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Materials scientists in California have made a special metallic glass with a strength and toughness greater than any known material, using a recipe that could yield a new method for materials fabrication.
The glass, a microalloy made of palladium, has a chemical structure that counteracts the inherent brittleness of glass but maintains its strength. It’s not very dense and it is more lightweight than steel, with comparable heft to an aluminum or titanium alloy.
“It has probably the best combination of strength and toughness that has ever been achieved,” said Robert O. Ritchie, a materials scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory who is one of the authors of a paper describing the new glass. “It’s not the strongest material ever made, but it’s certainly one of the best with a combination of strength and toughness.”
In other words, some tougher materials exist, but they are less strong; there are stronger materials, but they’re not as tough. To grasp this, you have to define the the difference between strength and toughness. Strength refers to how much force a material can take before it deforms. Toughness explains the energy required to fracture or break something; it describes an object’s ability to absorb energy. Most of the time, these qualities are mutually exclusive. “The holy grail is to get both those properties at the same time,” Ritchie said.
Think of a ceramic mug — it’s pretty strong, maintaining its shape while handling hot and cold temperatures with ease. But it’s not very tough — there’s no give, no bendy quality to stop it from shattering when it falls to the floor. On the other hand, a rubber band is tough, stretching and contorting to wrap itself around your newspaper, your carton of eggs and a myriad other objects. But it’s weak, and it doesn’t take much energy for it to deform and break, snapping back on you with a painful recoil.
Souped-up glass is nothing new — Corning’s Gorilla Glass, which coats cell phones, laptops and TVs, is chemically strengthened with compressed ions, which helps prevent cracks and chips. Pyrex, used in telescope mirrors and baking dishes since 1915, is heat-strengthened to resist breakage. But neither has the toughness you’d want for making things like airplanes or bridges.
Ideal structural materials are both strong and tough; steel is a good example. The new glass has a far better combination of strength and toughness than any steel.
“When you build a structural material, you want it to be as strong as possible, but the limiting property is that it must be resistant to fracture, i.e., as tough as possible,” Ritchie said. “For instance, the Golden Gate Bridge is made of a relatively low-strength steel, because you’d like it to bend first rather than break catastrophically without warning.”
Glassy materials are usually very brittle — they break after the formation of shear bands, which are narrow zones of strain that ultimately become cracks. Once the bands form, it’s pretty much impossible to stop cracks from forming. But palladium’s properties change this dynamic, Ritchie explained. Instead of a single shear band propagating throughout the glass, a proliferation of shear bands form and curl back on themselves, taking longer to turn into cracks. The bands allow the material to bend before it breaks — not a property you’d expect from glass.
“It is very easy to form these shear bands, but it is difficult for them to become cracks. The net result is, you get a lot of shear bands forming, and this causes plasticity — you can bend it very readily,” Ritchie said.
Researchers at the California Institute of Technology, led by Marios D. Demetriou, have been working on metallic glass for several years, using various formulations to toughen it or prevent it from breaking. A previous iteration involved introducing a crystalline phase that stopped the shear bands in their tracks, for instance. The new glass has no crystals at all, just microalloys of palladium with phosphorous, silicon, germanium and silver.
“Each element wants to effectively crystallize in its own form, but if there are five, the material gets confused — it doesn’t know which way to crystallize, so the crystallization process is slowed down,” Ritchie said. “It’s 100 percent glass; there’s nothing to stop the cracks, and we think this is an important development.”
The Caltech researchers want to try it with other metal recipes next.
The glass is expensive and difficult to make because of the amount of metals involved and the process required to cool them. So you won’t start seeing palladium-glass airplanes and bridges anytime soon — but the material, and its fabrication process, holds promise for the future of those structures.
“For a bridge, a ship, a spacecraft, for engine material, you would like to combine strength and toughness. This does provide a means of doing that in quite frankly the most unlikely of all materials, a glass,” Ritchie said.
The new glass is described in this week’s issue of Nature Materials.
