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Concept

Suppose a board of length p and width q is given, we require to break this board into p*q squares such that cost of breaking is least. For this board,cutting cost for each edge will be given. In a nutshell, we require selecting such a sequence of cutting such that cost is minimized.

Examples

With respect of above board optimal way to cut into square is −

Total minimum cost in above case is 65. It is computed evaluated implementing following steps.

Initial Value : Total_cost = 0 Total_cost = Total_cost + edge_cost * total_pieces Cost 5 Horizontal cut Cost = 0 + 5*1 = 5 Cost 5 Vertical cut Cost = 5 + 5*2 = 15 Cost 4 Vertical cut Cost = 15 + 4*2 = 23 Cost 3 Horizontal cut Cost = 23 + 3*3 = 32 Cost 3 Vertical cut Cost = 32 + 3*3 = 41 Cost 2 Horizontal cut Cost = 41 + 2*4 = 49 Cost 2 Vertical cut Cost = 49 + 2*4 = 57 Cost 2 Vertical cut Cost = 57 + 2*4 = 65 Method

This type of problem can be solved implementing greedy approach. If total cost is treated by S, then S = b1x1 + b2x2 … + bkxk, where xi is treated as a cost of certain edge cutting and bi is corresponding coefficient, The coefficient bi is determined by thetotal number of cuts we have competed implementing edge xi at the end of the cutting process.

We should notice that sum of the coefficients are always constant, hence we want to compute a distribution of bi obtainable such that S is least. To do so we accomplish cuts on largest cost edge as soon as possible, which will reach to optimal S. If we encounter several edges having the equal cost, we can remove or cut any one of them first.

C++ Program

Following is the solution implementing above approach, first we sorted the edge cutting costs in reverse order, and then we loop in them from higher cost to lower cost building our solution. Each time we select an edge, counterpart count is incremented by 1, which is to be multiplied each time with corresponding edge cutting cost.

Example

Live Demo

using namespace std; int minimumCostOfBreaking(int X1[], int Y1[], int p, int q){    int res1 = 0;    int hzntl = 1, vert = 1;    int i = 0, j = 0;    while (i < p && j < q){          res1 += X1[i] * vert;          hzntl++;          i++;       }       else{          res1 += Y1[j] * hzntl;          vert++;          j++;       }    }    int total = 0;    while (i < p)       total += X1[i++];    res1 += total * vert;    total = 0;    while (j < q)       total += Y1[j++];    res1 += total * hzntl;    return res1; } int main(){    int p = 6, q = 4;    int X1[p-1] = {3, 2, 4, 2, 5};    int Y1[q-1] = {5, 2, 3};    cout << minimumCostOfBreaking(X1, Y1, p-1, q-1);    return 0; } Output 65

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## How To Join A Charity Board

Now, more than ever, it’s important for charities to be able to leverage professional skills and experience to help them run their operations most effectively. This guide explains how to join a charity board.

Governance developments in the charity sector

Since the introduction of charity regulators in many global economies, charity boards have continued to develop their governance structures.

Boardmatch is a registered charity that works to respond to the growing board needs of charities and not-for-profit organisations.

Boardmatch’s primary service connects enthusiastic and passionate individuals who want to volunteer their skills and expertise to charities with board and committee vacancies.

Over the last five years, Boardmatch has seen more and more charities begin to think strategically about the composition of their boards, seeking individuals with not only an interest in their cause and purpose but who have specific skills or experiences that will help to build a diverse board.

Transferable skills across sectors

Joining a charity board is your opportunity to utilise and lend your skills and share your personal and professional experiences to be part of an organisation’s strategic development.

In 2023, with many boards moving to remote meeting facilitation, Boardmatch saw a 50% increase in candidate applications.

This stems from a combination of online meetings making board volunteering more accessible and people looking for an impact and purpose outside of their ‘day-job’.

“From my perspective, there has never been a better time to consider joining a charity board. The current environment is challenging for every organisation, and charities are no exception. Now, more than ever, charities need to be able to leverage professional skills and experience to help them run their operations most effectively.” Irene O’Gorman – markets director, EY, appointed to the board of the Irish Cancer Society in 2023

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43. 59% of our 360 board appointments in 2023 were between the ages of 35 – 54.

The gender profile of charity boards is more equal than corporate boards, and Boardmatch’s gender ratio of appointments was 54:46, male: female, in 2023.

