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This package contains the following items:
CSS: It is referred to as Cascading style sheet that is used to style the HTML elements.
Components: In the Bootstrap package, there are a lot of reusable components for dropdowns, iconography, alerts, navigation etc.
Customize: In the Bootstrap package, the components can be customized, less variable and Jquery plugins to get the style.
Scaffolding: In a bootstrap package, it provides the basic structure with the grid system, link style, and background.
Let us discuss the steps required to install Bootstrap.
The bootstrap package that is downloaded is ready to use compiled code, which can be easily integrated into the project. It consists of compiled and minified CSS bundles and
Step 3: Package Managers: Bootstrap can be installed in chúng tôi powered files or applications.$ npm install bootstrap $ yarn add bootstrap
Step 5: If the user wants to install bootstrap for ruby gems applications
Without bundler: $ gem install bootstrap –v 4.0.0
Step 8: Jquery is also being used with bootstrap files or installation folder. Jquery needs to be downloaded and place the Jquery file in Bootstrap root folder for experiencing the better user interface and most importantly Jquery enhances the features of bootstrap that provides the look more attractive and responsive.
Step 9: After executing the above steps, the developer can write the HTML code to link all the files for the HTML page and can open the HTML file to check the response.Supported Browsers
The bootstrap mainly supports the latest and stable release of all the browser and platform. Mobile devices browser has been supported Android and IOS platform. The desktop browsers for different platforms like Mac and Windows also being supported by bootstrap.Bootstrap File structure
Bootstrap has been precompiled, the compiled version of bootstrap being is downloaded and extract the Zip file and the following file structure you will see:
The above figure includes the fonts folder files as well if the developer requires extra fonts to make the user interface according to requirements can include that files that are available in source package of bootstrap. The bootstrap source code will have a more detailed file structure.Bootstrap 4
There are significant changes that are done in Bootstrap 4 like rewriting the code majorly, CSS flexible size support, navigation customization options have been added, response spacing and sizing utilities are added, the global font size is increased from 14px to 16px, number of utility classes are added, styling button, drop down menus, media objects and image classes are added. It also supports the latest version of browsers.
The other main component of bootstrap is its layout components. The basic layout component is called a container in which every element of the page is placed in it. The container is placed on the web page then other layout components like CSS layout can be defined through rows and columns. It depends on the developer to choose which container fixed width or fluid width container for designing the web page. The former uses the four predefined widths but later uses the fills depends on the size of the screen on which web page is getting viewed.Usage of bootstrap
This has been a guide on how to Install Bootstrap. Here we have discussed the steps to install bootstrap and also the basic concept of Bootstrap 4 and usage of Bootstrap. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –
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Differences Between AngularJS vs Node.JS
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Let us study much more about Angular JS vs Node JS in detail:
Angular JS provides features that significantly reduce the amount of code, hence the effort involved in making an application fully functional. AngularJS is also called a Model-View-Controller (MVC) framework due to its modular approach to application development.
Node JS allows developers to execute their code on the server side. It provides a faster way to write scripts that are scalable and light. Developers can write real-time applications, and at the same time, it gives scope for mobile application development.
Angular JS is beneficial in creating dynamic web applications. Developers working with Angular JS use HTML as the template language, and its syntax is used to briefly express the application’s components. Its architecture allows automatic and smooth data synchronization between the model, view, and components. Angular JS is quicker and easier to code for a single-page web application. AngularJS templates are similar to traditional plain HTML and incorporate extended HTML syntax. This feature enables beginners to start working with AngularJS without much difficulty quickly.
Angular JS provides the potential to build GUI (Graphical User Interface) for dynamic websites and web programs. Developers can create single-page applications seamlessly using the AngularJS framework. It offers the flexibility to write custom HTML code and integrates smoothly with other UI tools.Head-to-Head Comparison Between AngularJS vs Node.JS
Below is the top 8 comparison between Between AngularJS vs Node.JS:Key Differences Between AngularJS and Node.JS
Below are some points explaining the differences between AngularJS and Node.js:
AngularJS is an excellent choice for developing large-scale projects, while chúng tôi is an ideal option for creating small-scale projects.
Angular JS is a front-end framework and can be used with any back-end programming language like PHP, Java, etc., whereas Node JS is simply a server-side language; in a web application-like context, it acts as Java on the server side.
AngularJS supports real-time applications like instant messaging or chat apps. On the other hand, chúng tôi is best suited for real-time collaborative drawing or editing applications like Google Docs.
AngularJS runs on the client browser, while chúng tôi operates on the server side.