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While Apple has been refining the Beats brand since taking it over in 2014, the Apple AirPods Pro are still the most popular option, especially for iPhone users. In fact, the Apple AirPods Pro and Beats Studio Buds actually compete against each other, and they’re tough competition. Both are true wireless earbuds with active noise-cancellation (ANC) and a selection of ear tips. They’re both pricier than most consumer earbuds, but they’re pretty close in price to each other. Let’s put them head to head to see if you should go with the Beats Studio Buds or the AirPods Pro.
About this Vs: This article comes from the audio experts at our sister site SoundGuys. Check out
This article comes from the audio experts at our sister site SoundGuys. Check out their in-depth take on the Apple AirPods Pro vs Beats Studio Buds.
Apple AirPods Pro vs Beats Studio Buds
Related: Headphone buying guide
Both the Beats Studio Buds and AirPods Pro have an IPX4 water-resistance rating, so they’re both suitable for working out. Both come with multiple sets of silicone ear tips so you can ensure they fit your ears properly.
Sam Smart / Android Authority
The AirPods Pro have small indentations on the earbud stems for controls. Different squeezes adjust music playback, Siri, and noise cancellation. You can also control the earbuds using Siri voice controls. There’s also automatic ear detection, so your music will pause when you take the earbuds out and resume when they’re back in, though this feature only works on Apple devices. You’ll also need an iOS device if you want to customize controls on your AirPods Pro.
The AirPods Pro have better integration with Apple devices. They have an H1 chip, so they automatically connect to all your iCloud-connected devices. Once connected, you can control the earbuds from the control center, or from the settings app. From here, you can turn on spatial audio, automatically switch between devices, take an ear tip fit test, and more.
On Android or Windows devices, AirPods Pro work like other Bluetooth headphones. You have to manually put the earbuds into pairing mode to connect them to your device, and once you’re connected, you can customize relatively few functions. Thankfully, ANC and transparency mode work fine, since they’re controlled by a hard press of the stem.
Initially, the Beats Studio Buds didn’t integrate as well with Apple devices, but a firmware update added iCloud pairing to the earbuds. Once they’re paired to one Apple device, all of your iCloud-connected devices will recognize the Beats Studio Buds just as they would AirPods Pro.
Read more: Spatial audio and surround sound in headphones
Neither microphone is fantastic, but they’re both good for phone calls. The AirPods Pro emphasize voices better than the Beats Studio Buds, so you’ll sound more intelligible speaking into the AirPods Pro microphone. Take a listen to both microphone samples below and see for yourself:
Apple AirPods Pro microphone demo:
Read more: Let’s talk true wireless earbuds and their battery life
You can get up to 24 hours of total listening time with the AirPods Pro charging case, while the Beats Studio Buds charging case provides an extra two full charges. The AirPods Pro case charges with a Lightning connector, and the Beats Studio Buds charge with USB-C. The AirPods Pro support wireless charging, while the Beats Studio Buds case can only charge using a wire.
The AirPods Pro have slightly better active noise-cancelling performance. Low-frequency droning sounds like a plane or train are about half as loud as they would be without the earbuds and ANC. This isn’t the best, but it’s enough to considerably reduce annoying sounds on your commute.
The Beats Studio Buds only make lower frequencies about one-quarter quieter. It’s not great, but it’s better than nothing. Between the two earbuds, you’ll notice a bigger difference toggling ANC on and off with the Apple AirPods Pro than with the Beats Studio Buds.
However, the ear tips on the Beats Studio Buds provide slightly better isolation than the AirPods Pro, blocking out higher frequencies like the clang of pots and pans better. If you decide to keep ANC turned off to preserve battery life, the Beats Studio Buds will block more sound passively.
Sam Smart / Android Authority
This frequency response chart shows the Apple AirPods Pro (cyan line) and the Beats Studio Buds (dotted yellow line) compared to the SoundGuys consumer curve (pink line), which is a general ideal frequency response for consumers.
As expected from Beats at this point, the Studio Buds amplify sub-bass and treble notes more than the AirPods Pro. While many people prefer a sound like this, the sub-bass and treble notes are much louder than bass and low mid sounds in between, making it harder to hear vocals. Many vocal performances will sound clearer on the AirPods Pro than the Beats Studio Buds.
