Trending February 2024 # My Ancestor Died Of A Splinter. Wait, What? # Suggested March 2024 # Top 7 Popular

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Annie Hortense Crawford’s death was a long, dramatic affair. According to her front-page obituary in the California Democrat, the local paper serving California, Missouri, Mrs. Crawford’s demise had begun a full week prior to her 1930 demise. First, there was severe pain in her hand. Slowly, a creeping debility overcame her entire body. “She grew steadily worse throughout the day and evening,” the newspaper reported, “until the end came.”

It’s easy to imagine my great-great-great-grandmother (for that’s who Crawford was) was felled by some larger-than-life illness. But the reality is a little different: Crawford died of a splinter.

Reading the details of her rapid decline almost 90 years later, I was struck by the historic nature of her death—almost unfathomable to Americans today—and set out to find out why, exactly, people don’t die of splinters anymore. In the process I discovered the peculiars of her death weren’t, in fact, all that peculiar. In fact, unless we change our relationship to antibiotics, death by splinter could be familiar once again.

The Octagon Ward at John Hopkins was part of a hospital-wide effort to stop air from circulating between care units. Wikipedia

When Crawford was born in 1860, many Westerners still attributed disease to miasma—bad air—or an imbalance in the bodily humors like blood and bile. Doctors, just as they had since the days of ancient Greece, treated all manner of illnesses with things like fresh air, rest, and even bloodletting. It’s no surprise, then, that most people in this era died of their infections and many diseases considered curable today killed thousands.

“We had a gross misunderstanding of things we called blood poisoning and things we now recognize to be infectious disease,” says Duane J. Funk, a physician and sepsis expert at the University of Manitoba. But over the course of Crawford’s life, enterprising researchers drove an incredible shift in the practice of science and, most importantly, how we think about infection.

In the late 1850s, the French scientist and father of microbiology Louis Pasteur set about disproving the common theory of spontaneous generation. At that time, many people believed that agents of decay—the things that molded bread or rotted a peach—magically appeared from within the bread or peach itself. By showing that microorganisms came from elsewhere—that they infected a body—Pasteur established the basic mechanism of infectious disease. He went on to develop the earliest technique for pasteurization, as well as rabies and anthrax vaccines.

Other scientists subsequently sought to validate and expand on Pasteur’s ideas. Though he was ridiculed at first, the inquisitive surgeon Joseph Lister ultimately proved that carbolic acid had a sterilizing effect on open wounds and, when properly applied, saved lives. In 1890, the German physician Robert Koch published his unified “germ theory.” Koch’s postulates displaced miasma theory and germ theory remains the predominant explanation for infectious disease to this day.

By the time a splinter pierced Crawford’s thumb in March of 1930, scientists knew that small microbes, invisible to the naked eye, could invade a human body and feast until the host recovered or, more often, died. These germs, such as they were, caused everything from waterborne illnesses like cholera to sexual transmitted conditions like syphilis. They were also responsible for the disease that killed Crawford: blood poisoning.

But just because doctors of that day may have understood the biological war raging in my ancestor’s thumb doesn’t mean they could cure what ailed Crawford. It would take one moldy discovery—and more than a decade of subsequent research—before anyone could do a thing about infectious disease.

A World War I-era Red Cross poster. Wikipedia

While thousands of people still die from sepsis each year, many Americans think they are impervious to such diseases. Funk says that may be because, on a statistical level, people aren’t that susceptible to death by splinter and never really have been. “I get cuts from shaving every second or third day,” says Funk. “The question is, why do some of them get infected and some of them don’t?”

The answer, he says, starts in the skin. “As soon as you get the splinter wound or the cut, right off the bat, there’s a battle that begins,” Funk says. First, blood clotting factors swarm to the affected site. This not only stops a person from bleeding out; it also serves as a biological drawbridge, raising against any potential invader. In some cases, there may not be harmful bacteria on the afflicted site at all. But if there is, the immune system is ready. It deploys white macrophages, the body’s Roombas, to slurp up any dirt, bacteria, or other foreign objects. “Bacteria are all around us,” Funk says. “But 99 percent of the time, our immune system works great at preventing infection.”

The very young, very old, and infirm are less likely to fight back effectively, however. Genetic predispositions toward certain illnesses, how aggressive a given bacteria or virus is, and other circumstances also factor into the progression of disease. Crawford, who was 70 at the time of her death, was part of this vulnerable population. The infectious agent—like Staphylococcus aureus—was able to push past Crawford’s natural defenses, which had diminished with age, and make their way into her bloodstream.

