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Nexus S Could Feature Samsung’s 4.5-inch Flexible AMOLED

With all this hype surrounding the Nexus S, with live images falling prey to the Internet along with the fact that it’s believed the device will launch with a stock version of Android 2.3, or Gingerbread, there’s a little room here for speculation regarding the device. Considering we don’t know anything about it, outside of a few rumors here and there, what the device will actually do, or what hardware specifications it will promote is anyone’s guess. So, let’s start guessing, shall we?

That display, for instance. While there’s plenty of speculation that Samsung would continue using the same display size, and display type, as they’ve issued with previous Galaxy S devices, what if Google asked them to push the envelope a bit? Just as the company did with the Nexus One, everyone is expecting to see the Nexus S feature plenty of hardware improvements, as well as software additions, that makes the device stand out. One way to make sure that it stands out, even well into 2011, would be for Samsung to include their brand new 4.5-inch flexible AMOLED display. We showed it to you only two days ago, and it certainly would make for an interesting design choice for the Nexus S. At 4.5-inches, it would be the biggest smartphone on T-Mobile’s network, and with the flexibility and color offered by the flexible AMOLED display, it would easily be one of the best selling points of the device.

If you’ve been following the developments of the Nexus S over the last few weeks, then you know that there was also a rumor going around that the device was being delayed due to hardware manufacturing issues. We can probably safely say at this point that Samsung has manufacturing of their Galaxy S devices down pat, even with shortages in the Super AMOLED stockpile. This could strengthen the idea that Samsung is using a new display type in the Nexus S, or it may just mean that Samsung ran into a roadblock. We’d like to keep our fingers crossed that we’ll find a brand new, entirely way too attractive display waiting for us on the Nexus S.

Not surprising, though, is the time frame we’ve found ourselves in. If you’ll recall, when the Nexus One was about to be announced, it was around this time that we started hearing more and more about that particular device. Leak after leak, rumor after rumor, that by the time the superphone was officially launched in January, it felt like everyone knew everything about it. Of course, Google had plenty of secrets up their sleeve, so that the device still felt new and fresh when it reached official channels.

We can’t forget that the device is (apparently) launching on T-Mobile. While that would have been a good guess, it wasn’t until Best Buy leaked the Nexus S name, and which carrier they’d be selling it for, that we got as much confirmation to that fact as we can expect at this point. With that being said, here’s what we can already expect from the device: HSPA+. With T-Mobile rocking the 4G label on their network, with two devices already available on the network which can access the faster speeds, there’d be no shock whatsoever if the Nexus S was able to tap into it as well.

All in all, the Nexus S is growing in stature, well before the device has been officially announced. And, if we can expect the same treatment from Google that we received with the Nexus One, then it may be several more weeks before we get anything official to look at, or talk about. Until then, though, we should still receive plenty of more leaks, rumors, and speculation to keep us entertained, and the rumor mill going strong.

If you’re interested in the Nexus S, and you have a few ideas for what you might like to see on the device, whether it be hardware or software related, head on over to AndroidCommunity, and join in the discussion. Let us know what you’d like to see in Android 2.3, or what stand-out hardware features you think the Nexus S should have.

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Samsung Galaxy Nexus Review: This Is Android

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Here’s the thing about the Galaxy Nexus: It is the best Android phone available now by such a huge margin that I am prepared to say that shoppers should either buy it or steer clear of Android entirely. And that has nothing to do with its hardware.

I am putting forth a call to arms: Let us not care so much about hardware, Android friends. Let us not pay mind to mobile processor clock speed, to millimeters of body thickness, to HDMI-out ports and docking stations and removable batteries. The Galaxy Nexus is the best Android phone because its software was designed for humans. More than any other ‘Droid previous, using the Galaxy Nexus just makes sense. And for that we can thank its stock install of something called Ice Cream Sandwich.