Neither of them come with customizable EQ, so you’re stuck with how the earbuds sound out of the box unless you use third-party EQ options. If you like hip-hop or EDM, you’ll likely prefer how the Beats Studio Buds sound. If you prefer acoustic or vocal-oriented music, you’ll prefer the more neutral sound of the AirPods Pro.
Apple AirPods Pro vs Beats Studio Buds: The verdict
Chase Bernath / Android Authority
If you have an Android phone, the choice here is obvious. The Beats Studio Buds will work better with your phone and they’re more affordable than the Apple AirPods Pro. Due to the price and limited functionality on Android phones, we don’t recommend the AirPods Pro to Android users.
For iPhone owners, the choice is more complicated. If you want high-end features like wireless charging, spatial audio, and seamless switching between Apple devices, the AirPods Pro is worth the money. Now that the AirPods Pro often go on sale for less than $200, the expense is easier to justify for those seeking the premium experience.
Apple AirPods Pro
Grab the ultimate pair of Apple headphones and enjoy the added power of the Pro name. With an improved charging case and silicone ear tips, you can listen all day with ease and comfort.
See price at Amazon
If you don’t care about all the bells and whistles, Apple users can save a few bucks by going for the Beats Studio Buds. Beats earbuds cater to those who care about design and portability, and you still get great features like noise-cancelling and an IPX4 rating. Regardless of which you choose, you’ll be better off than if you bought the AirPods (3rd generation).
Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore, who made Mysore a formidable power in the eighteenth century died in the fourth Anglo-Mysore war in 1799 in the battlefield with a sword in his hand. His sword was believed to be very strong, which indicates that the sword was made up of high-quality steel, called ‘wootz steel’, manufactured in the southern part of India. This steel of India even gained the attention of the western world they made a study of the production of this steel.
The production of the wootz steel included several steps and a specialized technique. Eventually, the British replaced this material in India by importing iron and steel from England. And new factories began to develop in India, which further deteriorated the condition of local craftsmen.The Sword of Tipu Sultan and Wootz Steel
The Sword of Tipu Sultan
Ezhuttukari at Malayalam Wikipedia, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
Mr McIntyre, CC BY-SA 4.0 , via Wikimedia Commons
They used to mix iron ore and charcoal together, and then put them into a clay pot. Later it was melted at fluctuating temperatures in furnaces and then smelters were used to produce steel blocks, which were used to make swords in India and Asia. The evidence of approximately a hundred furnaces has been found in Mysore. This wootz steel, even stole the attention of European scientists, for example, scientist Michael Faraday studied the properties of this steel for four years.
Nevertheless, the iron and steel industries began to end with the political expansion of the British and the import of these metals from Britain, which led to the gradual invisibility of ‘wootz steel’ by the middle of the nineteenth century. Now the Iron smiths were getting iron in bulk at a cheaper rate.Abandoned Furnaces in Villages
Although the manufacturing of iron and steel demanded concentrated techniques with skillful craftsmen, it was common practice in India. The family of craftsmen was involved in this process as men used to control the smelting temperatures and women used to do below works like pumping air to keep the charcoal burning.
However, by the middle of the nineteenth century, the production of Indian iron and steel started diminishing and smelters abandoned their furnaces. There were several reasons for the decline in the production of iron and steel in India.
Even if they managed to enter these forests secretly to collect raw material but it was something that they could not continue for a longer period as a livelihood. As a result, they left this occupation and shifted to other means of livelihood.
Another reason was the high tax that iron smelters had to pay to the forest government for using furnaces even though the production was declining in India, hence this affected their income. This also forced them to abandon their furnaces and search for a new occupation.
Furthermore, the import of iron and steel from England enhanced problems by decreasing the demand for iron produced by local smelters. And now ironsmiths began to make their finished good with the European imported iron and steel. Simultaneously, these local smelters faced tough competition from Indian iron and steel factories.
All these factors somehow paved the way for local smelters to leave their furnaces and adopt other occupations in order to have a stable and sustainable livelihood.Conclusion
During the eighteenth century, Indian iron and steel were considered to be of the greatest quality, and came to be called ‘’wootz steel’’. One such example of this wootz steel was the sword of Tipu Sultan, which was as strong as it could break down the hard armour with greater ease.