The infection likely moved quickly from there, Funk says, thanks to the tropical heat of the human body. “Some of these bugs have a doubling time of eight to 20 minutes,” he says. “There’s two [microbes], then there’s four, eight, 16—you do the math. It doesn’t take long to have millions to billions of bacteria floating in your system.” But they didn’t just float. Division made the bacteria hungry, so they eagerly turned Crawford’s heart, lungs, liver, and other organs into food. Without medical intervention, her body was overwhelmed. Her blood pressure likely dropped suddenly. And in the absence of any suitable medical intervention, she died.

Alexander Fleming, the father of penicillin, in the lab. Wikimedia Commons

For thousands of years, the fate of sepsis patients was largely sealed. But that began to shift in 1928 when the Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, the world’s first antibiotic. Just two years before Crawford’s death, Fleming was working with a lab culture of Staphylococcus, which just so happens to be one of the two main agents that cause sepsis. He noticed what scientists call an “inhibition halo”—a line the bacteria could not cross—clearly defined on the lab specimen. A blue-green mold had contaminated the sample and inhibited bacterial growth. Fleming’s original experiment was wrecked, but the mishap presented him with an unprecedented opportunity.

Upon isolating the mold, Fleming found he had the relatively common fungi Penicillium notatum on his hands. The mold, which thrives in damp environments, easily infests water-damaged buildings. When airborne, it can cause allergic reactions in humans. But when synthesized into a bacteria-fighting drug, Fleming realized the cloudy growth could save thousands of lives. The only problem: it couldn’t be synthesized.

For a decade, Fleming tried and failed to persuade chemists and manufacturers to help him transform his fungal find into a mass-market product, knowing all the while that lives were being unnecessarily lost to infection. It was not until World War II that penicillin made its debut as a bona fide treatment. In 1941, scientists at the USDA isolated higher-yield strains of the mold, which they used to successfully treat burn victims of the 1942 Cocoanut Grove nightclub fire in Boston. At the same time, researchers at the drug company Pfizer perfected a deep-tank fermentation system that generated high-quality penicillin in industrial quantities, which allowed the drug to finally go mainstream.

But even with modern medicine, Funk says Crawford may not have recovered. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control estimates that 1.5 million Americans get sepsis each year. Whether it’s from a splinter like Crawford’s or, more commonly, a hospital-acquired infection, sepsis continues to kill approximately 250,000 Americans annually. And not only can antibiotics fail—it’s increasingly apparent they can create problems all on their own.

A close-up of MRSA. Pixino

While penicillin was still being hailed as a wonder drug, by 1942 scientists were suddenly aware of a terrifying possibility: antibiotic-resistant superbugs. Mere months after penicillin had finally been mass-produced and deployed, researchers reported the existence of penicillin-resistant bacteria. “By growing the organism in increasing concentrations of penicillin over a long period it was possible to render the organism resistant to penicillin,” Charles H. Rammelkamp and his colleagues wrote at the time.

The biggest fears of these early scientists have since been realized. Today, at least 2 million Americans experience antibiotic-resistant infections annually. Approximately 23,000 die as a result. Antibiotics have saved thousands of lives, but they have also slowly selected for even more powerful bacteria. A round of penicillin might kill 99.9 percent of the harmful bugs in a person’s body, but the few organisms that live are stronger than average and now they’re free to breed wildly. Given the right environment—like a weakened immune system in an ICU patient—the already-scary Staphylococcus aureus can transform into methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, more commonly called MRSA.

About 720,000 Americans acquire infections while in the hospital in 2011, according to a CDC report. And for every three people who die in the hospital, one dies of sepsis. While doctors are working on instituting new protocol to reduce the risk of superbugs, like minimizing the use of ventilators, which can cause pneumonia, and carefully tailoring treatments to the specific bacteria regaining control over these pathogens has proven difficult.

Despite increasing awareness, doctors continue to overprescribe antibiotics and patients continue to quit an antibiotic regimen before they’re supposed to. At the same time, the livestock industry consumes 70 percent of the antibiotics in the United States to keep their animals healthy—all the while breeding antibiotic-resistant meat, soils, and even farmers. A 2014 report from the United Kingdom predicted 10 million annual deaths due to antibiotic resistance by 2050. While experts still quibble over the impending tsunami of deaths from antibiotic resistance, one thing is clear: People rarely die of splinters in 2023, but 2080 is looking a little different.