“Taking on a board position was a professional development goal I had set for myself, so Boardmatch became the perfect way to gain invaluable experience at board level and be a ‘skills-based’ way to give back.” Laura Larkin – principal, KPMG, appointed to the board of Marie Keating Foundation in 2023

Why joining a charity board is your first step?

A boardroom is a boardroom, no matter what sector it serves.

Many candidates who register with Boardmatch are looking to gain board experience, with the goal of promotion or transitioning to a corporate or state board in time.

A charity board role, whilst voluntary, can be an excellent opportunity to be introduced to the workings of a board and committees, governance structures, and reporting lines between the board and management.

While the first step to joining a charity board might be for professional reasons, we find that most, if not all, individuals become passionate and invested in the charity along their journey.

There is an opportunity to meet everyone’s interests.

The proof of the benefits of sharing your skills and giving of your time is heard across our successful matches over the years, but also from the charities themselves, many of whom would not have been able to connect with these candidates if there wasn’t an open, transparent and accessible organisation like Boardmatch.

“Knowing we needed a board chair with substantial experience and the skills to guide our continued growth, we felt that we would not be best placed to recruit this person directly. Working with Boardmatch Ireland made this crucial journey one of ease, assurance and results.” Breakthrough Cancer Research

With compliance and governance a core duty of being a charity board member, Boardmatch provides support and training to new, prospective and existing board members.

Our goal is to provide ‘board ready’ candidates to charities – candidates who are passionate about their mission, are eager to share their skills and understand the duties and responsibilities.

There will never be a perfect time to take the plunge, so be brave, be open to new experiences and challenges and ready to start your board journey.

Boardmatch, established in 2005, is a registered charity that provides board recruitment, training and review services, with the objective of upskilling charity boards.

This article was written by Hannah Coleman, communications & development manager with Boardmatch.

## How To Form A Board Of Directors

Good boards are high-functioning workgroups whose members challenge and trust one another and engage directly with senior executives on critical issues facing the organisation.

Boards also set the long-term plans or direction of the company.

Boards can be found in many organisations, including for-profit businesses, charities, schools, and even nonprofits.

Many factors make up a great board. Here is an overview of some commonalities of successful boards.

How many people sit on a board of directors?

The composition of a board can make a difference between a successful board and a less successful one.

The board’s makeup can depend on the size and type of organisation.

However, it should have enough people to manage the organisation but not too many people that it is difficult to foster productive discussions.

For a small organisation, or SME, the board could be three people. For a more prominent firm, the board could be ten people.

It’s also crucial that there is a mix of skills on the board. This includes younger people with fewer years of experience who offer a different perspective and older people with a lot of industry experience.

Choose people with different skillsets to share their knowledge and develop innovative solutions and ideas.

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Build a better future with the Diploma in Corporate Governance.

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Build a better future with the Diploma in Corporate Governance.

When there is a diverse group of people with varying backgrounds, there will be different perspectives on how to run the organisation.

This can lead to more efficient and effective decision-making, ultimately putting the company in a better position.

One of the most significant benefits of having a diverse board is that they’ll deliver better results because of their different points of view.

The board members will come up with different conclusions, making all the difference in managing an organisation.

What happens during board meetings?

A great board of directors meets regularly to further the organisation’s objectives.

The meeting duration can vary depending on the organisation’s size and goals.

There isn’t a set schedule where they have to meet every month or year.

The important thing is that they are getting things done, whether it’s once a month or once every six months.

When you form a board of directors, you should have a goal for each meeting to ensure that there is a focus on their time together.

Meetings must also be productive, so there isn’t much time wasted on discussions or activities that don’t contribute to those goals.

A good board of directors manages risks. They must minimise company losses and safeguard its assets.

This is done by assessing potential risk factors, like new competitors in the market and mitigating the risks with solutions.

It includes things like developing strategies and adequately executing them.

A great board will have members that know how to manage a business and its growth.

What else does a great board do?

A great board of directors is independent of other influences. It sees things separately from the company to objectively assess opportunities and threats.

This means that wherever the company is, the board should be able to make decisions on the matter without any involvement from other influential people in the executive team.

A great board of directors can help determine a company’s direction by making decisions and leading discussions.

In addition, board members shouldn’t have conflicts of interest that would hinder their ability to put the organisation’s needs first.

For instance, having a board of directors made up of local competitors would not put the organisation’s needs first.

Competitors may want to put the needs of their own companies first.

