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The Internet connection we all rely on is about to change, now that WISP is coming to town.
Most people get Internet service from either a telephone company or a cable company because those providers already provide physical connections to their homes and businesses. A WISP (wireless Internet service provider) doesn’t need to bring wire to your location, making it a good solution for serving rural areas where telcos and cable companies couldn’t be bothered to invest. WISP was unable to match the speed and reliability of DSL and cable modems, however, until recently. As wireless technology has evolved, WISPs are beginning to compete in urban areas on speed and price. Here’s how it works.What makes a WISP
Wireless Internet service providers (WISPs) use tower-mounted antennas to transmit and receive radio signals, much as cellular service providers do.
Satellite TV providers that also provide wireless Internet service, such as Dish Network, are closer to being WISPs. They can deliver wireless Internet service to any home that has a clear view of the southern sky. But the data must travel very long distances, which limits the service’s speed, and lag can be a big problem—especially for playing games.
A true WISP is a mix of cellular provider and satellite provider elements. Like a cell provider, it mounts antennas on towers (or atop buildings) to transmit signals, and it installs an antenna—or in some cases, a dish—on the customer’s home or building. Like a satellite service provider, it typically delivers service to a fixed location.Comparing pricing and features
Most WISPs offer tiered service levels, charging higher fees for faster speeds and/or more bandwidth. Like telcos, cable companies, and other ISPs, WISPs typically require you to commit to a one- or two-year contract, and they charge an installation or activation fee.
Most WISPs are regional operators that serve limited areas. Netlinx, for instance, serves residential and business customers in southern Pennsylvania. The company’s prices for residential service range from $30 to $80 per month. At the low end, you get download speeds of up to 1 mbps, with speed bursts of up to 3 mbps. Upload speeds at this tier are 512 kilobits per second. At the high end, you get download speeds of up to 15 mbps (with bursts up to 30 mbps) and upload speeds of 3 mbps.
The WISP will install a smaller antenna on the customer’s home.
Many WISPs provide faster upload speeds than the typical 5 to 10 mbps that most cable and DSL providers offer. That can be useful for businesses with remote offices, offsite PC or server backup requirements, or other applications where upload speeds are just as important as download speeds.
Like other ISPs, some WISPs limit how much data you can use per month, but these limits tend to be more generous than what cell, satellite, and even some cable providers offer. A few, such as Wisper ISP (serving southern Illinois and eastern Missouri), provide uncapped service.
Utah-based Vivint, a newcomer to the WISP market, is offering wireless Internet service at upload and download speeds of 50 mbps for just $55 per month. But the company—best known for its home-security/automation services—has only just begun to roll out its service, which is not widely available outside Utah.Finding a WISP
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Modern student learning is constantly changing dramatically. The process of change itself is aimed at obtaining high-quality knowledge by students. It is done so that they help in the future to fulfill labor duties. Businesses and organizations require competent employees. The world needs people who can make the right decisions.
The education system now concerns almost every person. Lifelong learning is becoming more and more popular in today’s world. Many processes are now being automated. As a result, the demand for technical specialties is growing. People need new skills, in particular, to meet the requirements.Changes That are Already Building The Future of Education
The future of education is constantly being transformed by innovation. People are increasingly beginning to use technology every year in all learning processes. All this will be used to ensure that students can learn faster. People are actively trying to integrate technology into all areas of life and have already introduced online learning into students’ lives.
Despite the rapid evolution of instruction with an attempt to integrate new technologies, routine tasks have not disappeared anywhere. And very often, a student is asked to write an essay on human rights. It is not a problem in the modern world, and you can turn to specialists who will help. You can find more human rights essays and ask for help. Also, by reading samples of essays, every student can develop writing skills and learn new information about human rights.Changes in Education in The Next Decade
The rapid development of technology in the next decade will completely reformat the study system. There will be mass online learning where you do not need to be present in the audience. It is enough to have a gadget and access to the World Wide Web. In this regard, there will be no need for human teachers. Works that will follow a given system will come to replace them.