Poring over the reports on antibiotic resistance, I’m reminded of a dystopian novel I once read called Station Eleven by Emily St. John Mandel. At one point in the book, the main character describes her brother’s death as “The kind of stupid death that never would’ve happened in the old world. He stepped on a nail and died of infection.” While Station Eleven was a work of fiction, I remember feeling a jolt down my spine when I read that line for the first time. My great-great-great-grandma’s all-too-real obituary (“The injury was so insignificant that she thought nothing of it… until the end came”) gave me the same sensation. Reading the detailed account of Crawford’s death, I can’t help but think this brave new world looks a lot like the old one she left behind.

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What Resolution Is My Monitor

Ever wondered why your favorite movie looks distorted? Could it be because of your display design? If yes, how can you find it?

And if you’ve stumbled into this article, you must have the same question. What resolution is my monitor ? So, let’s go ahead and find it.

What is a Screen Resolution

Simply put, a resolution is the number of pixels spread out on your screen to form an image. A higher amount of pixel count means sharper movies, pictures, and even texts. The more the pixels there are, the better it looks overall.

While talking about the screen resolutions, high-end laptops have incredible graphics, while budget-friendly laptop’s displays are slightly skewed. Whereas, screen size helps you form an image. It’s the physical size of the desktop measured in inches. If you have a 22” monitor, then your screen is 22 inches in length while measuring diagonally.

Did our brief introduction trigger your curiosity on laptop resolutions? Then keep up with our article on what resolution is my monitor in windows, MAC, and Linux.

What is my monitor resolution ?

How many pixels wide is my screen ??

Windows Method 1: Through Dxdiag

Scroll down the device category to view the current display mode. And here you go, it is the current pixel number of your display.

Method 2: Through home display settings

3. Did you manage to do it?

Here’s step by step explanation in video:

MAC Method 1: Through system preferences

5. So there you have it. I bet it was easy to follow.

Method 2: Through apple icon

Now you get a new window with a bunch of tabs. Then select the second tab called displays.

Then select displays preferences.

Now it opens up the same dialog box as before on your Mac laptop.

Lastly, you can change the scale through the scaled option, just like in the first method.

But if you want more clarification, take a look at this video:

Linux Method 1: Through ex rounder program

In Ubuntu: Linux, start by using the command line bash.

Open xrandr program.

You can see a list on the screen. But the one with the * (asterisk) sign is the current number of pixels that your system is using. 

Also, don’t forget to check out this video:

Online Resolution Checker tools:

chúng tôi – It is an online tool used to check resolutions of any device along with the width and height of your laptop.

  chúng tôi – Websiteplanet provides simple tools to check your screen and know if your layout is at the right resolutions.

I hope I have covered everything here and hope you won’t have any issues in figuring how many pixels is my screen.

How to change monitor resolution

It is the number of pixels in the x and y-axis of any computer. For example, if your screen dimension is 1920×1080, you have 1920 pixels in the x-axis and 1080 pixels on the y-axis. And because of it’s sharper tone, more contents fit in this kind of arrangement.

For commercial business and private purposes, people use different kinds of PC and laptops. Since it is serving numerous users, they are in various sizes and options according to consumer demands. After buying your product, you may want to know how to change your monitor resolution from default. Let us show you how:

Firstly, go to the search button and type control panel. 

Here you can see the default option to be of 1920×1080 pixels.

Keep calm if the screen goes black. It’s just taking some time to adjust to the changes. But know that if your video card cannot support the selected resolutions, it will go black and reverts to the previous one.

Go ahead and follow these easy steps.

Take a look at this video:

If this got you thinking, then ‘how big is my laptop screen ?’. Here are some easy ways to figure it out.

 Remove the LCD from your computer. Then flip it over to see the model number sticker on the backside.

All LCD consists of model numbers that display the physical size of the LCD and inches. However, on this laptop, the LCD model number is LTN 156 AT01. The number 156 tells us that the LCD is 15.6″ (inches) diagonally.

As a reminder, you can find the measurement of your laptop, even on the product stickers and manuals.

Take a look at this video for more insight:

How do I know the best resolution for my monitor

So before buying a desktop or laptop, you should keep a few things in mind. For example, there’s a higher number of pixel resolutions in high-end monitors than in budget-friendly versions.

And each display has a native/recommended size. It’s the maximum amount of pixels that your device can display. Often, using this works best for your console. If you want a clear and sharp image while watching a movie or playing games, choose the one at default.

Conclusion

Can My Isp See My Internet History With A Vpn?

Home » Tips » Can Your Internet Provider See Your Internet History with a VPN?

A VPN connection is one of the few ways to prevent your ISP from seeing your internet usage. Your Internet Service Provider (ISP) can see all the devices you connect to the internet and almost everything you do on the internet. There are ways to hide what you do on the internet from your ISP, which I recommend from a general personal privacy perspective.