AngularJS supports compatibility with various browsers, including Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, Opera, and mobile-based browsers like Android browser and Chrome for Mobile. On the other hand, chúng tôi is available for multiple operating systems, such as Windows, Linux, Sun OS, and Mac OS.
Angular JS is a web application framework, whereas several frameworks are based on Node JS, like Express JS, Sails JS, etc.
AngularJS is most suitable for building interactive single-page web applications, while chúng tôi is utilized for developing fast and server-based web applications.Comparison Table AngularJS and Node.JS
Application The single-page client-side web application The fast and scalable server-side application
Project Suited for highly interactive and active web projects Best suited for small-size projects
Usage Useful for real-time applications like instant messaging Highly useful when a scalable and faster application is required
Scope Dominate client-side interaction Developers can utilize it on the client and server-side
Frameworks It is a web application framework in itself It has many different frameworks like chúng tôi chúng tôi and Partial.js
Application Simplify application development with a declarative approach More suited for an application like real-time collaborative drawing/editing like Google DocsConclusion
Given a choice to select between Angular JS vs Node JS, one must keep the application requirement in mind. Angular JS is solely a client-browser-based application, whereas Node JS requires a runtime environment and will take care of the application and database interaction. Both of them, JS, looks promising and exciting options within their domain.Recommended Articles
This has been a helpful guide to the differences Between Angular JS vs Node JS. Here we have discussed Angular JS vs Node JS head-to-head comparison, key differences, infographics, and comparison table. You may also look at the following article to learn more –
File manipulation commands are some of the most commonly used and important tools available to users. Whether you’re a software developer, data analyst, or just an everyday computer user, file manipulation commands allow you to quickly and easily navigate, manipulate, and manage files on your system.
Let’s explore some of the most useful file manipulation commands that you can use in a terminal. These commands are essential for anyone who works with files on a regular basis and can greatly improve your efficiency and productivity. By mastering these file manipulation commands, you can become a more efficient and productive computer user.Approach 1: Using ls to List Files in a Directory
The ls command is utilized to display the contents of a directory, and by default, it lists all the files and directories that exist within the current directory. However, you can specify a different directory as an argument to the ls command.$ ls Desktop/cbl 1 chúng tôi 2 chúng tôi chúng tôi 4.cbl
Here are some common options that we can use with the ls command −
-l − long format, displays the file type, permissions, number of hard links, owner, group, size, and modification time for each file.
-a − all files, including hidden files and directories that start with a dot.
-h − human-readable, displays file sizes in a more human-readable format.$ ls -lha
The command “ls -lha” lists all the files and directories in the current directory in a long format, including hidden files and directories, and displaying the file sizes in a human-readable format.total 108K drwxr-xr-x 17 papan papan 4.0K Mar 4 02:09 . drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4.0K Feb 17 20:53 .. drwxrwxr-x 2 papan papan 4.0K Feb 25 01:13 .aws Approach 2: Using cp to Make a Copy of a File
This command is useful when you need to duplicate a file to another location or make a backup of a file.$ cd Dekstop/cbl $ ls 1.cbl 2 chúng tôi chúng tôi 4.cbl $ cp chúng tôi /home/papan/Documents $ ls /home/papan/Documents 2.cbl
The cp command copies files from one location to another and overwrites existing files with the same name in the destination directory.Approach 3: Using mv to Move Files
The mv command is used to move a file from one location to another or rename a file. It needs two arguments: the source file and the destination file.$ mv chúng tôi /home/papan/Documents $ ls /home/papan/Documents 3.cbl
As we can see, “mv” command is used to move files. It takes two arguments: the source file and the destination file or directory. The command moves the source file or directory to the specified destination.Approach 4: Creating a New File Using the touch
The touch command is primarily used to create a new file with a specified name, and this file is initially empty.
Let’s create a new text file in a specified folder using “touch” command −$ touch 1.txt ls 1.txt
In case the file named “1.txt” does not exist, it will be created upon executing the corresponding command. If the file is already there, the timestamp of the file will be updated to the current time.
The touch command can also be used to create multiple files at once.$ touch chúng tôi 3.txt ls 1.txt chúng tôi 3.txt
This command will create two new files.Approach 5: Using rm to Remove Files
This command is utilized to delete a file from the system.
