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Introduction to MySQL BIN()

MySQL BIN() function represents one of the string functions of converting a given number into the binary symbol as a string value result. This function is responsible for the binary representation of digits in a series value. The MySQL BIN() function returns an identical binary string illustration of the provided binary value of a BIGINT numeral. While execution, if the argument’s value in the function is, provides as NULL, the resultant value of MySQL BIN() function will also be NULL.

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The CONV() function in MySQL has a syntax structure format of CONV(Num,10,2) and is considered the equivalent of the BIN() function. Here, Num denotes the BIGINT number, 10 represents base 10 decimal, and binary with base 2. When executed in the CONV() function format, the number changes from a base 10 decimal number to a base two binary digit string. It means this returns a similar output as BIN() function gives.

Syntax

The succeeding structure defines the syntax of the BIN() function in MySQL:

SELECT BIN(Dec_Num);

The parameter used in the above syntax of the BIN() MySQL function is the decimal digit or digits. It converts into its corresponding binary sequence value when we apply the function on a query in the database table.

For using this function while implementing in an SQL query, we need to follow the following syntax:

SELECT BIN(Num_Expr) FROM Table_Source;

Here, the Num_Expr denotes the BIGINT number that accepts a valid specified expression, column value, or any other numeral converted to a binary string when the result is fetched from the database query. Table_Source is the name of the database table.

How does BIN() function work in MySQL?

As mentioned above, the BIN() function produces a binary representation of the number declared in the function argument.

Suppose we want to convert the number 12 into a binary string output. Then, using the syntax, we have an introductory query statement as below:

SELECT BIN(12);

Output:

The output displays the binary representation of the decimal number 12, which is obtained by converting it to base 2.

It should be distinguished that the string value basedBIN() function gives NULL when the conversion of the number into binary string value has a length that exceeds the value of the max_allowed_packetsystem variable.

In this process, the initial position of the string but for those MySQL functions that work on the string is numbered 1.

For those functions which implement length arguments, the non-integer parameters are rounded to the nearest integer.

For example,

SELECT BIN(5126);

Output:

Now, we will take about CONV() function for the conversion then; the result of the function will be as follows:

SELECT CONV(5,10,2);

Output:

The process of base-2 conversion converts the decimal number 5 to its equivalent binary string representation, as shown in the screenshot above.

Examples of MySQL BIN()

We are now going to demonstrate the MySQL BIN() function and its uses as per the following examples:

Example #1

MySQL BIN() function simple examples:

SELECT BIN(34.56);

Output:

We are executing the BIN() function with a NULL value to pass in the argument.

SELECT BIN(NULL);

Also, let us give any character value with the Varchar data type in MySQL, then the conversion result will be as below:

SELECT BIN('ABC');

Output:

From the result, we know that if we pass any string value for the BIN() function, the output is zero(0). Therefore, we must provide a numeral for retrieving the Binary value.

Example #2

MySQL BIN() function example with a certain range of values:

Let us consider the next example that produces several binary values from different numbers ranging from 11 to 20 decimal digits. The statement for BIN() function is:

SELECT BIN(11) AS '11', BIN(12) AS '12', BIN(13) AS '13', BIN(14) AS '14', BIN(15) AS '15', BIN(16) AS '16', BIN(17) AS '17', BIN(18) AS '18', BIN(19) AS '19', BIN(20) AS '20';

Output:

Example #3

MySQL BIN() function example with Column values in the records of a table:

To implement this example, we have used the table data of a database table as a sample provided in the following example:

We have an Employee table; let’s create this one:

CREATE TABLE Employees ( EmpID int NOT NULL, EmpName varchar(255) NOT NULL, EmpProfile varchar(255), EmpSalary int, EmpPF int , PRIMARY KEY (EmpID) ); INSERT INTO Employees (EmpID, EmpName, EmpProfile, EmpSalary, EmpPF)VALUES ('210', 'Radha', 'Engineer', '50000', '3600'), ('211', 'Mohan', 'Manager', '40000', '2000'), ('212', 'Dev', 'Executive', '32000', '1800'), ('213', 'Madhuri', 'Blogger', '20000', Null), ('214', 'Rita', 'Pilot', '48000', '5000');

The table is displayed as follows:

SELECT * FROM Employees;

Output:

First of all, let us view the information through the below MySQL statement:

SELECT EmpName, EmpSalary, EmpPF FROM Employees;

Output:

Now, we apply MySQL BIN() function to the selected columns in the table above. We will write the below statement to provide the binary values of the column data values available in integer data type columns, i.e., EmpSalary and EmpPF.