I’m Aaron and I love technology. I also love information security and privacy. I love it so much, I’ve dedicated an entire almost two-decade career in law and information security to educating about privacy and security issues and trying to improve people’s privacy and security.

In this article, I’m going to explain what your ISP can and can’t see and what you can do to protect your personal privacy. 

Key Takeaways

Your ISP can’t get your internet history.

Your ISP can see your live internet browsing without a VPN.

If you’ve enabled a VPN connection, your ISP can see that you’re using a VPN connection, but not what you’re browsing on the internet.

How Does Your ISP Connect You to the Internet?

Understanding how you connect to the internet through your ISP is important to understand what your ISP can and cannot see. 

Here’s a very highly abstract picture of your connection to the internet:

As you can see, your computer doesn’t connect directly to the internet. Instead, your computer hits a number of different points in its journey to connect to a website:

Wireless Access Point, or WAP, is a wireless radio that broadcasts a signal to which your computer wi-fi connects. These can be separate antennas or included in your router (and frequently are if you’re using your ISP’s router). If you’re connecting via a cable, then you’re not connecting via a WAP. 

The Router is what allows you to communicate with the ISP. It provides an internet address to the ISP and parses communications to the various devices you have in your house. 

ISP Routing is a series of networking equipment that provides you a connection to the ISP and from the ISP out to the internet. Those devices announce the address of the ISP to the internet and route the information to your router. 

ISP Servers are a set of very large computers that process ISP users’ website requests and parse the information appropriately. It effectively helps link your requests out to a website with that website’s request back to you. It keeps you from searching for a website and getting someone else’s search back, or nothing at all!

You’ll also see that I included a dotted blue line encapsulating the communication path from your router to the ISP’s router bordering the internet. The reason for this is that the ISP has full control of all devices within that perimeter and can see everything within that perimeter. But there are exceptions.

How does a VPN Connection Prevent My ISP from Seeing My Internet Use?

The devices within your ISP’s control collect information about everything that happens on them. Outside of that boundary, your ISP cannot easily collect information unless you install software that permits them to do so. 

So your internet history on your computer cannot be seen by your ISP, whether you use a VPN or not. 

That being said, your ISP generally doesn’t need your internet history to collect information about your internet usage. They’re responsible for transmitting and receiving all information your browser requests via your internet browsing. 

The way to hide that is to encrypt data. Encrypting data is where you hide data by rewriting it with a cipher, or code. 

That’s effectively what a VPN connection does: it provides an encrypted tunnel between your computer and the VPN servers. That connection looks something like this:

Your computer sends information to the VPN servers, which then make requests to the internet on your behalf. The connection between your computer and the VPN server is encrypted, meaning that your ISP can see that a connection exists, but they cannot see what’s happening over that connection. So a VPN is an effective way to hide your live browsing activity from your ISP. 

What Can My ISP See?

Your ISP can still see some information about your devices and your use. If you’re using an ISP-provided router, they can see every device connecting to that router. They can also see detailed information about that device if the device is broadcasting it, which many do nowadays. 

Your ISP can also see that you’re using a VPN. Even though the connection is encrypted, the destination of the connection is not. They can see the transmission information, terminating at an IP address known to be used by a VPN. 

Here’s a YouTube video discussing whether your ISP can see your internet use if you use a VPN (they can’t) and whether they care (they do sometimes). 

FAQs

Here are some other questions you might be curious about.

Can Someone Else in My House See My Search History if I use VPN?

Yes, if they have access to your computer. VPN doesn’t wipe your search history, it just prevents the internet at large from seeing what you’re doing. If you don’t want your internet history recorded locally, then use incognito/InPrivate/private browsing mode. 

Can My VPN Provider See My Data?

Yes, VPN providers can see your browsing activity. The VPN provider has an end-to-end view of all of your activity since they’re the ones hiding it. If you use a free or disreputable service, chances are they’re selling that data. I’ve said it before and I’ll say it again: on the internet, if you’re getting something for free, you’re the product.

Can My Internet Provider See What I’m Browsing Incognito?

Of course. Looking at the data flow diagram above, your internet provider can see everything you’re doing live, unless you use a connection encrypted independently of them (e.g.: VPN). Incognito/InPrivate/Private browsing only prevents your computer from storing your browsing history. 

Can My Landlord See My Internet History if I Use a VPN?

No. If you’re receiving your internet connection through your landlord, then a VPN will encrypt the traffic starting at your computer. As such, unless your landlord has access to your computer, they can’t see your internet browsing if you use a VPN. 