Any decisions they make wouldn’t be independent and beneficial to the organisation.

Effective board members should be able to stand on their own regarding what they believe. They shouldn’t immediately give at the first sign of conflict.

The most productive conversations can occur when board members can defend and explain their perspectives and ideas in a way that doesn’t hinder progress.

Board members must feel able to express their opinions and contribute.

Does the CEO always sit on the board?

While some level of independence from the company’s leadership is essential, the CEO should still be involved in board meetings.

The CEO and other executive leaders that work within the company environment can have invaluable knowledge about the workplace culture and what’s happening with employees and customers.

The CEO shouldn’t be the only voice at board meetings, but they know that the board will need to access them to make the most informed decisions.

The success of a company can be determined by its board of directors.

Strong boards of directors are diverse, independent, and influential. They steer the company in the right direction and help it grow.

Great boards work for the company’s benefit, not themselves.

Are you interested in becoming a member of a board? Watch David W Duffy below, explain how the Diploma in Corporate Governance will give you the director training needed to excel in board meetings.

## Queries To Update A Given Index And Find Gcd In Range In C++ Program

In this problem, we are given an array arr[] of size N and Q queries which can be of two types. Our task is to create a program to solve the queries to update a given index and find GCD in the range.

Queries are −

Type 1 − {1, index, value} – increase the element at given index by value.

Type 2 − {2, L, R} – find the GCD of elements in the index range [L, R].

Problem Description − We need to find the GCD of the elements that are in the range [L, R] and return the value.

Let’s take an example to understand the problem,

Input arr[] = {5, 1, 7, 3, 8}, Q = 3 using namespace std; int calcGcdRangeRec(int* st, int segL, int segR, int L, int R, int currNode) {       return st[currNode];       return 0;    int mid = (segL + (segR - segL)/2);    int GcdL = calcGcdRangeRec(st, segL, mid, L, R, 2 * currNode + 1) ;    int GcdR = calcGcdRangeRec(st, mid + 1, segR, L, R, 2 * currNode + 2);    return __gcd(GcdL, GcdR); } void updateArrayValueRec(int* st, int L, int R, int index, int diff, int currNode) {       return;    st[currNode] = st[currNode] + diff;    if (R != L) {       int mid = (L + (R - L)/ 2);       updateArrayValueRec(st, L, mid, index, diff, 2 * currNode + 1);       updateArrayValueRec(st, mid + 1, R, index, diff, 2 * currNode + 2);    } } void updateArrayValue(int arr[], int* st, int n, int index, int newVal) {       cout << "Invalid Input";    else{       int diff = newVal - arr[index];       arr[index] = newVal;       updateArrayValueRec(st, 0, n - 1, index, diff, 0);    } } int calcGcdRange(int* st, int n, int L, int R) {       cout << "Invalid Input";       return -1;    }    return calcGcdRangeRec(st, 0, n - 1, L, R, 0); } int constructGcdST(int arr[], int L, int R, int* st, int currNode) {    if (L == R) {       st[currNode] = arr[L];       return arr[L];    }    int mid = (L + (R - L)/2);    int GcdL = constructGcdST(arr, L, mid, st, currNode * 2 + 1);    int GcdR = constructGcdST(arr, mid + 1, R, st, currNode * 2 + 2);    st[currNode] = __gcd(GcdL, GcdR);    return st[currNode]; } int main() {    int arr[] = { 1, 3, 6, 9, 9, 11 };    int n = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);    int Q = 3;    int query[3][3] = {{2, 1, 3}, {1, 1 , 10}, {2, 1, 3}};    int value = (int)(ceil(log2(n)));    int size = 2 * (int)pow(2, value) - 1;    int* st = new int[size];    constructGcdST(arr, 0, n - 1, st, 0);    for(int i = 0; i < n; i++){       if(query[i][0] == 1){          cout<<"Query "<<(i + 1)<<": Updating Values!n";          updateArrayValue(arr, st, n, query[i][1], query[i][2]);       }       if(query[i][0] == 2)       cout<<"Query "<<(i + 1)<<": GCD is "<<calcGcdRange(st, n, query[i][1], query[i][2])<<endl;    }    return 0; } Input Query 1: GCD is 3 Query 2: Updating Values! Query 3: GCD is 1

## Command Line Arguments In C

Introduction to Command Line Arguments in C

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The syntax :

int main(int argc, char *argv[])

where argc represents the count of arguments passed to the program and argv[] is a pointer array holding the pointers of data type char pointing to the arguments passed to the program.