Here, we use the BIN() function along with the SELECT query to find the binary string value equivalent to the current corresponding column values in the given table:

SELECT EmpName, EmpProfile, EmpSalary,BIN(EmpSalary) AS Binary_Salary,EmpPF, BIN(EmpPF) AS Binary_PF FROM Employees;

Output:

We have shown the column data binary representation of the corresponding table column values that we have applied as input to the MySQL BIN() function arguments.

This MySQL BIN() function helps evaluate the binary form of any number as we convert the decimal number into a binary one when we start calculating manually using the mathematical formula.

Conclusion

The MySQL BIN() function converts a decimal numeral to its equivalent binary string value when we pass the argument using the function in a MySQL statement execution.

BIN() function holds a binary result of Dec_Num as in the syntax described above, indicating a long, long number, i.e., BIGINT.

BIN() function is for number conversion to base 2 value, but the CONV() function can enable us to generate results on different bases, not only restricted to a binary one.

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## Learn How Xmltable Function Works In Oracle?

Introduction to Oracle XMLTABLE

Oracle XMLTABLE function is a new function added to Oracle since Oracle 10g along with other function like XQuery to its collection of XML handling APIs. Here, the XQuery will let you construct the XML data as well as relational data and query XML using the XQuery language. But the XMLTABLE function in Oracle is responsible for creating the relational tables and its columns from Oracle XQuery command query results. Generally, the XMLTABLE function will return the content of any XML document or maybe any element present in a relational table format structure. XMLTABLE is a SQL/XML function that is implemented in the FROM clause of a SQL but in combination with a driving table that contains the XML data for translating the XML data to a relational form. Hence, using this Oracle XMLTABLE function one can retrieve several information from the XML data.

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Syntax

The basic syntax for the XMLTABLE function is explained below:

The XMLTABLE function comprises one row-generating XQuery expression and in the clause COLUMNS, there exists one or more than one column-generating expression.

Before practicing the Oracle XMLTABLE function, we should know first about the XPath, where XPath implements a path expression for selecting nodes as well as a list of nodes from an xml document. Here, is the list of beneficial paths and expression which can be applied for selecting any node or nodelist from an xml document.

Expression                                                                  Description

Nodename                                          Picks all nodes having the name ‘nodename’

/                                                           Chooses from the root node

//                                                         Picks nodes in the document from the present node which equals the choice no matter where they are

.                                                          Picks the present node

..                                                          Picks the parent of the present node

@                                                         Chooses attributes

Table_element                                    Picks all nodes with the name ‘Table_element’

Table_Name/Table_Element             Chooses all table elements that are offspring of table

//Table_Element                                 Picks all table elements no matter where they exist in the document

Also, a list of predicates is stated in square brackets [….] which are applied to discover a particular node or a node that covers a definite value.

Path Expression                                                                      Result

/table_name/table_element                                 Picks the initial table element which is known to be the child of the table element.

/table_name/table_element[last()]                           Picks the last table element which is known to be the child of the table element.

//table_element[@type=’admin’]                              Picks all the table elements which hold an attribute named type having a value of ‘admin’.

How XMLTABLE function works in Oracle?

The XMLTABLE operator in Oracle permits a user to fragment the XML data ahead into table rows and project table columns on to it. For this, a Cartesian product is effectually created concerning the data table and the XMLTABLE call that permits the XMLTABLE for splitting an XML document in one row into more than one row present in the final result of execution.

The table column will be recognized as the source of data using the PASSING clause. Here, the table rows are recognized through an XQuery expression separated with a slash symbol. After that, the columns are predictable onto the resulting XML fragments using the table COLUMNS clause that detects the appropriate tags through the path expression and allots the preferred table column names with the respective data types.