Can Someone Providing Public Wi-Fi See My Internet History if I Use a VPN?

No. This is for the same reason your ISP and landlord can’t see what you’re browsing if you use a VPN. The encrypted connection starts at your computer. Everything downstream to the VPN server cannot see what’s being transmitted over that connection. 

Conclusion

VPN is a strong tool to keep your internet use private from all sorts of groups, including your Internet Service Provider. If you value your privacy online, you should absolutely consider subscribing to a reputable VPN service. There are a few out there, just make sure you do your research.

Ggool, The ‘Poop And Get Crypto’ Died Of People’s Uninterest

Ggool, which originated in South Korea, is the new shitcoin that taking the internet by storm

Over the past couple of weeks, shitcoins are hitting headlines. Shitcoins are funky and provide the easiest opportunities to become rich. Recently, the South Korean government is making headlines for inspiring the creation of a shitcoin, you can also call it a ‘poop-coin’. The South Korean authorities terminated a science program that created bathrooms designed to turn human waste into electricity, heat, and apparently a digital currency known as Ggool. The project is known as the Science Walden project and was introduced in July 2023 for the entertainment of the crypto community and the wider digital asset market. The project aimed to create the ‘BeeVi’ toilet that turned human excrement into methane gas and rewarded its ‘depositors’ with a digital currency known as Ggool. The BeeVi toilet project was led by Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology’s Cho Jae-weon, who is a professor of urban and environmental engineering. Even though the South Korean authorities planned to put a lid on the project, there are still a few BeeVi toilets inside the university’s campus at its Science cabin at the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology campus. Since this innovation, BeeVi users have been using the Ggool digital currency. The Korean translation of ‘Ggool’ is honey and tokens for providing energy to the university. Ggool can be used to buy goods on campuses such as coffee and snacks inside the campus.

Over the past couple of weeks, shitcoins are hitting headlines. Shitcoins are funky and provide the easiest opportunities to become rich. Recently, the South Korean government is making headlines for inspiring the creation of a shitcoin, you can also call it a ‘poop-coin’. The South Korean authorities terminated a science program that created bathrooms designed to turn human waste into electricity, heat, and apparently a digital currency known as Ggool. The project is known as the Science Walden project and was introduced in July 2023 for the entertainment of the crypto community and the wider digital asset market. The project aimed to create the ‘BeeVi’ toilet that turned human excrement into methane gas and rewarded its ‘depositors’ with a digital currency known as Ggool. The BeeVi toilet project was led by Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology’s Cho Jae-weon, who is a professor of urban and environmental engineering. Even though the South Korean authorities planned to put a lid on the project, there are still a few BeeVi toilets inside the university’s campus at its Science cabin at the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology campus. Since this innovation, BeeVi users have been using the Ggool digital currency. The Korean translation of ‘Ggool’ is honey and tokens for providing energy to the university. Ggool can be used to buy goods on campuses such as coffee and snacks inside the campus. Reportedly, Ggool tokens were designed with a negative interest rate of 7% to discourage hodling, meaning earners must be regular in liquidating their assets or risk losing their purchasing power. Besides, 30% of the tokens earned by an investor are distributed to other holders upon receipt. But investors should consider that the token is not a government-backed or blockchain-based entity. Nevertheless, the emergence of these shitcoins is attracting more new investors to the market, eventually enhancing the value of the crypto market.

Ios 10.2.1 And Jailbreaking: What Are My Options?

What with the release of iOS 10.2.1 and the soon-to-be-closed signing window for iOS 10.2, many people are wondering what the best strategy is for their device. Should they stick with a jailbroken firmware or jump to iOS 10? If they’re already without a jailbreak, which iOS version do they need to be on to make sure they get one? What do they need to do to be able to upgrade to iOS 10.2 later, and keep their jailbreak for now?

In this article, we’ll quickly go through what we consider the smartest options for each device and iOS version, so that you can (hopefully) make an informed decision.

Extensively updated to reflect beta release of Yalu for 10.2.

Simply go to the section for the iOS version that you currently have on your device, and find the part that refers to your device type. You’ll need to know whether your device is 64-bit or 32-bit.

iOS 10.2.1 or iOS 10.3 betas

Downgrade immediately to 10.2 if you want a jailbreak, before 10.2 stops being signed. There is no rumour of a jailbreak for any device on anything higher than 10.2. If you miss the signing window for 10.2, you will not be able to jailbreak. If you have a private jailbreak or don’t want a jailbreak, then do as you please.

iOS 10.2

You’re out of luck, sorry, you missed the boat. It’s too late to downgrade to 10.1.1. Stay on the lowest firmware possible (10.2), and pray for another jailbreak to come along.