To delete a file using the “rm” command, you simply need to specify the name of the file as an argument. For example −$ cd Desktop/test $ ls 1.txt 2.txt $ rm 1.txt $ ls 2.txt
If the file is write-protected or is part of a directory with write permission disabled, we will need to use the “-f” option to remove it and “-i” option command stands for “interactive mode”.$ rm -fi 2.txt rm: remove regular empty file '2.txt'? Y Approach 6: Using cat to Display File Contents
This command is used to show all the contents of a file. It displays the entire file in the terminal.$ cat 1.txt Hello World Welcome to India.
The cat command can also concatenate the contents of multiple files and save the output to a new file −
$ cat combined.txt Hello World Welcome to India. This is tutorialpoint article. Do you know Linux? Yes I do know.
This command will concatenate the contents of chúng tôi chúng tôi and chúng tôi and save the output to a new file called combined.txt.Approach 7: Using head to Display First Few Lines
By default head command displays the first 10 lines of a file, but you can specify a different number of lines using the -n option.$ head -n 3 combined.txt Hello World Welcome to India. Good morning
This command shows the first three lines of the chúng tôi file.Approach 8: Using tail to Display Last Few Lines
By default tail command displays the last 10 lines of the file, but you can specify a different number of lines using the -n option.$ tail -n 2 combined.txt I am fine. Hello this is Somdeb.
This command shows the last two lines of the chúng tôi file.Conclusion
In conclusion, understanding and using file manipulation commands can be extremely helpful when working with files on a computer. The commands listed in this article are just a few of the many commands available for managing files on a Linux or Unix-based system. By mastering these commands, we can save time and effort while working with huge files.
If while performing a clean installation, Windows installation gets stuck on Getting files ready, the solutions provided here will help you. For some users, it takes a long time to get files ready for installation, whereas, for some, the installation gets stuck at getting files ready.
When you perform a clean installation, Windows first prepares the necessary files for installation. This process takes time depending on your hardware. A hardware issue or driver conflicts can cause this problem to appear.Windows installation stuck on Getting files ready
If Windows installation gets stuck on Getting files ready, use the following fixes to resolve the issue.
Are you installing Windows on HDD or SSD?
Are you using a CD/DVD or a USB flash drive?
Disconnect all the external devices connected to your PC
Create installation media again
Disconnect your computer from the internet
Delete all the partitions and try again
Reset your BIOS
Troubleshoot Hardware issues
Below, we have explained all these fixes in detail.1] Are you installing Windows on HDD or SSD?
The data transfer speed of SSDs (Solid State Drives) is higher than that of HDDs (Hard Disk Drives). Installing Windows on an SSD instead of an HDD has several benefits. Your Windows OS will not only load fast but you will also get an improved performance. The same thing applies to Windows installation.
If you are installing Windows on an HDD, the time taken to complete the installation process will be higher. In this case, you can do nothing instead of upgrading your hardware. If you have a budget, we suggest you upgrade your hardware and install an SSD to fasten the process of Windows installation.
If you are already installing Windows on an SSD and the Windows installation still gets stuck on Getting files ready, the problem lies somewhere else. Maybe your system has a hardware fault or there may be some software issues.2] Are you using a CD/DVD or a USB flash drive?
If you use a CD or DVD to install Windows, we suggest you switch to a USB flash drive for Windows installation. Make your USB flash drive bootable with Windows ISO using a third-party tool like Rufus, and then use it to install Windows.3] Disconnect all the external devices connected to your PC
If you have connected external devices like printers, scanners, etc., to your computer, disconnect them and then see if it helps. You can also unplug your HDD and then install Windows on your SSD. But for this, you should take professional help.4] Create installation media again
It is also possible that the installation media was not created properly due to which Windows installation is stuck on Getting files ready. We suggest you create the installation media again. You are performing the clean installation of Windows. Therefore, you cannot use your computer to create installation media on a USB flash drive. You have to use another computer for this. Windows Media Creation tool is an excellent program that will help you create an installation media on your USB flash drive to install Windows OS on another computer.5] Disconnect your computer from the internet
If you have connected your system to the internet via an ethernet cable, disconnect it by unplugging the ethernet cable and then restart the installation process. This fix helped some users.
Read: Windows is stuck on Welcome screen.6] Delete all the partitions and try again
Previously created partitions can sometimes cause conflict during the Windows installation. It may be the case with you. We suggest you delete all the partitions from the hard drive on which you are installing Windows and then restart the Windows installation. This should help.
If you have multiple hard disks, say one SSD and another HDD, be careful while deleting the partitions. You will see the Disk numbers on the installation screen, like Disk 0, Disk 1, etc., along with their sizes. This will help you identify which one is SSD and which one is HDD.