We should be cautious with the column names provided in the clause COLUMNS. If anything is applied other than the upper case, then they may be required to be mentioned for making a straight reference to them. It should be noticed that it is being queried using the alias of the XMLTABLE call somewhat than the consistent table alias.

Examples

Let us illustrate with few instances the Oracle XMLTABLE function using several expressions of XPath for fetching few info from the XML document as below:

XMLTABLE = (XML_namespaces_clause, XQuery_string,XMLTABLE _options)

This describes the XMLTABLE structure where the XML_namespace_clause consists as a set of XML namespace declarations that are referenced by the provided XQuery expression (XQuery_string) further computing the row and with the XPath expression in the clause PATH of the XML_Table_Column, for computing the columns for the whole XMLTABLE function.

Reading Ordernum and Orderdate of all orders

We will query the command below applying the XMLTABLE function for parsing the XML content from the person table as created which also includes few XML data:

CREATE TABLE Persons (PersonID NUMBER, data XMLTYPE);

After running the query, the table will be ready to be operated.

Output:

We can view the contents of table Persons as;

SELECT * FROM Persons;

Output:

The XML includes the person-related data thus, now we will apply the Oracle XMLTABLE function for retrieving any information from this created XML document using the XPath and XQuery string expressions as follows:

SELECT t.PersonID, x.* FROM Persons t, XMLTABLE ('/Persons/Person' PASSING chúng tôi COLUMNS Personname VARCHAR2 (30) PATH  ‘text()’ ) x WHERE y.PersonID =1;

SELECT t.PersonID, x.* FROM Persons t, XMLTABLE ('/Persons/Person' PASSING chúng tôi COLUMNS Personname VARCHAR2 (30) PATH 'personname',Profile VARCHAR2(30) PATH 'profile' ) x WHERE t.PersonID =1;

Output:

Conclusion

Oracle XMLTABLE function and operator functions actually well with small XML documents or database tables along with several rows where each one includes an insignificant XML document.

Again, whenever the XML documents get superior then the performance of the server becomes worse as equated to the manual parse technique. But when dealing with these big XML documents, the user might have to relinquish the accessibility for the XMLTable operator in favor of a labor-intensive resolution.

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## Gude To How Does Mysql Alias Works With Examples

Introduction to MySQL Alias

MySQL Alias is used when we are willing to provide an alternate name for the column or table. Temporarily assigning a name for a column or table that is user-friendly and understandable. Alias is mainly used for the column and table. Column Alias gives an alternate name for the column headings, accessible for the end-user to understand. Table aliasing involves assigning alternate names to tables, which makes it more convenient to read and use them, particularly in the context of joins.

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Syntax:

Given below is the syntax of the alias and how it is used in the column and table:

Here in the above syntax, we provide the column name which we want an alternate to be given. “AS” is optional. And at last, we provide the alias name.

Here in the above syntax, we provide the table name we want to give the alternate. “AS” is optional. And at last we provide the alias name.

How does MySQL Alias works?

MySQL Alias works in the following way:

1. Column Alias

Code:

CREATE TABLE EMPLOYEE_INFORMATION ( EMPLOYEE_ID VARCHAR(10), EMPLOYEE_NAME VARCHAR(20), DEPT_ID VARCHAR(10), EMPLOYEE_SAL INT );

Now let us insert data into the above table:

Code:

INSERT INTO EMPLOYEE_INFORMATION VALUES ('E1','SAM','D1', 90000); INSERT INTO EMPLOYEE_INFORMATION VALUES ('E2','WILL','D1', 80000); INSERT INTO EMPLOYEE_INFORMATION VALUES ('E3','SOMY','D1', 50000); INSERT INTO EMPLOYEE_INFORMATION VALUES ('E4','FRED','D1', 10000); INSERT INTO EMPLOYEE_INFORMATION VALUES ('E5','HARRY','D2', 70000); INSERT INTO EMPLOYEE_INFORMATION VALUES ('E6','PONY','D2', 70000); INSERT INTO EMPLOYEE_INFORMATION VALUES ('E7','DAVID','D2', 40000); INSERT INTO EMPLOYEE_INFORMATION VALUES ('E8','PETER','D3', 30000); INSERT INTO EMPLOYEE_INFORMATION VALUES ('E9','RAM','D3', 60000); INSERT INTO EMPLOYEE_INFORMATION VALUES ('E10','SAI','D3', 50000); select * from EMPLOYEE_INFORMATION;

Output:

Now let us give an alias to each column above without an underscore in the column name.