Stay where you are! Do not update! The beta Yalu jailbreak has you covered.

Nothing you can do. You can’t downgrade and no jailbreak is planned for you. Remain on the lowest firmware possible (10.2), and hope another jailbreak comes along.

iOS 10.0-10.1.1

Stay where you are! Do not update to 10.2! Yalu supports you up to 10.1.1, but not if you go to 10.2.

This section applies to the following devices:

iPad Pro

iPhone 6s

iPhone 6s+

iPhone SE

You can:

1) Upgrade now. Yalu for iOS 10.2 has been released, so you may as well upgrade now and wait for it to stabilise. It’s already better than the 10.1.1 beta, so there’s not much reason to stay on 10.1.1. I have done this with my SE which was on 10.1.1. I recommend this option.

3) Stick on 10.0-10.1.1 for now, and upgrade later with Prometheus. This is an option for you, but it is not really worth it now that the 10.2 beta tool is out. You don’t need to hedge your bets anymore, and the risk in using Prometheus probably isn’t worth it since you can go to 10.2 now and wait for the 10.2 tool (Option 1)). If you choose this option, be warned: it is not foolproof. You must save your 10.2 blobs validly, you must successfully use Prometheus when the time comes, and nothing else can go wrong or you could go straight from 10.1.1 to 10.2.1 and be out of luck. If unsure, do 1) or 2) instead.

You should upgrade to 10.2. The beta of the 10.2 tool already supports more devices than the 10.1.1 one did, and a higher firmware is better. Move to 10.2 immediately and wait a few days for the 10.2 tool to stabilise.

Stay where you are. No jailbreak is planned at present. You can’t downgrade. Do not upgrade. Lower is better.

iOS 9.3.4-9.3.5

Update to 10.2 now before signing closes. Yalu for 10.2 will support you. If you really love iOS 9 and never want to go to iOS 10, you can wait on iOS 9 in the hope of a FriedAppleTeam release.

Hope for FriedAppleTeam. Do not update.

iOS 9.2-9.3.3

1) Upgrade now ready to use the 10.2 tool which has been released in beta. Wait for the tool to get stable, and be without a jailbreak for a few days in the meantime. You’re choosing between an existing jailbreak and the near-certainty of a future jailbreak, so the risk is small. The only real risk is the 10.2 tool turning out not to be as solid as your existing jailbreak. If this worries you a lot, try Option 3), though remember that has risks too.

2) Stick on 9.2-9.3.3 permanently. Live long and prosper with your jailbreak. The only downside is the loss of the update to iOS 10.

3) Stick on 9.2-9.3.3 for now, and upgrade later with Prometheus. This is a neat option for you, but be warned, it is not foolproof. You must save your 10.2 blobs validly, you must successfully use Prometheus when the time comes, and nothing else can go wrong or you could go straight from iOS 9 to iOS 10.2.1 and be out of luck. If unsure, do 1) or 2) instead. I will make a guide when Yalu is stable enough, showing how to use Prometheus, because this is the option I have chosen for my iP6 on 9.3.3. Feel free to look out for that guide! However, if there is a problem it will be yours not mine, so consider options 1) or 2).

32-bit devices

Wait for FriedAppleTeam. Do not update.

iOS 9.1

1) Upgrade now ready to use the 10.2 tool which has been released in beta. Wait for the tool to get stable, and be without a jailbreak for a few days in the meantime. You’re choosing between an existing jailbreak and the near-certainty of a future jailbreak, so the risk is small. The only real risk is the 10.2 tool turning out not to be as solid as your existing jailbreak. If this worries you a lot, try Option 3), though remember that has risks too.

2) Stick on 9.1 permanently. Live long and prosper with your jailbreak. The only downside is the loss of the update to iOS 10.

3) Stick on 9.1 for now, and upgrade later with Prometheus. This is a neat option for you, but be warned, it is not foolproof. You must save your 10.2 blobs validly, you must successfully use Prometheus when the time comes, and nothing else can go wrong or you could go straight from iOS 9 to iOS 10.2.1 and be out of luck. If unsure, do 1) or 2) instead. I will make a guide when Yalu is stable enough, showing how to use Prometheus, because this is the option I have chosen for my iP6 on 9.3.3. Feel free to look out for that guide! However, if there is a problem it will be yours not mine, so consider options 1) or 2).