Do note that you will lose your data, and so you may want to backup your data first!
Read: Windows stuck on Getting Windows ready7] Reset your BIOS
If the issue persists, resetting your system BIOS to default settings can help.
Related: Windows Install is stuck during Installation – Different scenarios8] Hardware issues
If none of the above fixes resolved the issue, there might be a hardware fault due to which the Windows installation gets stuck on Getting files ready. Your RAM may be the culprit. If you have multiple RAM sticks, one of them may have been damaged.
Some users found their motherboard responsible for this problem. When they replaced their motherboard, the issue was fixed.
Read: Windows is stuck on loading some screenHow long should getting files ready for installation take?
It actually depends on your system’s hardware. If you are installing Windows on a Hard Disk Drive (HHD), it will take more time to get files ready to install Windows. On the other hand, the process is quicker on an SSD.
Read: Windows stuck on Working on updates.What happens if you turn off computer during Update?
If you turn off your computer, the process of Windows Update will be interrupted. The process can be resumed when you turn on your computer the next time. But in most cases, turning off the computer during a Windows Update can cause system file corruption which may lead to errors.
Read next: Windows stuck at log in screen after upgrade.
Introduction to PySpark version
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Web development, programming languages, Software testing & othersVersions of PySpark
Many versions of PySpark have been released and are available to use for the general public. Some of the latest Spark versions supporting the Python language and having the major changes are given below :1. Spark Release 2.3.0
This is the fourth major release of the 2.x version of Apache Spark. This release includes a number of PySpark performance enhancements including the updates in DataSource and Data Streaming APIs.
Improvements were made regarding the performance and interoperability of python by vectorized execution and fast data serialization.
A new Spark History Server was added in order to provide better scalability for the large applications.
register* for UDFs in SQLContext and Catalog was deprecated in PySpark.
Python na.fill() function now also accepts boolean values and replaces the null values with booleans (in previous versions PySpark ignores it and returns the original DataFrame).
In order to respect session timezone, timestamp behavior was changed for the Panda related functionalities.
From this release, Pandas 0.19.2 or upper version is required for the user to use Panda related functionalities.
Many documentation changes and the test scripts were revised in this release for the Python language.2. Spark Release 2.4.7
This was basically the maintenance release including the bug fixes while maintaining the stability and security of the ongoing software system. Not any specific and major feature was introduced related to the Python API of PySpark in this release. Some of the notable changes that were made in this release are given below:
Now loading of the job UI page takes only 40 sec.
Python Scripts were changes that were failing in certain environments in previous releases.
Now users can compare two dataframes with the same schema (Except for the nullable property).
In the release DockerFile, R language version is upgraded to 4.0.2
Support for the R less than 3.5 version is dropped.
Exception messages at various places were improved.
Error messages were locked when failing in interpreter mode.
Many changes were made in the documentation for the inconsistent AWS variables.3. Spark Release 3.0.0
This is the first release of 3.x version. It brings many new ideas from the 2.x release and continues the same ongoing project in development. It was officially released in June 2023. The top component in this release is SparkSQL as more than 45% of the tickets were resolved on SparkSQL. It benefits all the high level APIs and high level libraries including the DataFrames and SQL. At this stage, Python is the most widely used language on Apache Spark. Millions of users downloaded Apache Spark with the Python language only. Major changes and the features that were introduced in this release are given below:
In this release functionality and usability is improved including the redesign of Pandas UDF APIs.
Various Pythonic error handling were done.
Python 2 support was deprecated in this release.
PySpark SQL exceptions were made more pythonic in this release.
Various changes in the test coverage and documentation of Python UDFs were made.
For K85 Python Bindings, Python 3 was made as the default language.
Validation sets were added to fit with Gradient Boosted trees in Python.
Parity was maintained in the ML function between Python and Scala programming language.
Various exceptions in the Python UDFs were improved as complaints by the Python users.
Now a multiclass logistic regression in PySpark correctly returns a LogisticRegressionSummary from this release.4. Spark Release 3.0.1
Double catching was fixed in KMeans and BiKMeans.
Apache Arrow 1.0.0 was supported in SparkR.
For the overflow conditions, silent changes were made for timestamp parsing.
Revisiting keywords based on ANSI SQL standard was done.
Regression was done in handling the NaN values in Sql COUNT.
Changes were made for the Spark producing incorrect results in group by clause.
Grouping problems were resolved as per the case sensitivity in panda UDFs.
MLlibs acceleration docs were improved in this release.