The below example is for the column aliasing:

Code:

SELECT EMPLOYEE_ID AS "EMPLOYEE ID", EMPLOYEE_NAME AS "EMPLOYEE NAME", DEPT_ID AS "DEPARTMENT_ID", EMPLOYEE_SAL AS "EMPLOYEE SALARY" FROM EMPLOYEE_INFORMATION;

Output:

2. Table Alias

A table alias is mainly used when we are performing joins on the table.

Below are the sample table with sample data to show how the alias is performed.

Code:

CREATE TABLE SAMPLE_A ( COL_A INT, COL_B INT );

Insert data into the table:

Code:

INSERT INTO SAMPLE_A VALUES (1, 5); INSERT INTO SAMPLE_A VALUES (2, 4); INSERT INTO SAMPLE_A VALUES (3, 3); INSERT INTO SAMPLE_A VALUES (4, 2); INSERT INTO SAMPLE_A VALUES (5, 1); select * from SAMPLE_A;

Output:

Now let us create another table.

Code:

CREATE TABLE SAMPLE_B ( COL_A INT, COL_B INT );

Insert data into the table:

Code:

INSERT INTO SAMPLE_B VALUES (1, 5); INSERT INTO SAMPLE_B VALUES (2, 4); INSERT INTO SAMPLE_B VALUES (3, 3); INSERT INTO SAMPLE_B VALUES (4, 2); INSERT INTO SAMPLE_B VALUES (5, 1); Select * from SAMPLE_B;

Output:

Now let us perform joining on above and use an alias:

a. Without Table alias

Code:

SELECT * FROM SAMPLE_A JOIN SAMPLE_B ON  SAMPLE_A.COL_A = SAMPLE_B.COL_A

Output:

b. With Table alias

Code:

SELECT * FROM SAMPLE_A A JOIN SAMPLE_B B ON A.COL_A = B.COL_A

Output:

Examples of MySQL Alias

Given below are the examples:

Example #1 – Column alias

Now let us find the maximum and minimum salary that each department has for the above table which we created earlier.

Code:

SELECT DEPT_ID AS "DEPARTMENT ID", MAX(EMPLOYEE_SAL)AS "MAXIMUM EMPLOYEE SALARY", MIN(EMPLOYEE_SAL)AS "MINIMUN EMPLOYEE SALARY" FROM EMPLOYEE_INFORMATION GROUP BY DEPT_ID;

Output:

Example #2 – Table alias

If we consider a table giving an alternate name for the table is said to be table aliasing.

Code:

SELECT * FROM SAMPLE_A JOIN SAMPLE_B ON SAMPLE_A.COL_A = SAMPLE_B.COL_A

Output:

Here every time mentioning the whole table name in the joining condition would be difficult.

b. With Table alias

Code:

SELECT * FROM SAMPLE_A A JOIN SAMPLE_B B ON A.COL_A = B.COL_A

Output:

Here every time mentioning the whole table name in the joining condition would be difficult. Hence, we have mentioned the alias for the table. SAMPLE_A has alias name as “A”. And SAMPLE_B table has “B” alias.

We could see that ‘AS’ is not written while mentioning the alias.

We can mention alias as below as well:

Code:

SELECT * FROM SAMPLE_A AS A JOIN SAMPLE_B AS B ON A.COL_A = B.COL_A

Output:

Conclusion

Things that need to put in mind regarding the MySQL Alias are if you want space to be provided in the alias_name, then we must enclose the alias_name in quotes. Spaces are accepted when we are defining in the column name. However, it is not good practice to use space in the table name aliasing. The alias_name is only valid within the scope of the SQL statement.