Wait for FriedAppleTeam.

iOS 9.0-9.0.2

1) Upgrade now ready to use the 10.2 tool which has been released in beta. Wait for the tool to get stable, and be without a jailbreak for a few days in the meantime. You’re choosing between an existing untethered jailbreak and the near-certainty of a semi-(un)tethered future jailbreak, so the risk is small, but there are differences. Another risk is the 10.2 tool turning out not to be as solid as your existing jailbreak. If this worries you a lot, consider Option 3), though it may be tricky, or not possible at all.

2) Stick on 9.0-9.0.2 permanently. Live long and prosper with your jailbreak. The only downside is the loss of the update to iOS 10.

3) Stick on 9.0-9.0.2 for now, and upgrade later with Prometheus?

This may not be possible. It depends on whether you can get a patch to activate tfp0 on your jailbroken device. If you do not already know how to do this, disregard this option and pick option 1) or 2) above.

(You must patch your device for tfp0, you must have your .shsh2 blobs for 10.2 saved validly, you must successfully use Prometheus when the time comes, and nothing else can go wrong. Otherwise you will go straight from iOS 9 to iOS 10.2.1 and be out of luck. Really, you should do 1) or 2).)

Stick with your existing jailbreak!

iOS 8.4.1

Upgrade to iOS 10.2 and wait for the beta tool to stabilise. iOS 8.4.1 is not yet jailbroken, but 10.2 already has a tool of some description. You should beat the signing window and go to 10.2.

If you prefer never to update to iOS 10 and you think that FriedAppleTeam will deliver, wait on 8.4.1 for a jailbreak. However, given that Luca has released his tool in beta already for iOS 10.2, I personally would go with restoring now to iOS 10.2 before it goes unsigned.

Stay where you are and hope for FriedAppleTeam.

iOS 8.4 and below

1) Upgrade now ready to use the 10.2 tool which has been released in beta. Wait for the tool to get stable, and be without a jailbreak for a few days in the meantime. You’re choosing between an existing untethered jailbreak and the near-certainty of a semi-(un)tethered future jailbreak, so the risk is small, but there are differences. Another risk is the 10.2 tool turning out not to be as solid as your existing jailbreak. If this worries you a lot, consider Option 3), though it may be tricky, or not possible at all.

2) Stick on 8.4 or below permanently. Live long and prosper with your jailbreak. The only downside is the loss of the update to iOS 10.

3) Stick on 8.4 or below for now, and upgrade later with Prometheus?

This may not be possible. It depends on whether you can get a patch to activate tfp0 on your jailbroken device. If you do not already know how to do this, disregard this option and pick option 1) or 2) above.

(You must patch your device for tfp0, you must have your .shsh2 blobs for 10.2 saved validly, you must successfully use Prometheus when the time comes, and nothing else can go wrong. Otherwise you will go straight from iOS 8 to iOS 10.2.1 and be out of luck. Really, you should do 1) or 2).)

Stick with your existing jailbreak!

tvOS and Apple TV

Although there has only been a very vague mention of a jailbreak for tvOS and ATV 4, we’ll include a brief section here to help you decide what to do. Bear in mind though that this is a lot more uncertain than the rest of the information, so don’t take it as gospel.

Downgrade to tvOS 10.1 or 10.0.1 immediately while they are still signed. Any jailbreak for Apple TV 4 will likely not support tvOS 10.1.1.

Stay where you are, you should be fine.

If you already have the Pangu jailbreak and can’t live without your Kodi set-up, stay where you are. If you don’t mind losing your jailbreak for a while because none of your favourite apps are supported on tvOS 9 anymore, restore now to tvOS 10.1 (not 10.1.1), and hope that yalu102 is adapted for Apple TV 4.

There’s nothing you can do. You will not be supported by any upcoming jailbreak, so carry on as you were.

Conclusion

All that is left to say is that if you have a 64-bit device, regardless of current iOS version or model, save .shsh2 blobs for 10.2 and 10.2.1 now. They open up more options in this guide, and they might allow you to jailbreak in the future too. Do not wait until it’s too late to find out their uses. They can be saved with TSS Saver in a matter of moments.

If you are saving 10.2 blobs, or restoring to 10.2 as many parts of this guide recommend, do it sooner rather than later. It is a race against the clock until 10.2 stops being signed.

Got A Stuka On My Hand

Illustration by Ross MacDonald

I built and for nine years flew an airplane called a Falco, which is Italian for hawk. But it wasn’t until May that I flew a real hawk-a cold-eyed, scimitar-beaked, red-brown Harris’s hawk that perched on my gloved left hand, flapped off into the Vermont air, dove at mice and voles like an F/A-18 with bin Laden in the crosshairs, and eventually returned softly to my hand. OK, it didn’t return to my hand, it returned to the small cube of raw beef placed between my thumb and forefinger.