Scientists also talk about an individual education system. It is challenging for teachers to give equal attention to each student. After all, everyone is entirely different, and this is physically impossible. Therefore, researchers suggest using computer technology during classes. It will allow the building of an education system individually for each student.What is The Importance of Education in The Future?
What are The Latest Trends in Education?
Since the role in human life and society is always increasing. At the moment, the main trends and vectors to look to the future are changing. The main trends and directions of development of modern education include the following:
The world is changing, and learning must change with it. The paper routine is leaving colleges, giving way to electronic means of working with data. Universities have realized that technology can improve the learning process.The Duration of Training is Growing, and Education is Becoming More Humane
Knowledge becomes more complex, and the requirements for professional skills are higher. All this increases the overall duration of the study. Today the focus is not on the curriculum. The personality of the students themselves plays an important role. The student builds training by taking into account his interests and requests.Increasing The Humanities Disciplines and Acquiring an International Character
In modern society, social skills are becoming more important. Therefore, the role of humanitarian areas is growing. The educational systems of different countries are looking for common ground. They develop uniform models and student exchange programs. It once again proves the high role of education in the life of society.Education Becomes Technological
Every school already has computer labs. Many Universities offer full-distance learning. Adaptive education is being introduced. The development of technological progress actively influences understanding. Thanks to modern technology, the learning process has become easier and faster.The Contribution of Education to The Growth and Development of Society
Education does not stand still and is constantly evolving. Learning will change in the future. Its social role in society will increase. Thanks to modern technology, people are moving to a new learning format. Most of the learning processes are already automated. Humanity is constantly evolving and adapting to current standards of learning.
If you’ve been following technology during the past decade, you’ve inevitably seen the term “Internet of Things” at some point. But what does that mean exactly, and what’s its real-world impact?
The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to interconnected “smart” devices that aren’t phones, tablets, or computers. While the term is most familiar in a smart home context, it also applies to medical, industrial, commercial, and military systems.
What is the Internet of Things?
The Internet of Things — IoT from here on in — is a linkage of digitally-enhanced objects connected to each other via the internet or some other network. Specifically however the definition focuses on things that aren’t computers in and of themselves, even if a smartphone or PC is usually required for control. This translates to embedding computing into otherwise “dumb” products, such as lights, thermostats, sensors, and security systems.
If this sounds familiar, it’s because the most public face of IoT is smart home hardware. It’s by no means limited to this however, which is why IoT serves as a useful umbrella, covering industrial, commercial, and military applications as well as those Nest speakers and smart bulbs you’ve got in your apartment.
What technology does the Internet of Things rely on?
Andrew Grush / Android Authority
IoT is too broad to get into specifics, but we can boil things down to categories.
Embedded processors provide varying degrees of onboard computing. This can be minimal, say in the case of a sensor, smart bulb, or smart plug, but may have to scale up for devices like smart speakers and displays, or central automation systems.
Wireless technologies can include everything from short-range protocols such as Bluetooth, NFC, and RFID through to long-range ones like 5G and satellite systems. In between you’ll see formats like Wi-Fi, Zigbee, Z-Wave, and Thread.
Wired connections are less important in many cases, but Ethernet and powerline communications (PLC) can serve to carry both power and data. The internet, of course, relies heavily on fiber-optic lines.
Hubs are often necessary to bridge short- to mid-range wireless devices with the internet and other WANs (wide-area networks). Zigbee and Z-Wave accessories for example talk to a hub connected to your Wi-Fi router, which enables remote control as well as linkage with third-party platforms.
Standardized software platforms allow devices from different manufacturers — or at least, all of those by the same manufacturer — to talk to each other and act in sync. In the smart home space, the big three platforms are Amazon Alexa, Apple HomeKit, and Google Assistant. There are other options though, and you’ll find very different platforms in business and government applications.