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## How Row_Number() Function Works In Redshift?

Introduction to Redshift ROW_NUMBER() Function

Redshift row_number() function usually assigns a row number to each row by means of the partition set and the order by clause specified in the statement. If the partitioned rows have the same values then the row number will be specified by order by clause.

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ROW_NUMBER() OVER ( [PARTITION BY column_partition_expression, ... ]

Here in the above syntax, we can say that based on the partition by expression the row sets are divided for the result set of the partition by expression the function will be applied.

Order by is used to logically sort order of the rows in each partition either in ascending or descending order.

Syntax:

ROW_NUMBER() OVER ( [PARTITION BY column_partition_expression, ... ]

Arguments of the above syntax:

( )

The function takes no arguments, but the empty parentheses are required.

OVER

The window clauses for the ROW_NUMBER function.

PARTITION BY partition_expression

It can be Optional. In ROW_NUMBER function One or more expressions can be defined in partition by.

ORDER BY sort_expression

It can be Optional. Order by uses the entire table if no partition by is specified.

How row_number() function work in Redshift?

Let us create a table and apply the Rank function to see how its working:

);

Now let us insert few duplicated values as below and apply rank on it.

insert into row_number_function values ('Product 3', 40)

Now let us select the above table.

SELECT * FROM row_number_function;

The above statement returns all the values in the table.

In the output of the table row_number_function. Now let us apply the row_number() function on the “row_number_function“ table.

FROM row_number_function;

Screenshot for the same:

Now let us only apply only the order by on the “alphabet” column without any partition applied. Let us check the output and difference same.

FROM row_number_function;

Screenshot for the same:

In the above output as there is no partition by expression given. The row number will be given based on the order by expression.

FROM row_number_function;

Screenshot for the above statement output:

Now in the above output only the partition by has been applied on the basis of the column ‘sale_quantity’ the row number will be ascending order by default and consider the partition by expression.

Example

Now let us consider a real-time example and apply the ROW_NUMBER function and check for the output:

Let us create the table “CUST_DATA” with columns cust_id, cust_name, cust_address, cust_phone, cust_salary as below:

cust_S int );

Let us insert few rows in the above table as below and apply the rank function:

select * from CUST_DATA;

Now let us apply row number function in the table “CUST_DATA”.

from CUST_DATA;

Output:

cust_id cust_n cust_a cust_p cust_s row_number_value

6 Bentley B Italy 7877845678 95090 1

9 Shames S London 0979809890 43768 1

4 Ben B London 8879812345 45098 2

1 Sam S USA 9987956479 45110 1

10 Harry H USA 9877890876 56789 2

10 Harry H USA 9877890876 56789 3

8 Sian S USA 6579899887 65345 4

8 Sian S USA 6579899887 65345 5

7 Sony S USA 8979800998 75123 6

3 Will W Germany 9679854678 85330 1

Screenshot is below:

Now let us apply row number function in the table “CUST_DATA” without any partition by.

from CUST_DATA;

Screenshot for the above output:

from CUST_DATA;

Here we have given only the partition by and not the order by. So the ordering will be done by default of the ascending of cust_address column.

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## How Count Function Works In Sqlite?

Definition of SQLite COUNT Function

SQLite provides the various kinds of aggregation functions to the user and one of those aggregation functions is provided by the SQLite database. The SQLite count () function is an aggregate function that is used to fetch the total number of rows from the table by using the specified expression and conditions. Basically, the SQLite count () function has a capacity to work with nonnull numeric values, it is used to fetch the total of how many times column exits the nonnull values in the column and that is based on the specified expression. In SQLite count () function, if specified expression contains the asterisk character (*) at that time count () function fetch the number rows dependent on specified aggregate group or condition.

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Syntax:

select count (DISTINCT or all specified expression) from specified table name [WHERE specified condition] [GROUP BY specified expression];

Explanation:

Specified Expression: Specified expression basically is nothing but the column or we can say expression and that can help us to determine how many non-null rows or values present in that table.

WHERE specified condition: Suppose we need to count how many rows are available in a specified table at that time we need to use the WHERE clause as per the requirement and it is an optional part of the syntax.