The Nexus line is Google’s “reference line” of Android phones—each one (this is the third) is the first phone to carry the new version of Android, completely unencumbered by the custom interfaces tacked on by most other manufacturers. They’re intended to be the purest version of Android of their generation. The Galaxy Nexus is the first with Android 4.0, called “Ice Cream Sandwich,” or ICS (Android code names use alphabetical dessert names—Cupcake, Donut, Eclair, Froyo, etc). More phones with ICS will come, and soon—and they will have skins, like HTC’s Sense UI. But this is the phone Google wants us to think of when we think of ICS.

Ice Cream Sandwich is easily the biggest update to the smartphone version of Android since the original Droid’s Android 2.0. A lot has changed—too much to cover everything in detail. But sticking to the highlights:

The look of Android is quite different from before: it’s now cool and blue, with spare lines and black backgrounds. There’s a new, custom-made font. There are friendly animations. The buttons are completely different—instead of the traditional four Android buttons (Home, Menu, Search, and Back), there are…well, technically, there are none. The buttons have been moved to the screen itself, and shrunk to three: Home, Back, and Recent Apps. The camera app has been overhauled. All of the first-party apps, like Gmail and Maps, are new. Icons and folders are more three-dimensional. The keyboard is new. Google Plus is heavily integrated. The list could go on, but it won’t, because it’s long enough already.


Just about everything listed in the section above is a good change. But more importantly, Ice Cream Sandwich comes very close, dangerously close, to the ethereal goal of “just working.” It is fast and responsive as all hell. That is impressive technologically, but for humans, it’s more important as an element of a phone that feels like it’s working with you, not against you. There’s no lag: when you swipe, it moves. This is not as easy as it sounds; I’ve always felt Android had a distinct lag between your finger and what was happening on screen, and throughout most of the Galaxy Nexus, that’s now gone.

The new buttons are great; they save space, but they’re also very functional, rotating when you want to rotate the screen, adding a menu button when you’re using an app that needs one, disappearing when you’re playing a game or watching a video.

Apple stole Android’s swipe-down notifications shade in iOS5, and while Apple’s is prettier, Ice Cream Sandwich seems to say “oh yeah? Enjoy the first generation. Here’s what we’ve done with years of practice.” There’s an embedded settings button in the shade, so you can jump in there and turn Wi-Fi or Bluetooth on and off, or change your brightness, or whatever, in one tap. You can swipe notifications away one by one—just tap and toss them off the phone.

This animation comes from Matias Duarte, the user interface genius behind the beloved and now-extinct Palm Pre, who is now a design bigwig at Google. It is the perfect way to deal with things you don’t want: it’s like grabbing an unwanted piece of junk mail and pushing it off your desk. Now your desk is clean! That same UI trick pops up in a few other places, and it never fails to make your phone feel simultaneously intuitive and transparent, which is not an easy trick.

Galaxy Nexus Apps

On the left: the Recent Apps screen. You can swipe any of these apps to close them, or tap to switch to them. On the right is the app drawer; swiping horizontally browses through apps and widgets.

All the new apps are great; Android’s biggest strength, I always thought, was its Google apps. Maps on Android is in a different league than anywhere else, as is Gmail. The browser has been redesigned, smartly. Tabs can be swiped-to-close, just like notifications or open apps. Pages are rendered very nicely (though I found the tap-to-zoom-in-on-text, as well as pinch-to-zoom, to be less reliable and natural than on the iPhone 4S). There’s a mode to request the desktop, rather than mobile, version of a site—ideal for the sites that, frustratingly, don’t provide such links for you. There’s a “save for offline reading” mode so you can read longer stories later, even when you’ve got no wireless signal. Mobile Flash, recently shuttered by Adobe, is not currently available on ICS—it may come later, but I didn’t miss it, even though it was occasionally nice to have the option.

The keyboard is great. I’ve used Android for a long time, with many different devices, and this is the first time I did not immediately download a better keyboard app from the Market. It’s the right amount of sensitive, autocorrect is unobtrusive and helpful, and it gets what you’re trying to say. Job well done, Android keyboard developers.

There are lots of nice little features, which you’ll discover as you go, ranging from NFC to a new unlock mode that recognizes your face to a new People app that collects info from all your friends. There are tons of goodies in here which you’ll discover as you use it.


