasoning, and the justice and community service aspects of those roles appeal to me. But, back in the 1980s, national security and policing were not the kinds of jobs that the nuns at my high school recommended young ladies consider for their futures.  

“It is ok to try your best and fail, but it is not ok to fail because you didn’t try your best.”

Kristina Keneally

What is one attribute that you think other people underestimate in you?  

What do you love to do for enjoyment outside of work?  

My greatest peace comes from being outside and physically active – kayaking, bushwalking, stand-up paddling, and trail running. I love being in and around water, making life in Sydney a joy. I also love cooking for friends and family – including my speciality, keto cheesecakes. I went keto during the pandemic, and it has been great for my health, fitness, reducing inflammation and revitalising my enthusiasm for cooking.  

Kristina Keneally during the WNBL 40th Season Launch at Parliament House Basketball Court. Image: Getty

What is the most powerful action you have used to be successful in life, business, and relationships?  

Treat people as you want to be treated – the “Golden Rule”. It is the best guide in any situation. It is also what was instilled in me by my parents, teachers, and my faith – that we have an obligation to help others and make the world a better place than how we found it. A passion for social justice and service drove me to politics in the first place – to contribute to a stronger and fairer society. I’ve left politics, but that passion will never leave.

“Treat people as you want to be treated – the “Golden Rule”. It is the best guide in any situation.”

It is why I love working for the Sydney Children’s Hospitals Foundation now. Every day I get to help improve the care, experiences and opportunities for sick kids and their families.  It is a humbling and tremendous opportunity.  

In moments of pain, how did you manage to keep going? What was the motivator?  

The most painful experience was losing my second child, my daughter Caroline, to stillbirth. I kept going thanks to the unconditional love of my husband Ben, who was experiencing his own grief as well; the hope offered in my first-born son, who was only 15 months old at the time; the care provided by amazing doctors and social workers at the Royal

Women’s Hospital and the Sydney Children’s Hospital in Randwick; and my belief that our human lives – no matter how long or short – have meaning and transformative power in this world.  

What keeps you up at night?  

Not much.  After so many years in varied high-profile roles with big responsibilities, I have learned how to shut my brain down at night – often by using routines to prepare for sleep and the day ahead. If I had not developed these habits, I would have never gotten any sleep.  

Women in politics: what needs to happen on this front? Are there still challenges?  

So much has changed in the past 20 years – most of it for the better. I am proud to have played a part in that change. I have confidence that the current generation of women in politics will make even bigger and better changes ahead. 

What is something you value more than anything else?  

The love of my family. They are the most important people in my life. I am full of gratitude for their unconditional love for me, and I would do anything to help them – especially my children – achieve their dreams and potential.  

What is next for Kristina Keneally?   

I am fortunate to lead a team of talented and collaborative fundraisers and change agents at the Sydney Children’s Hospitals Foundation. SCHF is the largest children’s charity in Australia and one of the largest children’s hospital foundations in the world.  In the last three years, we have raised $170 million for the Sydney Children’s Hospitals Network. In May, we held the annual Gold Dinner, where the funds raised will help to support projects such as The Centre for Clinical Genetics, palliative care, mental health, critical care and research into rare diseases. At the foundation, we have big ambitions for the next three years – to raise even more funds to support excellent clinical care, the best possible patient experience, and cutting-edge research in kids’ health. For nearly 40 years, SCHF has supported all sick kids: toddlers and teenagers, newborns and the not-yet-borns, those who can be cured, and those who just want a fighting chance.  

I am so excited to help set the Sydney Children’s Hospitals Foundation up for the next 40 years of growth, creating transformative and generational impacts on children’s health.  

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Synatx Of Example Of Matlab Polyfit()

Introduction of Matlab polyfit()

MATLAB function polyfit() is defined to fit a specific set of data points to a polynomialquickly and easily computing polynomial with the least squares for the given set of data. It generates the coefficients for the elements of the polynomial, which are used for modeling a curve to fit to the given data.