GROUP BY specified expression: Sometimes we need to find out how many rows are present in a specified table and that based on the expression at that we need to specify the GROUP BY clause and it is an optional part of the syntax.

Specified table name: It is an actual table that we need to fetch the records from the specified table.

How count function works in SQLite?

Now let’s see how the count () function works in SQLite as follows.

Basically, the SQLite count () function is an aggregate function; it works with different arguments such as WHERE, DISTINCT, ALL, and GROUP BY clauses.

When we specify the ALL argument in the SQL statement that we return all non-null values including the duplicates values and it by default parameter of SQLite if we need skip then we can easily skip.

When we use DISTINCT in the SQL statement then it returns the only unique values with non-null values. The working SQLite count () function is simple and we use it as per the requirement with different parameters or we can say that argument.

Examples

Now let’s see the different examples of SQLite count () function as follows. First, we need to create a table by using the following statement as follows.

create table emp (emp_id integer primary key. emp_first_name text, emp_last_name text, emp_salary numeric, emp_dept_id integer);

Explanation

In the above example, we use create table statement to create a new table name as emp with different attributes with different data types such as emp_id is an integer data type with primary, emp_first_name, emp_last_name, emp_salary, and emp_dept_id as shown in the above statement. The end out of the above statement we illustrated by using the following screenshot.

Now insert some records by using the following statement as follows.

insert into emp(emp_id, emp_first_name, emp_last_name, emp_salary, emp_dept_id) values (1, "Sunny","Patel", 10000, 5), (2, "Jenny", "Sharma", 20000, 2), (3, "Johan", "Gupta", 25000, 2), (4, "Vinay", "Rana", 8500, 4);

Explanation

select * from emp;

Similarly, we created another table name as emp_dept as shown in the following screenshot as follows.

select * from emp_dept;

Now we can use the SQLite count () function as follows.

If we need to count the total number of rows at that time we can use the following statement as follows.

select count (*) from emp;

Explanation

In the above example, we use the SQLite count () function, it returns all rows from the table even if null values exist in the column. The end out of the above statement we illustrated by using the following screenshot.

Now let’s see an example of SQLite count () with a group by clause as follows.

select count (*), dn.emp_dept_name from emp et, emp_dept dn where et.emp_dept_id = dn.emp_dept_id group by et.emp_dept_id;

Explanation

Now implement SQLite count () with distinct clauses as follows.

select dn.emp_dept_name, count (distinct et.emp_id) from emp et, emp_dept dn where et.emp_dept_id = dn.emp_dept_id group by et.emp_dept_id;

Explanation

Basically distinct is used to retrieve the unique records from the table, similarly, in SQLite, we can use the distinct with count () function to fetch the unique records from the table. The end out of the above statement we illustrated by using the following screenshot.

Now let’s see the example of SQLite count function with where clause as follows.

select dn.emp_dept_name, count (et.emp_id) from emp et, emp_dept dn where et.emp_dept_id = dn.emp_dept_id and dn.emp_dept_name = 'COMP' group by et.emp_dept_id;

Explanation

In SQLite, we can use where clause with count () function to fetch the rows from the specified table and that based on the expression. Suppose we need to find how many employees work in a particular department at that time we can use where by clause. The end out of the above statement we illustrated by using the following screenshot.

Conclusion

We hope from this article you have understood about the SQLite count () function. From the above article, we have learned the basic syntax of count () function and we also see different examples of count () function. We also learned the rules of count () function. From this article, we learned how and when we use SQLite count () function.

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## How Timezone Function Works In Php

Introduction to PHP timezone

PHP timezone function is an inbuild function of PHP which is mostly used for setting up some default values with timezone that will be further used by all the functions related to date or time. There are some special characteristics about PHP timezone like the script in PHP timezone will return false in case timezone is not valid and it comes out to be true other way round. This function accepts single argument which is considered a mandatory argument and arguments more than one like multi-function argument is not a must for making PHP timezone working.