Is mediocre. Please, guys, no more cheap-feeling, lightweight plastic phones. The Galaxy Nexus is made by Samsung, and feels like the Galaxy S, or the Focus, or any other modern Samsung phone. It’s wildly thin (maybe a hair thinner than the iPhone 4S at its thinnest point), but it’s still light and plastic-y. It is not impossible to make great-looking and great-feeling phones that aren’t the iPhone—just ask Nokia—but the Galaxy Nexus is just, you know, fine. When I reviewed the Nokia Lumia 800, I kept trying to get other people to hold it. “Feel how great it feels to feel!” I’d sputter. No such illiterate enthusiasm here. It’s not bad either, just nothing special.

Galaxy Nexus Back

The screen warrants some talk. It’s sized at 4.65-inches, which is just insanity. 4.3 inches has become the accepted size of a “big” phone, so I was positive a 4.65-incher would be unusable, but in fact the Galaxy Nexus as a whole is just slightly larger than a 4.3-inch phone like the Droid Bionic (pictured). Partly that’s because a portion of the screen is devoted to the new “buttons,” and partly it’s because the phone has a pretty small bezel. It’s still a little too big, I think—I’d have preferred a Nexus with a 4.3-inch screen that physically is much smaller—but aside from a couple stretches to tap something in the upper-left corner of the screen, I can proclaim the Galaxy Nexus usable for people with average-to-large hands. The extra space is nice for watching videos or reading Kindle books (suddenly a pleasant experience on a phone), and the screen itself is great: ICS mandates a true 720p resolution, and the Super AMOLED display is very clear, with some of the deepest blacks I’ve seen.

The camera’s speed is unparalleled—it’s very fast to shoot and then ready itself for the next shot, even faster than the iPhone 4S. But the sensor in the Galaxy Nexus itself is surprisingly bad. It’s a 5MP shooter, and compared to photos from the iPhone 4S or even other Android phones like the Samsung Galaxy S II, I found the Nexus’s shots washed out, fuzzy, and without detail. That’s a hardware issue, I suppose. Bummer, though. Future Ice Cream Sandwich phones will hopefully use better sensors.

The Galaxy Nexus will be released on Verizon’s network here in the States, and it’ll boast 4G LTE, which is pretty killer. My review unit is on T-Mobile’s HSPA+ network, so I can’t make any judgment about the Nexus’s 4G speeds or battery life (a constant concern with 4G phones). It won’t have a slot for expandable memory (most Android phones do) and rumors indicate it’ll probably have 32GB of internal storage on Verizon. Call quality on today’s phones usually has more to do with the network than the phone itself, but the Galaxy Nexus I tested delivered stellar-sounding calls on T-Mobile.


Android is still not as streamlined as iOS or Windows Phone. Perhaps Android phone fans don’t want it to be. Ice Cream Sandwich is a big step forward, but there are still elements that feel redundant or messy. Having three ways to do something doesn’t make it easier to use; it makes it harder to learn the rules of the operating system, harder to understand why certain things work certain ways and thus harder to perform new actions for the first time, since you’re not sure how it’ll respond. Some apps require a menu button, which will pop up next to the Recent Apps button at the bottom right of the screen. Some don’t need one. Some do, but you’ll find it in the upper right corner instead. Ugh.

Sometimes you scroll through things vertically starting at the bottom (like in the Recent Apps list or browser tabs). Sometimes you scroll through things vertically starting at the top (like every other app ever, including contacts and music). But then the app drawer scrolls horizontally. Every single time I opened the app drawer, I tried to swipe it up, the way non-Samsung Android phones have always worked. Why, Google? Why change that?

Galaxy Nexus and Droid Bionic

On the left, the 4.3-inch-screened Motorola Droid Bionic. On the right, the 4.65-inch-screened Galaxy Nexus. The Nexus is barely larger, and actually thinner.

The home screen is my least favorite part of the entire OS: it not only permits messiness, it encourages it. There are still five home screens, and you can’t change that number. I never saw the need for more than one or two; the complete list of apps is one tap away, so why do you need to litter five homescreens with widgets and multiple redundant shortcuts?