In fact, the high quality of iron and steel drew the attention of Europeans and made their research about the process of making it such hard and strong. Eventually, even after being of superior quality, the production of the wootz steel began to reduce and smelters opted for other occupations by abandoning their furnaces in the middle of the nineteenth century. Subsequently, the iron and steel produced by local Indian smelter were replaced by imported iron from Britain and manufactured by other newly emerging indigenous iron and steel factories in India.FAQs
Q1. What was the main reason for the Anglo-Mysore war?
Ans. The British territorial and commercial expansion in Mysore had to face a threat from the rulers of the region, Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan. The British formed alliance with the Nizams and the Marathas in order to subjugate Mysore and fought four wars, known as the Anglo-Mysore war.
Q2. Mention the chronology of all four Anglo-Mysore wars.
First Anglo-Mysore war in 1767 CE to 1769CE.
Second Anglo-Mysore war in 1780 CE to 1784CE.
Third Anglo-Mysore war in 1790 CE to 1792 CE.
Fourth Anglo Mysore war in 1798 CE to 1799 CE.
Q3. Who was Francis Buchanan?
Ans. Francis Buchanan was a Scottish physician, who came to India and worked in Bengal Medical Service. He even worked as a surgeon of Lord Wellesely. He provided a detailed account of the territory under the East India Company. In a way, he contributed as a great zoologist, botanist, and ethnographer during his stay in India.
Q4. When did the colonial government pass the first forest law in India?
Ans. The first forest law, made by the British government, was passed in 1865 with the aim of taking control of forest produces rather than conserving them. The act was amended several times in successive years.
Q5. Which was the first iron and steel factory in India and when was it established?
Ans. TISCO; Tata Iron and Steel company was the first iron and steel factory in India and it was established in 1907 at Jamshedpur by Jamshedji Tata and Dorabji Tata.
Q6. Mention any three results of the Anglo-Mysore war.
Most of the kingdom was divided between the British, Nizams, and the Marthas.
The remaining kingdom was handed over to the ruler of the Wodeyar dynasty from whom Haider Ali seized the power.
Now the ruler of Mysore was made to enter into a subsidiary alliance with the British.
New Material for Studying Cell Mechanics May Revise Thinking on Disease Engineering professor’s research highlighted in Nature Materials
“Hopefully, this new material can serve as a springboard for helping researchers elucidate the complex relationship between cells and their environment,” says biomedical engineer Christopher Chen. “Which may bring us closer to understanding the mechanism of several diseases.” Photo by Chitose Suzuki
Researchers have long known that most cells living in tissues produce stabilizing networks of fibers and that the stiffness of those tissues, in turn, influences cell’s behavior. When this relationship goes awry, diseases like cancer and organ fibrosis result. But researchers have largely been studying this interaction using two-dimensional models that don’t mimic the fibrous materials in the body.
Enter Christopher Chen, a professor of biomedical engineering at Boston University’s College of Engineering, and his team, who have developed a three-dimensional platform for studying cell interactions with fibers and discovered relationships that may upend some of the thinking on how cells sense tissue stiffness. Chen and his colleagues detail their findings in a paper, “Cell-mediated fibre recruitment drives extracellular matrix mechanosensing in engineered fibrillar microenvironments,” published in October 2023 in Nature Materials.
Past research has suggested that the stiffness of the tissue that cells sit in affects their ability to spread and proliferate. Using a culture of cells grown on an elastic, flat, gel surface, previous researchers have found that as they increased the gel’s stiffness, the cells grew in size and proliferated. Recognizing that these physical conditions hardly mimicked the structure of actual tissues in vivo, Chen and his team set about creating a three-dimensional fibrous network model where the effects of tissue stiffness could be studied in a more realistic setting.
But first, they needed to develop a new material they could manipulate to adjust stiffness while mimicking the natural fiber structure of tissues. Bioengineer Brendon Baker and polymer chemist Britta Trappmann, two postdoctoral fellows in Chen’s lab, devised such a material, constructed three-dimensional matrices of fibers, embedded adult stem cells into this scaffolding, and began studying the cells’ response. Surprisingly, they found that the cells behaved very differently in these fibrous networks compared to flat gels.