Working of Command-Line Arguments in C

Whenever there is a need to pass the values to the program from outside and do not want to use it inside the code, we make use of Command-Line Arguments in C.

The values passed to the C program from the command line when the program is executed are called command-line arguments in C.

The main() function in the program handles the command line arguments passed to the program when the program is executed.

The number of arguments passed to the program is represented by argc and every argument passed to the program is pointed by a pointer which is maintained in a pointer array represented by argv[].

Examples of Command-Line Arguments

here are the following examples mention below:

Example #1

This program to demonstrate the use of Command-Line Arguments in a program to display the arguments passed to the program.

Code:

//main method is called to which the command line arguments are passed to the program int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int a; { printf(“The arguments passed to the program are:n”); for(a = 1; a < argc; a++) { printf(“The argument passed to the program is: %st”, argv[a]); } } else { printf(“No argument is passed to the programn”); } return 0; }

In the above program, the main method is called to which the command line arguments are passed to the program. Then an integer variable is defined. Then if condition is applied to check if the count of arguments passed to the program is greater than or equal to two and if the condition is true, the command line arguments passed to the program is printed otherwise no argument is passed to the program is printed. We are not passing any command-line arguments to the program, hence the output no argument is passed to the program is printed on the screen.

Example #2

C program to demonstrate the use of Command-Line Arguments in a program to display the arguments passed to the program.

Code:

//main method is called to which the command line arguments are passed to the program int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int a; { printf(“The arguments passed to the program are:n”); for(a = 1; a < argc; a++) { printf(“The argument passed to the program is: %st”, argv[a]); } } else { printf(“No argument is passed to the programn”); } return 0; }

In the above program, the main method is called to which the command line arguments are passed to the program. Then an integer variable is defined. Then if condition is applied to check if the count of arguments passed to the program is greater than or equal to two and if the condition is true, the command line arguments passed to the program is printed otherwise no argument is passed to the program is printed. We are not passing Hello as command-line arguments to the program.

Note: Please pass the command line argument along with giving the program name to execute the program.

Advantages of Command-Line Arguments in C

Whenever there is a need to pass the values to the program from outside and do not want to use it inside the code, Command Line Arguments can be used in C.

The program to be executed can be controlled from the outside than hard-coding the values inside the program by making use of Command-Line Arguments.

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## Do While Loop In C

Introduction to Do While Loop in C

DO WHILE loop is the same as WHILE LOOP built-in term of the C Programming Language/Many other Programming Languages but DO WHILE loops execute the Program Statements first then the condition will be checked next. This is the main different thing when we compare with the WHILE LOOP. The condition will be checked first by the WHILE LOOP then the Programming Statements will be executed first. DO WHILE will execute the program at first even if the condition is valid/un-appropriate/False at first.

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Syntax:

do{ }while(Condition);

Statements inside of the do while will be executed based on its instruction only if the condition of the loop is true the second time. at first, statements will be executed and printed without checking the loop condition.

While(Condition): Condition inside a loop is a parameter to run the program if the condition is TRUE else no programming statements will be executed which are inside of it

Flowchart of Do While Loop

The flow chart of do while loop in C are given below:

How do While Loop Works in C?:

The do while loop works based on the condition in the while() parameter but at 1st the program inside of the do while will be executed then the condition is checked. it is the main working difference between the while and the do while program.

Examples of Do While Loop in C

Examples of do while in C programming are given below:

Example #1

The below example here is to print natural numbers within 10 from 1 number with the do while loop.

Code:

int main() { int i=1; printf(“Hi This is pavan.. WELCOME. Here I m Printing Natural Numbers:n”); do{ printf(“%d”,i);//printing i variable’s value printf(“,”); i=i+1; }while(i<10); printf(“n”); return 0; }

Output:

Example #2

Switch case listed do while program to print some specific text based on the options list which are embedded/showing in the program in the terminal/compiler when executing it.