Android is powerful and flexible, yes. You can do all kinds of crazy things! But that’s like saying a huge buffet is always better than a carefully composed dish from a chef. I don’t want to make Android something it’s not, and there are definitely times when it’s thrilling to be able to make my phone look just the way I want it to, but some consistency and limits might help here.

And once you get away from the warm blue glow of Google’s first-party apps, performance takes a hit. Scrolling is noticeably jerkier and less natural in non-Google apps. The app selection is still not very cohesive; it sounds like an unfair claim, but the majority of Android apps are not as pretty or as fun to use as those on Windows Phone or iOS. Functional, sure, and there are an awful lot of apps in the Market. But mostly they are not as good. (Examples: Rdio, Twitter, IMDb, Hulu Plus.) The Music app is still disappointing; I’m not sure what the problem is there, but Android’s default music player has always been curiously ugly and un-fun to use to me. There are lots of replacements in the Market, luckily (I recommend Winamp, although the official Music app is the only one that integrates with Google Music’s cloud-streaming storage feature).


None of the principal folks involved with the Galaxy Nexus (that’d be Google, Samsung, and Verizon) have announced price or availability in the States. Good bet would be soon, though.


I love the direction Ice Cream Sandwich is going: toward a more consistent, simpler, more fun experience, while retaining that tinkerer’s ability to do anything. Finding that balance is as hard as balancing an egg on its end; it may turn out to be impossible to please everyone. But I have no hesitation in recommending the Nexus if you’re leaning toward or curious about Android. It makes other Android phones feel much older than their age, and I mean that in the best way.

Nexus and iPhone

Nexus, left. iPhone 4S, right.


Here’s the Phone app, which has been totally redesigned, and the Market app, which is largely unchanged from Gingerbread, the previous version of Android for phones.


Here are three phones stacked on top of each other, which is both a good way to see their thicknesses and a good way to scratch all of their screens at once. Top to bottom: iPhone 4S, Droid Bionic, Galaxy Nexus.

Keyboard/Face Unlock

On the left: the new keyboard, which is great, if unassuming-looking. On the right: Face Unlock, which lets you unlock your phone simply by looking sort of awkwardly at it.


The bottom edge of the phone, which has a standard microUSB port for charging and syncing, and the headphone jack. I actually like the headphone jack on the bottom; I tend to put my phone in my pocket upside down anyway, because then the phone is right-side-up when I take it out. This is surprisingly hard to explain. I have normal hands, I promise.


In these two apps, you can see how Ice Cream Sandwich handles older apps. On the left is the schmancy new Maps app (which is great). Those three vertical squares on the bottom right, just above the Recent Apps button, is the old Menu button, which gives you more options. On the right is the official Twitter app, which hasn’t been updated for Ice Cream Sandwich–so the Menu button, which is required for all kinds of settings, is in the bottom bar.


It’s kind of hard to tell, because the Nexus tapers a little bit and the iPhone does not, but the iPhone ranges from very slightly thinner than the iPhone to very slightly thicker.

Photo App

Here’s the new camera app. You can see how the Home/Back/Recent Apps buttons fade out to little white dots so as to not distract you (here on the right, since I’m holding the phone in landscape mode). It’s also nicely clean and minimalistic, but there are a fair few options if you like tinkering with your camera settings–just tap on the little settings icon, which is a little hard to see here but is in the bottom-right area of the phone, just to the left of the still/video switcher.

Google Io 2012: Jelly Bean, Nexus 7, Google Glasses And Nexus Q

Google IO 2012: Jelly Bean, Nexus 7, Google Glasses and Nexus Q

Google’s IO 2012 keynote has been and gone, and while the developer event as a whole isn’t over, you can certainly tell where the focus is by what made it onto the opening agenda. I’d already laid out my expectations for IO over at the Google Developers Blog, but there have been some surprises along the way too.Jelly Bean was the obvious inclusion, and Google balanced its enthusiasm about the new Android version from a technological perspective – with encrypted apps and the perfectly named “Project Butter” for smoothing out the UI – with features that will make more of a difference for end-users. The new notifications system should make a major difference to Android usability, meaning you spend less time jumping between apps, while the Google Voice Search should present an interesting challenge to Siri.