For one, the pulling forces generated by cells only modestly stretched the Jell-O-like surface of the 2D model, but in contrast caused dramatic and permanent structural rearrangements in their matrix. They then adjusted the stiffness of the fibers and found that the cells—unlike those on the 2D gel—grew and proliferated more in a softer environment than in a stiffer one.
“The cell sits much like a spider within a web, applying forces to the fibers of the network,” says Baker. “These forces applied to the softer fibers allow cells to pull in or recruit more fibers, bringing more of the matrix within the cell’s reach. The cell’s ability to change its local environment could explain why we see more proliferation in this setting.”
“These findings highlight a gap in our understanding of how cells interact with their fibrous surroundings,” says Chen. “Hopefully, this new material can serve as a springboard for helping researchers elucidate the complex relationship between cells and their environment, which may bring us closer to understanding the mechanism of several diseases.”
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Astronomers from the European Space Agency (ESA) have discovered the shiniest known exoplanet in our universe to date. Named LTT9779 b, this ultra hot exoplanet revolves around its host star every 19 hours and is 262 light-years away from Earth.
[Related: Gritty, swirling clouds of silica surround exoplanet VHS 1256 b.]
In our night sky, the moon and Venus are the brightest objects. Venus’ thick cloud layers reflect 75 percent of the sun’s incoming light, compared to Earth’s cloud layers that just reflect about 30 percent. LTT9779 b and it’s reflective metallic clouds can match Venus’ shininess. Detailed measurements taken by ESA’s Cheops (CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite) mission shows that the glittering globe reflects 80 percent of the light that is shone on it by its host star.
LTT9779 b was first spotted in 2023 by NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission and ground-based observations conducted at the European Southern Observatory in Chile. ESA then selected this planet for additional observations as part of the Cheops mission.
At around the same size as the planet Neptune, LTT9779 b is the largest known “mirror” in the universe. According to ESA, it is so reflective due to its metallic clouds that are mostly made of silicate mixed in with metals like titanium. Sand and glass that are used to make mirrors are also primarily made up of silicate. The findings are detailed in a study published July 10 in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics.
“Imagine a burning world, close to its star, with heavy clouds of metals floating aloft, raining down titanium droplets,” study co-author and Diego Portales University in Chile astronomer James Jenkins, said in a statement.
The amount of light that an object reflects is called its albedo. Most planets have a low albedo, primarily because they either have an atmosphere that absorbs a lot of light or their surface is rough or dark. Frozen ice-worlds or planets like Venus that boast a reflective cloud layer tend to be the exceptions.
For the team on this study, LTT9779 b’s high albedo came as a surprise, since the side of the planet that faces its host star is estimated to be around 3,632 degrees Fahrenheit. Any temperature above 212 degrees is too hot for clouds of water to form. On paper, the temperature of LTT9779 b’s atmosphere should even be too hot for clouds that are made of glass or metal.
“It was really a puzzle, until we realized we should think about this cloud formation in the same way as condensation forming in a bathroom after a hot shower,” said co-author and Observatory of Côte d’Azur researcher Vivien Parmentier in a statement. “To steam up a bathroom you can either cool the air until water vapor condenses, or you can keep the hot water running until clouds form because the air is so saturated with vapor that it simply can’t hold any more. Similarly, LTT9779 b can form metallic clouds despite being so hot because the atmosphere is oversaturated with silicate and metal vapors.”
[Related: JWST’s double take of an Earth-sized exoplanet shows it has no sky.]
In addition to being a shiny happy exoplanet, LTT9779 b also is remarkable because it is a planet that shouldn’t really exist. Its size and temperature make it an “ultra-hot Neptune,” but there are no known planets of its size in mass that have been found orbiting this close to their host star. This means that LTT9779 b lives in the “hot Neptune desert,” a planet whose atmosphere is heated to more than 1,700 degrees.
“’We believe these metal clouds help the planet to survive in the hot Neptune desert,” co-author and astronomer at Marseille Astrophysics Laboratory Sergio Hoyer said in a statement. “The clouds reflect light and stop the planet from getting too hot and evaporating. Meanwhile, being highly metallic makes the planet and its atmosphere heavy and harder to blow away.”