Code:

void main () { char c1; int choice1,dummy1; do{ printf(“n1. Print Hello Pavann2. Print C Languagen3. Exitn”); scanf(“%d”,&choice1); switch(choice1) { case 1 : printf(“Hello Pavann”); break; case 2: printf(“C Languagen”); break; case 3: exit(0); break; default: printf(“Atleast Now enter a valid choice/option”); } printf(“If you want to enter again/more?”); scanf(“%d”,&dummy1); scanf(“%c”,&c1); }while(c1==’y’); }

Output:

Example #3

This is the C Program to print the table of the number which gave as input to the terminal/compiler by the user of the System. Here you can print any kind of table with up to the 10 multiples of the user input number. kindly give it a try and know how the table’s program is working using do while. even though if the condition in the do while is incorrect/false the program inside the loop will be executed just once without any error/any other.

Code:

int main(){ int i1=1,number1=0; printf(“Enter number to print its table : “); scanf(“%d”,&number1); printf(“========================n”); do{ printf(“%d X “,number1); printf(“%d = “,i1); printf(“%d n”,(number1*i1)); i1++; }while(i1<=10); printf(“========================n”); return 0; }

Output:

Example #4

Below C Program is to print the sum of natural numbers using do while loop in my way. Check it you will get a small idea to build many big projects of programming in the future.

Code:

int main(){ int i1=1,number2=0,number1,a1; printf(“Enter number to print sum of the natural numbers in my way : “); scanf(“%d”,&number1); printf(“========================n”); do{ printf(“%d n”,i1); number2=number2+i1; a1=number2; a1=a1+number2; i1++; }while(i1<=number1); printf(“========================n”); printf(“n========================n”); return 0; }

Output:

Example #5

Infinite Loop program in do while loop syntax of C programming language.

Code:

int main(){ int i=1; do{ printf(“%d.”,i); printf(“pavan kumar sake “); i=i+1; }while(1);  }

Output:

Example #6

The below example of the C Syntax Program will Print natural numbers, odd numbers, prime numbers, and its sum in a well-illustrated way.

int main() { int nums1=1,nums2,nums3=1,nums4=0,nums5=0, nums6=0, nums7=1;  printf(“List of Even Numbers n”); do           { printf(“%d “,2*nums1); nums4=nums4+(2*nums1); nums1++;                            }while(nums1<=10); printf(“n”); printf(“Sum of Even numbers : %d n”,nums4); printf(“n”); printf(“List of Odd Numbers n”); do           { nums2= (2*nums3)+1; nums5 = nums5+nums2; printf(“%d “,nums2); nums3++;                            }while(nums3<=10); printf(“n”); printf(“Sum of Odd numbers : %d n”,nums5); printf(“n”); printf(“List of 1st 10 Natural Numbers n”); do           { nums6 = nums6+nums7; printf(“%d “,nums7); nums7++;                            }while(nums7<=10); printf(“n”); printf(“Sum of 1st 10 Natural numbers : %d n”,nums6); return 0; }

Output:

Example #7

This is the example to print the perfect numbers using DO WHILE program with C Language syntax.

Code:

int main() { int n,k,l; printf(“Enter how many perfect nums you want to print:: “); scanf(“%d”,&n); int c=0; int i=1; do{ l=0; for(k=1;k<i;k++){ if (i%k==0){ l=l+k; } } if(i==l){ printf(“n %d is a perfect number.n”,i); c=c+1; } if(c==n){ break; } i=i+1; return 0; getchar(); }

Output:

Example #8

Basic simple calculator program using do while and switch case condition. Check the syntax. Everything is mostly simple in the do while c program which is listed below.

Code:

int main() { int yes1; int a1, b1, c1, choice1; yes1 = 1; do { printf(“Enter 1st integer: “); scanf(“%d”, &a1); printf(“Enter 2nd integer: “); scanf(“%d”, &b1); printf(“n Add (1), Subtract (2), Multiply (3), Divide (4) :: “); scanf(“%d”, &choice1); printf(“n”); switch(choice1) { case(1): c1 = a1 + b1; printf(“%d + %d = %dn”, a1, b1, c1); break; case(2): c1 = a1 – b1; printf(“%d – %d = %dn”, a1, b1, c1); break; case(3): c1 = a1 * b1; printf(“%d * %d = %dn”, a1, b1, c1); break; case(4): c1 = a1 / (float)b1; printf(“%d / %d = %dn”, a1, b1, c1); break; default: printf(“Incorrect choice. Try again.n”); } printf(“nChoose Option n 1. YES n 2. NO : “); scanf(“%d”, &yes1); }while(yes1 == 1); return 0; }

Output:

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Do While Loop in C. Here we discuss the basic concept and parameters of do-while loop in C along with different examples and its code implementation. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

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