I’ll need to spend some proper time with “Google now” before I can decide whether it brings any real worth to the table. Proper understanding of context is sorely missing from the mobile device market- our handsets can do no shortage of tasks, but they still wait for us to instruct them – though there are potentially significant privacy concerns which I think Google will likely be picked up on sooner rather than later.

The Nexus 7 is a double-hitter of a device, the tablet response not only to concerns that Android developers were opting out of slate-scale app creation, but to Amazon’s strongly-selling Kindle Fire. $200 is a very competitive price, without cutting on specifications, and Jelly Bean comes with all the bells and whistles you need for a tablet OS.

Of course, OS support wasn’t what let Honeycomb and Ice Cream Sandwich down, it was the significant absence of any meaningful tablet application support from third-party developers. The Nexus 7’s low price should help get test units into coders’ hands, at least, though it will take more than a fanfare this week to decide whether Android can catch up on larger screen content with Apple’s iPad.

As for the Nexus Q, I’ll take some more convincing on that. $299 is a lot for a device that also needs an Android phone or tablet in order to work, and Google’s awkward presentation didn’t do a particularly good job of explaining why you’d rather have a Nexus Q than, say, an Apple TV, a Sonos system, or even just a cheap DLNA streamer.

The big surprise today was Google Glasses. Sergey Brin’s “surprise” interruption of the IO presentation, sporting Project Glass himself and then summoning a daredevil army of similarly-augmented skydivers, stunt bikers, abseilers and others onto the stage was a masterstroke of entertainment, and you could feel the enthusiasm and excitement in the auditorium. That the segment ended with a pre-order promise – albeit one at a not-inconsiderable $1,500 – was a suitably outlandish high-point, though we’ll have to wait until early 2013 to actually see Google make good on those investments.

Google Glasses are a long way off. More pressing is how the Nexus 7 holds up to the Kindle Fire (and, though it may not be quite a direct competitor, the iPad) and how quickly manufacturers can get Jelly Bean out to existing devices. Google may be putting a new system of early Android update access into place to speed that process for future iterations, but it looks to have come too late for Jelly Bean updates. We’ll have more from Google IO 2012 over the rest of the week.

Make sure to check out SlashGear’s Android hub for our full Google IO 2012 coverage!

Unboxing Nexus 7 and Nexus Q:

Clockworkmod Recovery (Cwm) For Nexus 10

UPDATE (Nov. 12, 2013): This guide has been updated to get you latest CWM recovery for your Nexus 10, version!

ClockworkMod recovery works well with Android 4.4 KitKat update, so you need to have this if you are planning to update your Nexus 10 to KitKat.

Find the Android 4.4 KitKat update for Nexus 10 here.

The first step into the beautiful (and sometimes daunting) world of custom ROMs on Nexus devices starts with unlocking their bootloader, and we brought you a guide to unlock the bootloader on the Nexus 10 earlier today.

Well, the second step into that netherworld is the flashing of a custom recovery which lets you install those custom ROMs, and we’ve prepared a guide to help you flash ClockworkMod recovery, the most popular custom recovery, on your shiny new Nexus 10.

However, keep in mind that flashing CWM recovery (or any other custom recovery), you will need to unlock the bootloader on your Nexus 10. This will wipe all data from your tablet and reset it to factory settings (and will also void warranty, though it is easy to re-lock the bootloader to get warranty back).

Let’s take a look at the procedure for flashing ClockworkMod recovery on the Nexus 10.


The procedure described below is only for the Samsung Nexus 10. Do not try it on any other device.


The methods and procedures discussed here are considered risky, so try them out at your own risk, and make sure to read each step carefully before attempting anything. We will not be held responsible if anything goes wrong.