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Polyfit() function uses input vector (x) to form Vandermonde matrix (V ) having n+1 columns and r = length(x) rows, which is nothing but results in a linear system.

Syntax of Matlab polyfit()

Syntax of Matlab polyfit() are given below:

Syntax

poly = polyfit(x,y,n) It generates the coefficients of the resultant polynomial p(x) with a degree of ‘n’, for the data set in yas the best fit in the view of a least-square. The coefficients in p are assigned to power in descending order and matching length of p to n+1.

[poly,Struct] = polyfit(x,y,n) It results in a structure S which can be used as input to the function polyval() in order to obtain error estimation.

[poly,Struct,mu] = polyfit(x,y,n) It results in a two-element vector having values-centered and scaled.

mu(1) holds a value of the mean of (x), and

mu(2) ) holds the value of standard of (x).

Using these two values, function polyfit()makes x centered at zero and scaledx to have a unit standard deviation,

Input Arguments

Query Points: Query points are specified as an input of vector type. If x is non-vector element, then this function polyfit() converts x into a column chúng tôi data points in x and their corresponding fitted function values contained in the vector y are formed.

Note

If the vector x has recurring data points or if it needs centering and scaling, warning messages may result out.

Fitted values at query points: Fitted values as inputs are available at query points being specified with the vector data type. The data points in x and their corresponding fitted function values contained in the vector y are formed. If y is the non-vector element, then this function polyfit() converts y into a column vector.

Degree of polynomial fit: Degree of polynomial fit as inputs, are available being specified as any positive integer scalar. In the respective syntax, ‘n’refers to the polynomial power to that of the left-most coefficient in the polynomial ‘p’.

Example of Matlab polyfit()

The below code is designed to generate data points placed equally spaced across a sine curve drawn in a specific interval.

Code:

hold off

Output:

Use Cases for polyfit() Function

Use cases for polyfit() function are given below:

Fitting  Polynomial to Set of data Points: The below code snippet carry out the fitting process on the polynomial poly of degree 4 towards 5  points.

Code:

legend(‘ydata’,’ydata1′,’fig1′)

Output:

Fitting the Polynomial function to Error Function: The below code generate a vector having x data points being placed equally in the interval of [0,3.5] and co-efficient are assigned to the polynomial assuming the degree as 6.

Code:

hold off

Output:

Improving Numerical Properties using Centering and Scaling: While solving the equation p = Vy, the condition number for V is usually large for higher-order fits and results in a matrix with singular coefficient, as the columns of V (Vandermonde matrix) are powers of the x vector.

In such cases, functions like scaling and centering are helpful to improve the numerical properties associated with the system in order to find a fit that is more reliable. In the below example polyfit() is called on three outputs to fit a polynomial of degree 5 along with the process of centering and scaling. The data is centered for the quarter, at 0, and scaled to have a unit standard deviation.

Code:

hold off

Output:

Simple Linear Regression: A simple linear regression model can be used to apply a fitting to a set of discrete two-dimensional data points.

legend(‘data’,’func’)

Output:

Combining Linear Regression and Error Estimation: A linear model can be set fit to a set of specified data points and the results can be plotted including an estimation of a prediction interval of 95%.

A few vectors can be created containing sample data points. The function polyfit can be called to fit a polynomial of degree 1 to the given set of data. Dual outputs can be specified to hold the values of coefficients supporting a linear fit as well as a structure containing error estimation.

Code:

[poly,Samp] = polyfit(xdata,ydata,1);

/*The error estimation structure is specified as the third input so that the function polyval()computes an estimated standard error. The estimated standard error estimate is stored in the second output variable delta. */

title(‘Usage of polyfit and polyval’)

Output:

Additional Note

For n number of data points, a polynomial can be fit to that of degree n-1 to passing exactly through the points.

With the increase in the degree of the polynomial, a fitting process using polyfit()loses the accuracy resulting in to a poorer fit for the data. In such cases, a low-order polynomial is preferable to use that tends to be smoother between the data points or apply a different technique, based on the requirement.

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