While its radius is about 4.7 times as big as Earth’s, one year on LTT9779 b takes only 19 hours. All of the previously discovered planets that orbit their star in less than one day are either gas giants with a radius that is at least 10 times earth (called hot Jupiters) or rocky planets that are smaller than two Earth radii.
“It’s a planet that shouldn’t exist,” said Vivien. “We expect planets like this to have their atmosphere blown away by their star, leaving behind bare rock.”
Cheops is the first of three ESA missions dedicated to studying the exciting world of exoplanets. In 2026, it will be joined by the Plato mission which will focus on Earth-like planets that could be orbiting at a distance from their star that supports life. Ariel is scheduled to join in 2029, specializing in studying the atmospheres of exoplanets.
Once in a while, an indie game comes out that reminds us that great games need not come from huge companies with large development budgets. Steel Storm was one such game, as my previous review of Steel Storm: Episode I highlighted.
The developers of Steel Storm, Kot-in-Action Creative Artel are back again with the next installment, Steel Storm: Burning Retribution. The formula is still the same, an action-packed top-down shooter with strategy elements woven throughout. This time around, there are new weapons, more maps, new enemies, new missions, bonus campaigns, and new multiplayer features. Steel Storm: Burning Retribution also includes Episode I, so you can play it again or, if you are new to the game, for the first time.About the Game
In Steel Storm: Burning Retribution, you take on the role of a ship pilot. Rather than going into space, the ship hovers low to the ground, making its way through canyons and man-made structures. The ship is equipped with standard cannons, but you can pick up a variety of weapons along the way, including missiles that are quite destructive.
Although it is a top-down shooter, it is rendered in a 3D environment, so you can adjust the camera angle to suit your taste. You also have full control over graphics features so that you can adjust settings to run on your computer. It is suited to run well on both fast and slightly older machines.
Enemy ships can appear on the spot and may fire at you from several different angles at once. You will need some coordination to dodge them and fire at the same time. To help you with this, Steel Storm offers a few control options, including mouse+keyboard, gamepad, and Xbox 360 controller support.Gameplay
This game is not your typical arcade shooter. Do not expect to meet wave after wave of enemies on a linear map. Instead, you must complete mission objectives, which sometimes involve exploration, back-tracking, and finding the right tools to get the job done. Some of those tools include keys, force-field generators, and teleporters. You will still have to fight wave after wave of enemies, all while trying to complete those strategic objectives.
For the most part, you can just keep your finger on the trigger whenever enemies are around, but you will need to use your environment to effectively dodge attacks and stay alive. Once all of your ships have been destroyed, it will send you back to the beginning of the mission. Therefore, you cannot survive without some tactical maneuvering.
Campaigns are only part of the fun with Steel Storm. It also has complete multiplayer functionality with deathmatch, co-op campaigns, and capture the flag matches. There are usually several servers online to choose from, as well as a Steam multiplayer community. Moreover, it is quite easy to setup your own server and go into a private match with your friends. Multiplayer is a great way to get a taste for all the weapons, shields, and other goodies Steel Storm has to offer, and testing them out on your gaming friends is quite fun.
Lastly, Steel Storm includes an editor, allowing players to create their own campaigns, death matches, and capture the flag matches.Availability
One of the great things about many indie games is that the developers care about reaching as wide an audience as possible. Steel Storm: Burning Retribution is no exception and is available for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux.
You can try Episode I for free, which is more than a short demo. It is a stand-alone game in itself. Steam users can get the Windows and Mac version through the normal process for $9.99. Ubuntu users can purchase through the Ubuntu Software Center for the discounted price of $8.99.Final Verdict
Steel Storm: Episode I was already a fantastic game all by itself, and many would probably have been willing to pay just for that game. With Burning Retribution, you get Episode I and the new game, all for under $10. It is hard to find fault in that, and I could not find any other faults with this game. If you are a fan of shooters and like to get a lot for your money, this game is worth it.
Tavis J. Hampton
Tavis J. Hampton is a freelance writer from Indianapolis. He is an avid user of free and open source software and strongly believes that software and knowledge should be free and accessible to all people. He enjoys reading, writing, teaching, spending time with his family, and playing with gadgets.
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