Machine learning isn’t required, but it’s increasingly common as a way to have IoT systems adapt to needs and refine their responses. The Nest Learning Thermostat, for instance, can build its own heating and cooling schedule based on frequent manual adjustments.
Mesh networking is another optional technology, but allows IoT devices to talk directly to each other and extend their reach. Zigbee, Z-Wave, and Thread are inherently mesh-based. Mesh Wi-Fi routers expand the scope of Wi-Fi networks without requiring multiple network IDs.
Cloud computing is used to handle things that can’t be processed on-device. Consider smart speakers, which typically only process a handful of voice commands locally, uploading the rest to remote servers for interpretation. Scheduled automations are often triggered via the cloud too, though hub-based systems can run automations offline. Cloud networks frequently bridge outside services.
Internet of Things applications
Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority
We’ve already addressed smart homes, but it’s worth pointing out uses in other spheres.
Medical applications are generally focused on diagnosis, long-term trends, and alerts. A smart bed, for example, can tell whether a bed is occupied, and when a patient is trying to get up. This field sometimes extends into the consumer space, since data from fitness trackers, smartwatches, and smart scales can optionally be shared with physicians.
Transportation and infrastructure uses are plentiful, among them traffic control, toll collection, energy monitoring, and fleet management. V2X (vehicle-to-everything) communications will probably be essential towards making self-driving cars commonplace, preventing accidents by talking to infrastructure and nearby vehicles.
Manufacturing may actually be the biggest use of IoT, since modern factories are loaded with sensors and automated machines handling production, quality control, inventory, and safety.
Military purposes are unfortunately diverse, ranging from monitoring soldiers to smart munitions, automated turrets, and attack or recon drones. A major issue is keeping IoT devices connected on the battlefield, since networks can be taken down by enemy fire or cyberwarfare.
Interesting IoT products to make your home smarter
Read more: The smart home privacy policies of Amazon, Apple, and Google
No. They do often play an important role in controlling IoT systems, though.
Yes, and for smart homes, they’re often de facto as a way of enabling voice commands and/or linking other accessories.
Some of them can, yes. Many operate on private networks, and hub-based products can often run automations offline, even if they need to connect to the internet eventually.
As mentioned, two of the biggest ones are power consumption and reliable wireless. Power often dictates when and how devices can be made “smart,” and there’s no IoT at all if a device doesn’t have necessary bandwidth.
A lot of progress has been made in those areas, but another recurring challenge is platform fragmentation. In the smart home space, Alexa and Google Assistant accessories often won’t work with HomeKit, or vice versa. The Matter standard will hopefully address this, but it’s still very new.
The PC of the future is on your desk. It’s also in your pocket. It’s inside your TV, your car and your refrigerator. The PC of your future doesn’t exist as one discrete tool; instead, it’s a personal network of devices that share data and collectively represent you to the rest of the Internet. By the year 2023, we will abandon our bulky desktops in favor of remote storage, lashing together our favorite music, movies and games with a web of internet-connected devices to build a digital raft of data that will buoy us through the ebb and flow of our daily lives.
In the future you can still build a powerful desktop PC with three monitors and a 10 petabyte hard drive, but you might find it more convenient to subscribe to Google Cloud and link all your devices and digital download accounts together under a single cloud computing service.
Of course in the future, major service providers will gobble up smaller services to become the digital megacorps we’ve always been secretly dreaming of. Only now are we beginning to see the balkanization of virtual services among different mobile phone providers; platform-agnostic cloud computing services like MobileMe, Google Apps and Microsoft’s Windows Azure are just the beginning. As much as I would like to predict a warm and loving future in which we all unite beneath one free and open Internet, I think it’s far more likely that in the future you will pick one corporate camp that best matches your computing needs and stick within it.But how do I keep my data private?
In the far-flung future of 2023, you shouldn’t have any secrets from Big Brother Google. As ex-CEO Eric Schmidt once said, “if you have something that you don’t want anyone to know, maybe you shouldn’t be doing it in the first place.”