How to Install ClockworkMod Recovery (CWM) on Nexus 10

Your tablet’s bootloader will need to be unlocked to flash CWM. You can unlock the bootloader on your Nexus 10 by following the guide → here. Make sure you took a backup in step 1 as this will wipe all data from the tablet and reset it to factory settings. Skip this if you already have the bootloader unlocked.

Download and install the Android SDK → from here. This will install the necessary drivers for the tablet on your computer. Skip this if you have already installed the SDK while following step 2.

Extract the file you just downloaded to a convenient location on the computer to obtain a folder named Fastboot which will have four files inside it. To keep things easy, extract the Fastboot folder to drive C.

Change the recovery image’s filename to something easier, for example, n10cwm.img

Copy the recovery image file, n10cwm.img, to the Fastboot folder that you obtained in step 5.

Turn off your Nexus 10. Then, boot into fastboot mode by holding down the Volume Down + Power buttons together till the screen turns on and shows “Start” written in big green letters.

Then, connect your Nexus 10 to the computer with your USB cable, then wait for Windows to finish installing the drivers (drivers will be installed only the first time). For reliability, ensure that you use a USB port at the back if you are using a desktop computer, as the front panel ports can be loose and cause problems.

Now, we need to flash the CWM image on the tablet. Follow the steps below to do so, and also check the screenshot after step 11.3 for reference.

Navigate to the Fastboot folder which you obtained in step 4. For example, if the Fastboot folder is in drive C on your computer, enter cd C:Fastboot in command prompt (and press Enter) to navigate to the folder.

Then, enter fastboot devices. If your Nexus 10 has been detected properly, you will see a device ID show up in command prompt. If nothing comes up, make sure you have installed the drivers (see step 3).

After recovery has been flashed, you should see a “finished”/”OKAY” message in the command prompt.

Now, type 

fastboot reboot

 and press Enter to reboot the tablet.

ClockworkMod recovery is now installed on your Nexus 10. To boot into CWM recovery, turn off your Nexus 10 and boot into the bootloader mode using the button combination given in step 8. Then, using the volume buttons, scroll to the “Recovery mode” option, then select it using the power button to reboot the tablet into CWM recovery.

ClockworkMod recovery is now installed on your Nexus 10, and can be used to flash custom ROMs, kernels, and other modifications. Don’t forget to let us know if you run into any problems.

Feature Request: How Apple’s Siri

Like a lot of new technologies from Apple these days, HomeKit isn’t perfect but the parts that work well are really useful. Apple’s home automation framework connects smart accessories from various companies all under the control of Siri and HomeKit apps like Home or Hesperus. But HomeKit is relatively young still and there’s plenty of low hanging fruit in terms of ways the framework could improve with iOS 10 and beyond. Here are a few ideas I hope we see with HomeKit this year:

More Triggers: Siri is great for giving commands in the moment, but automation is really about scheduling repetitive actions and letting the technology do the work. HomeKit lets you automatically engage scenes, or groups of set actions, using triggers, or certain conditions like time of day.

Using the Home app and three Philips Hue white bulbs, my outside lights turn on at 7:30 PM and turn off at midnight. I have a scene called Porch On which turns on the front, side, and back porch lights, and another scene called Porch Off which turns them off. Porch On occurs daily at 7:30 PM while Porch Off repeats daily at midnight. Optionally, telling Siri Porch On or Porch Off or calling out individual bulbs will toggle them on and off anytime.

The problem with using time of day as this trigger, though, is that the time of sunset changes dramatically in South Mississippi based on the season. When I first set up the trigger, I used 5:30 PM as the Porch On time, but sunset has since moved back two hours. Ideally, using sunset and sunrise as the trigger would be best, but that’s not a HomeKit supported trigger just yet.

More Siri: As it stands now, even though HomeKit uses Siri for voice control, Siri can’t always control your HomeKit setup. Asking Siri from CarPlay to turn off your lights confuses it and results in a message saying Siri can’t control your car, which is an understandable point of confusion, but Siri on Apple TV is the glaring omission for HomeKit.