Issues related to the LEFT JOIN found in the regression of 3.0.0 producing unexpected results were resolved.
5. Spark Release 3.1.1
Spark Release 3.1.1 would now be considered as the new official release of Apache Spark including the bug fixes and new features introduced in it. Though it was planned to be released in early January 2023, there is no official documentation of it available on its official site as of now.Conclusion
Above description clearly explains the various versions of PySpark. Apache Spark is used widely in the IT industry. Python is a high level, general purpose and one of the most widely used languages. In order to implement the key features of Python in Spark framework and to use the building blocks of Spark with Python language, Python Spark (PySpark) is a precious gift of Apache Spark for the IT industry.Recommended Articles
This is a guide to PySpark version. Here we discuss Some of the latest Spark versions supporting the Python language and having the major changes. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –
Introduction to OpenCV putText()
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It is also needed that the starting point for the text has to be defined within the matrix. there is also a requirement for defining the font color for the text, the font style for the text, and the weight that the text has two be specified with. The function is present in the OpenCV library of Python programming language, which is a one-stop solution that has been designed in order to solve problems related to computer vision.
Syntax for OpenCV putText()cv2.put Text (* image *, text *, org *, font *, fontScale *, color [*, thickness [,line Type [*,* bottom Left Origin *] *] *] *) * Parameters for OpenCV put text function
The following parameters are accepted by the OpenCV putText() function:
Parameters Description of the parameters:
image this parameter represents the original image that the user has selected to add text by the system
text This parameter represents the text that has to be drawn by the system as specified by the user
org This parameter is used to represent the coordinate with respect to the text present on the bottom left corner of the image. These coordinates are represented with the help of 2 double values that are passed, which represent the X coordinate and the Y coordinate values, respectively
font This parameter is used to represent the type or style of font, which would be denoted for the string text that the user specifies. some instances for the kinds of font types that can be used are FONT * _ * HERSHEY * _ * PLAIN OR FONT * _ * HERSHEY * _ * SIMPLEX
font * scale This parameter represents the best size for the specified font size, which is relevant to the font scale factor, which acts as a multiplying factor further font size of the text that has to be entered
thickness this parameter represents the thickness that has to be given for the line of text that has to be entered by the user. it is measured in terms of pixel size
color this parameter represents the specific color that has to be given to the text string that is being entered into the image that is being drawn on the screen. The color is extracted from the BGR tuple, which is passed to it. for instance, for a text of blue color the tuple to be passed would be * (* 255 *, * 0 *, * 0) *
Line * Type This parameter is used to define the type of line used for the text, which has to be entered into the image. This parameter is an optional parameter.
Bottom * Left * Origin this parameter is used for defining the position for the image data origin with respect to the directional position in the image. this parameter is an optional parameter. If the parameter is taken as true, the image data origin is found to be placed at the bottom left corner of the image. If it is not true, the image data origin is placed at the top left corner of the image.
Return * Value This method is responsible for returning an output image that is to be loaded from the file which has been specified.Example of OpenCV putText()
Following is the example which is used in order to demonstrate how the OpenCV putText() command is utilized in the Python programming language# command used to import the OpenCV library to utilize OpenCV read image function import cv2 # path being defined from where the system will read the image path = r'C:Users Priyanka Desktop educba OpenCV edu cba logo.png' # command used for reading an image from the disk disk, cv2.imread function is used image1 = cv2.imread(path) # Window name being specified where the image will be displayed window_name1 = 'image' # font for the text being specified font1 = cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX # org for the text being specified org1 = (50, 50) # font scale for the text being specified fontScale1 = 1 # Blue color for the text being specified from BGR color1 = ( 255 , 0 , 0 ) # Line thickness for the text being specified at 2 px thickness1 = 2 # Using the cv2.putText() method for inserting text in the image of the specified path image_1 = cv2.putText(image1, 'EDU CBA', org1, font1, fontScale1, color1, thickness1, cv2.LINE_AA) # Displaying the output image cv2.imshow(window_name, image_1) cv2.waitKey(0) cv2.destroyAllWindows() Conclusion
The OpenCV putText() method is a very useful function present in the OpenCV library, which allows the system to add text to an image that the user has provided. There are several image processing areas where text needs to be associated with the images that are being processed, and there needs to be a variety in the color, font style, width, and orientation in terms of the position whether the text has to be placed on the image which can easily be utilized by using the put text method. It also reduces the verbosity of the program that is being written and increases the overall processing speed for the program to be executed.Recommended Articles
We hope that this EDUCBA information on “OpenCV putText” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.
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