If you think otherwise, make sure to shop around and find a cloud computing company that offers the best privacy guarantee; in the future, there will be enough competition among providers that you should have no trouble finding an encrypted cloud computing service that suits your unique needs. Accessing the Google file-sharing servers via GMail and Google Docs is already encrypted via SSL, and by 2023 we’ll see a whole host of competitors spring up as broadband internet access becomes cheaper and more ubiquitous in the global market.What if I need to make movies, play games or perform other demanding computational tasks?
You’ll likely have to work under a bandwidth cap, but for a flat monthly fee you’ll be able to crunch numbers, play games and edit media from a netbook, tablet or even your TV. The success or failure of the OnLive game service will be our bellwether; if contemporary cloud gaming services like Gaikai and OnLive thrive, we can expect to see similar services spring up for any task that requires a high-end PC.What if I lose network access?
Faster, cheaper broadband and the efforts of many major cities to expand municipal wireless will help, as will the spread of 4G cellular wireless networks. If nothing else works, there’s always chúng tôi the cloud!Previously in this series…
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The NeuroArm, a non-ferrous microsurgical robot—shown here with an electrified cutting tool and suction instrument—was used to remove a patient’s brain tumor in 2008, while she was being scanned with an MRI. University of Calgary
Chances are, you aren’t, and never will be, an astronaut. So the recent revelation that NASA is funding the development of a somewhat gruesome-sounding surgical bot—a fist-size contraption that would enter a patient’s gas-engorged abdomen to staunch bleeding or remove a ruptured appendix—isn’t exactly news you can use. The more relevant announcement might be from Intuitive Surgical, which announced that its newest robo-surgeon has been approved by the FDA. With thinner and more maneuverable arms, the da Vinci Xi will turn more open surgeries into minimally-invasive, robot-assisted procedures. Instead of requiring large incisions to get at various portions of a patient’s anatomy, the Xi will let surgeons reach essentially anywhere in the abdomen through smaller less traumatic punctures. With this clearance, the likelihood that you’ll one day be under the robotic knife just jumped significantly.
This is the near-term for robotic surgery, a gradual expansion of machines throughout the body, and through the full range of possible procedures. In addition to the da Vinci’s primary focus on the abdomen, bots are currently aiming drills in the brain, reshaping joints, and using lasers to correct vision. But the future of surgical bots appears be in some of the most challenging and specialized operations: microsurgery, or surgeries performed at a microscopic scale.
“Right now all of the operations we do are on the scale of human eyes and human hands,” says Catherine Mohr, director of medical research for Intuitive Surgical, referring to da Vinci-assisted procedures. “That’s because traditionally, medicine has been the laying of hands of the physician onto the patient, and trying to intervene. But we may be able to get that patient that much better an outcome because we’ve changed the scale of that interaction with robotics.”
It’s not that microsurgery is unheard of today. The issue is that, despite the fact that microscope-enabled surgery has been practiced for close to a century, it’s such a remarkably difficult and specialized skill, that the spectrum of related procedures is vanishingly narrow. And when those operations are possible, the waiting list for qualified surgeons can stretch for up to a year.
Robots, however, could turn more surgeons into microsurgeons, by translating large movements into minuscule ones. “Think about working in Photoshop, and you’re zoomed way in, working a pixel at a time on an image,” says Mohr. “Your mouse motions are still comfortable motions with your hand, but the scale that you’re working at is completely different.”
Microsurgery wouldn’t replace traditional surgeries, but could help solve specific problems. One example—though Mohr noted that it isn’t FDA approved, or backed up with overwhelming clinical data—would be treating breast cancer patients, who often suffer severe swelling and pain in their arms and hands following the removal of lymph nodes. This condition, called lymphedema, is caused by the disruption of natural drainage channels, meaning that blood isn’t flowing properly back through the patient’s system. Redirecting blood flow is theoretically possible, but incredibly challenging, as surgeons try to sew tiny vessels that are only barely visible under a microscope. “I’m excited that, if I can change that scale, for someone who’s got this terrible edema, we could start sewing their lymphatic channels onto the local veins, and drain it,” says Mohr. “So instead of spending their lives with compression stockings on their arms, we can go in and do a small intervention and fix it.”