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Syntax

bool date_default_timezone_set( \$timezone_id )

The syntax flow is in way where the bool signifies the boolean value and the function passes some parameters like:

It is a must that this function will include single parameter like timezone_id which will be responsible for setting up the parameter with the required date or time inclined with UTC timings of ASIA or KOLKATA.

In case the function returns value as false then that timezone id will be invalid to consider and true otherwise.

How timezone Function works in PHP?

Every function has a working pattern so do timezone function in PHP which functions in the following way:

timezone function is an inbuild function in PHP which is mostly used for setting the values with respect to the values given but still it needs some more setting and the patterns as per requirement.

Also, there are other methods with timezone including setting up the PHP timezone function with setTimeZone and getTimeZone.

Version compatibility in PHP also plays a pivotal role like it should be above 5 with its own pros and cons.

Date_timezone_set function is used exclusively for setting the timezone with Date Time Object which means it sets for the new DateTimeObject.

DateTime::setData function as part of Timezone function resets the current DateTime Object to a different date and time.

This timezone function involves usage of both date and time which means that the date used will be fetched from the date

Once this date or time function set up is done then the format for both the date and time function can be modified and can be made updated in different ways and format.

Also, the function depends on many local setups of the server with the daylight-saving time and leap years into consideration.

For setting up local server and the environment it is very much needed to make this PHP function as part of PHP pre-installation phase which means no third-party installation is required for making use of PHP functions.

This behavior of functions gets affected or changed whenever the function with chúng tôi is used for manipulation with the added aid of timezone.

timezone_abbreviations_list() function is mostly used for returning an associative array containing destination, offset, and any timezone name.

This function is used for accepting a single parameter for manipulation which involves timezone_identifier to make traversal within the function.

The return type is in boolean format with consideration of fact that it can be either true or false depending on the function requirement.

After PHP Version more than 5 which means PHP version with 5 and above will have calls made to date and time by generating E_NOTICE which is a kind of acknowledgement with the fact that the user is receiving a valid or true notice as a message.

If in case the end user receives or get some invalidated or false response as E_Warning then the system settings with the TZ environment variable will receive acknowledgment in warning format.

This is not the only option to make PHP timezone in working format rather an alternative to this procedure can be made with the INI default settings with time zone i.e. by setting the date time with date.timezone to set default timezone.

The timezone identifier plays an important role with the fact that timezone related to identifiers will be according to the locations and it can be in the form of UTC timing like Africa, Asia, Europe etc.

Versions with 5.1.2 supports for the function having validation for the timezoneID parameter whereas the version 5.3.0 supports for acknowledgement with E_Warning rather than E_strict statements.

Date_default_timezone_get() helps in getting the default timezone that will be aided with the date and time format present in the script.

Examples of PHP timezone

Given below are the examples of PHP timezone:

Example #1

This program demonstrates the way to represent default timezone to get the value set up with the default timezone according to India and USA as shown in the output.

Code:

<?php date_default_timezone_set(‘India/USA’); \$sc_tz = date_default_timezone_get(); if (strcmp(\$sc_tz, ini_get(‘date.timezone’))) { echo ‘ini_timezone varies from the ini_timezone present in the script.’; } else { echo ‘Both the timezone including ini and script matches with each other.’; }

Output:

Example #2

Code:

<?php \$dt = new DateTime(‘2023-08-05’, new DateTimeZone(‘Europe/London’));

Output:

Example #3

This program demonstrates the creation of date using date_create() function from abbreviation list to make the entire list of function working with the created date as shown in the output.

Code:

<?php \$dt=date_create(); echo date_timestamp_get(\$dt);

Output:

Example #4

This program demonstrates the date with timestamp to get created and then representing it as shown in the output.

Code:

<?php \$dt=date_create(); date_timestamp_set(\$dt,12167845); echo date_format(\$dt,”U = Y-m-d H:i:s”);

Output:

Conclusion

PHP timezone function is a very useful inbuild function related to time and date which is primarily used whenever the use requires to implement the functionality related to date and time. Also, the PHP timezone blends well once timezone is confirmed for affirmation and reflection in terms of setting and getting the time uniformly.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to PHP timezone. Here we discuss the introduction to PHP timezone, how timezone function works along with respective examples. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

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