Yes, this column is called Man & Machine, but hang on, a hunting hawk is nothing more than a killing machine with the aerodynamics of a Reno racer. It is also hard, fast, and shiny.

How fast? Well, how’s 242 mph, a peregrine falcon’s dive speed recorded in a recent edition of National Geographic Explorer? There is a piece of film shot in the 1940s, analyzed by the British Royal Navy, which concluded that a hawk was diving at 273 mph, but skepticism abounds. Still, I can’t think of a faster animal on the planet.

A diving hawk looks like a very angry top-gun Tomcat at full-aft wing sweep. The truly fast ones take only birds in midair, since they’d crater if they dove on a ground animal. The Harris’s with which I practiced was better adapted to surface targets. Like feathered Stukas, hawks have tiny tabs called alulas at about the midpoint of their wings that form little leading-edge slots with which they can vary the direction and speed of a dive. Hawks even have tiny bony protrusions in their nostrils that act a bit like the splitters inside a supersonic jet’s intake, to prevent the airflow in a dive from rupturing air sacs.

Hawks don’t sing, soar for fun, or socialize at birdfeeders. Their only vocalizations are a squawking “pick me, pick me” when you enter the mews where a bunch of hunting hawks are waiting to be taken out, and something that sounds like Yoda ruminating when they’re on your fist and sense meat somewhere nearby. In the wild, a small raptor needs to eat 20 to 25 percent of its body weight per day-the equivalent of a 200-pound running back putting away 40 to 50 pounds of Big Macs and fries. All that hawks think about is food. They spend about 90 percent of their life standing motionless on a perch, digesting what they’ve eaten or looking for more.

The key to using hawks for sport hunting is not that the birds kill-they do that for a living-but that you can retrieve them after they do so. It’s not that they form a bond with their handler, for you have as much chance of turning a hawk into a pet as you do of having a shark fetch your slippers. The trick is fuel management. No free-flight modeler would launch an airplane fat with gas, for that would let the thing fly so far he’d never get it back. Similarly, hawks are flown by falconers only when their “tanks” are a quarter full or perhaps even on reserve.

A falconer knows to a fraction of an ounce the empty weight, as a pilot would say, of his or her bird. If a Harris’s hawk is just an ounce or two heavier than that, it’s good to go: It’ll run out of gas before flying too far and will be forced to refuel-to return for the easy chunk of meat on your fist.

As a new falconer with a bird on the fist, the first surprise is that the vicious-looking beak a foot from your face isn’t a danger. A hawk’s main weapons are its talons, and it would no more think of biting than a pit bull would consider kicking you in the shins. The second surprise is the bird’s weight: It feels as heavy as you imagine a robin might, for its bones are quite hollow-a tube-frame fuselage, in effect.

When you “cast” the bird by stepping off with your right foot and urging it into flight with your left hand, it’s like launching a balsa-and-Mylar model. You want to be smooth, not wrist-snappingly harsh, and your heart flies with the bird just as it would with the model. To fly a hawk is to be a hawk.

Even better is when the hawk returns. A cowboy whistle usually brings it back, and the bird wastes not an erg of effort on its nicely stabilized descent. On final, it goes right down into ground effect, less than half a wingspan off the ground, and adjusts its outer feathers like outspread fingers: quintuple-slotted flaps and ailerons combined, in effect. Coming over the fence, again as a pilot would imagine it, the bird brakes delicately, feeds in some aft stick and flares, gear down and locked, bleeding off speed by climbing the 5 feet from ground level to fist.

The sport of falconry is 4,000 years old, and along with the occasional use by African nobles of cheetahs to chase down game, and the use of cormorants by Chinese fishermen, is a rare example of wild creatures being used by humans for hunting. Falconry equipment-leather jesses to hold the hawk’s legs, an intricately sewn hood to cover its eyes while traveling, a swung lure that mimics the hawk’s prey, the thick glove-is much the same as it was when Kublai Khan rode forth with a staff of falconers on horseback tending his 500 raptors.

Except for one thing: the tracking beacon. Today, valuable hawks aren’t flown until a tiny radio transmitter trailing a thin antenna wire is strapped to one leg, so the bird can be found if it gobbles up enough mouse meat to undergo a change of mind about the need to go home. What in the Middle Ages was the nobility’s equivalent of r/c model airplanes has today become, if not radio-controlled, at least radio-located.

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