For Intuitive Surgical, microsurgery is a target for research, but not a confirmed direction for development. But a microsurgical robot built by researchers at the Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands is currently in clinical trials, with results expected by 2024. The unnamed bot is operated with dual joysticks and a foot pedal that adjusts the scale. It’s initially intended for complex reconstructive procedures in the hand and face, offering increased precision for microscopic procedures, such as connecting nerve fibers and tiny blood vessels.
The NeuroArm, a robot that can perform micro-scale neurosurgery while a patient is undergoing an MRI, has already been used in Canada to remove a 21-year-old patient’s brain tumor. The bot, which uses non-ferrous materials (to avoid interacting with the MRI’s magnets), was acquired by surgical imaging firm IMRIS, and has since been rebranded as the SYMBIS Surgical System. SYMBIS isn’t available for sale yet, but IMRIS already sells specialized MRI systems, which allow for scans mid-procedure. Once it’s cleared for use, SYMBIS would allow the surgeon to image the patient’s brain without removing instruments.
There are other examples of microsurgical bots currently in development, including Johns Hopkins University’s Steady-Hand Eye Robot, which deals solely with retinal procedures, and Carnegie Mellon University’s Micron, a handheld robotic instrument that would use gyroscopes and actuators to actively boost the precision of the surgeon. All of these systems are years and possibly decades from use, if they make it to market at all. But Intuitive Surgical’s interest in microsurgery is a clear indication of what’s to come. Despite a series of lawsuits leveled at the company in 2013, and the subsequent negative media coverage and pummeling in the stock market, Intuitive is the biggest maker of surgical robots, and one of the driving forces in the entire robotics industry, with systems that routinely sell for more than $2M, and more than 200,000 da Vinci procedures conducted yearly. And according to Mohr, adding micro-scale capabilities might not require entirely new robots, but rather new instruments and other modular components that would attach to some portion of the more than 2500 da Vinci’s already installed worldwide.
For us prospective patients, it doesn’t necessarily matter who makes microsurgery more accessible. What matters is that it’s coming. “We as a medical community haven’t made a lot of therapies that require that kind of super microscopic view and manipulation, because those are at the limit of what the human hands can do at unscaled motion,” says Mohr. “But if we kind of break that barrier, I think it will unleash a lot of new therapies that will have profound effects on patients’ lives.”
IoT, a market set to explode
Current technological trends all point towards an ever more seamlessly connected world, and for that to happen we need cost effective, low power, and highly connected devices.
One of the biggest driving forces behind the internet of things is the falling costs of processor production. Microprocessors, and other important pieces of technology, are now affordable enough were we can use them in almost every product. Combined with improvements in low energy wireless technologies and the prevalence of the internet in the modern world, it’s becoming easier and easier to have all of these smart devices talk to each other.
The MIT Technology Review estimates that close to 28 billion devices will be connected to the internet by 2023, with almost half of these devices being “things”, rather than smartphones or PCs.
In 2013 alone, over 10 billion ARM microprocessors and microcontrollers were shipped across a range of industries, many of which are already connected to the Internet. Although many of these processors are found in common mobile devices, other market segments, including automation, security, and even street lighting, are all steadily seeing growth in microcontroller shipments.
Some good examples of the useful implications of well-connected devices come from NEST. Although NEST only has a small line-up of smart connected products available at the moment, idea’s like Auto-Away for its Thermostat, which turns the temperature down when you’re out of the house, and phone alerts if you’re smoke alarm goes off, are definitely pointing in the right direction.
the Internet of Things is not one market, but many different market segments
But that’s just the start. Over here in the UK, a dedicated network for the Internet of Things will begin rolling out next year. British telecommunications company Arqiva announced plans earlier this month to build and maintain a national network for IoT using ‘ultra-narrowband’ technology, which will allow for communication over long distances between a range of devices. The network will begin rolling out in 10 of the UK’s largest cities come May 2024, and is set expand to the rest of the country in the following months and years.Humble beginnings
As mentioned earlier, price and availability play a much more crucial role in IoT technologies than high performance processors. We can actually trace back relevant pieces of technology to some of the very first ground breaking microprocessors developed after the creation of my all-time world changing invention – the transistor.
Although the first transistors arrived in the late 1950’s and the first MOFSET integrated circuits appeared in the 1960’s, it wasn’t until the 1971 that one of the first commercially available microprocessor went on sale, the 4-bit Intel 4004, which was composed of 2,300 transistors etched on a tiny processor that cost around $60.
Popular small form factor microprocessors date back to the old 8051, but ARM is going one step further.
Just a year later, Intel produced the first 8-bit 8008 processor, followed by the first general purpose microprocessor, the 8080, in 1974. From there, Intel would go on to produce its first single chip microcontroller, which housed not only a CPU but also a fixed amount of RAM and ROM on a single chip. Faster, modern revisions of these original designs still find use in many electronic devices to this day, and can cost as little as $1.
The importance of microcontrollers may not seem obviously relevant for larger devices that require larger powerful CPUs that can connect to components externally, but in small, low power, and low cost devices, microcontrollers are indispensable. IoT devices tend to make use of highly integrated components, they don’t need expandable storage for example, which is why having an efficient all-in-one microcontroller makes a lot of sense.
NEST looks set to be the start of a more connected home.
Today’s low power ARM processors, which we will look at in a minute, are also designed to work in microcontroller configurations, as this suits the small form factor of small devices. However, to meet the more unique needs of connected devices, ARM’s designs have been tweaked for improved security, enhanced connectivity, and flexible amounts of processing power, giving IoT developers all the tools they need to build small computers from a single package.
Although we are more familiar with powerhouse multi-core 32-bit and 64-bit processors these days, the humble microprocessor and it’s more evolved Cortex-M cousins are on the front lines when comes to devices with small form factor and low power requirements.ARM’s take on the Internet of Things
“The Internet of Things is the collection of smart, sensor-enabled physical objects, and the networks, servers and services that interact with them” – ARM Cortex-M Marketing Manager Diya Soubra
Investment in new platforms
As we mentioned before with wearables, ARM’s mbed developer platform is helping developers to explore and expand the range of IoT products available. As well as a wealth of hardware development resources for developers, the company also has its own range of development boards and platforms for its Cortex-M line-up, in much the same was as Intel has its own boards for developers.
ARM’s development platform also extends to software creation, and includes its Cortex-M SDK and online cloud development platform, as well as compilers for its Thumb2 instruction set and online C/C++ integrated development environment. ARM also actively maintains a GCC source branch for its Thumb2 compilers, which is openly available for integration into other third party toolchains and for direct use.
We strongly believe that a healthy software ecosystem is critical for an industry to take off.
Furthermore, ARM recently purchased Finnish IoT start-up company Sensinode. Sensinode software is designed to allow low-power devices to communicate over the internet using the IPv6 protocol which will be crucial for the future for IoT communication. ARM has since integrated Sensinode’s technology into its mbed developer platform, which now plays a central role in device to cloud communications and ARM’s device management software.
ARM is also continuing to build on the support that it currently offers through its partner Linaro, which provides open source software for ARM systems, along with conventional Java and Android development platforms, which may end up playing a pivotal role in how we communicate with smart IoT devices in the future. Developers looking for more information on ARM’s embedded technologies should check out the mbed HDK and SDK, and explore the vast mbed community.
Investments in new platforms from developers and products designers is going to be the real driving force behind innovation in the IoT market. In the future world of the Internet of Things, if you look closely, you’ll probably find ARM processors powering even more devices.
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