Speaking of other devices, 9to5Mac reported earlier this year that the Mac is set to gain Siri with OS X 10.12 (MacOS 10.12?). Hopefully that means the Mac learns how to HomeKit, too, which could create an Amazon Echo-like setup in my home office; if Siri ships on Mac without HomeKit like Apple TV, that’ll be even more perplexing.

More Accessories: More triggers and more Siri (I think) should be relatively easy, but my last request is a bit more complex. HomeKit works with a decent variety of accessories now (smart plugs, thermostats, locks, shades, lights, sensors, etc.), but HomeKit improving will obviously require more accessories in the future. The home security space is an interesting one with Nest Cam-type solutions, but Siri/HomeKit integration isn’t there yet.

That’s just one example of where HomeKit could expand. More importantly, I’d love to see some of Apple’s own hardware start to speak the same language as HomeKit. For example, “Siri, turn on my Apple TV” currently offers up an apology that it can’t do that, but launching the Remote app or interacting with the Siri Remote turns on my Apple TV 4 and connected Sony TV in my bedroom (my LG TV in my living room doesn’t support powering on and off that way unfortunately).

For TV sets that can be powered on and off when connected to Apple TV, HomeKit and Apple TV integration would be great here. Apple TV already acts as a remote point of communication in some instances so the foundation is there.

Apple even has a command listed on its Siri site that describes turning on a TV with Siri through HomeKit, but I haven’t been able to recreate this scenario myself. For starters, Apple TV doesn’t talk to Siri from the iPhone. I had one bright idea, too, that didn’t pan out so well: connecting my TV to an iHome Smart Plug. Then Siri could turn the TV off, but turning it back on still required the TV remote or power button on the set, so the process actually added an extra step. (An actual Apple TV set would come in handy here.)

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Pitt � � S India Act 1784


The East India Act of 1784 was brought to the people of India by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister is known to be the youngest in the history of this island nation in Europe. The person was a very young man as his age was merely 24 but had a very unique talent for producing capable administrative reforms. William Pitt was the person under whose guidance this act was eventually passed in the year 1784.

Portrait of the Right Honourable William Pitt the Younger (1759-1806)

John Hoppner, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Historical background

The regulating Act of 1773 was analysed by the investigation of the Select and Secret Committee. These investigations were provided by analysing the bond that was shared by the Supreme Court of India and the Bengal Council. There was an investigation that was conducted by the Secret Committee to look into the causes that were eventually a factor leading to the war with the Marathas. The major reason to conduct this investigation was the financial distress that plunged the company into more debt.

This is the reason behind the fact that was able to state the causes which finally led to the formation of the act. Lastly, the act was able to share the control of the entire Indian subcontinent between the English East India Company and the Government of the United Kingdom. The mutual share over the control of India was very significant and was able to last for another year after the Revolt of Indian Independence.

Objectives and provisions

The objective was to use the company of this island nation as an extension of the monarchy that was ruling the United Kingdom. This was the reason behind the fact that gives substantial evidence about the aspects of the company. The provisions of this act are used to draw a bridge between the activities of the company on the grounds of politics and corporatisation. The aspect of signing various affairs with the public and the administration of the company was brought under the tabs of the monarchy.

Figure 1: Key provisions of the Pitt’s Act, 1784

There was a Board of Control that was established as a formal body to monitor these proceedings conducted by the company. One of the most important key provisions of the company was that the Board was headed by a Secretary of the State. In the same manner, the company was placing a Board of Directors as their representative. These were some of the provisions that are important to the explanation of the Pitt’s India Act sanctioned in the last decades of the 18th century.

Significance of Pitt’s India Act

The significance of Pitt’s India Act is classified into two factors. These are some of the significant changes that were brought to the Indian subcontinent. All of these changes were able to bring the nation under the thumb of the British monarchy.

The first significance is associated with the causes on the grounds of a double governing system. In this event, the monarchy ruling over the United Kingdom was controlling India. The other body from the island nation was the EIC which was looking over various aspects apart from the grounds of public affairs and general administration.

The second factor was going to play a very significant role in bringing the monarchy much closer to the country. One of the most credible examples that are going to back this claim is the lands occupied by the company were called by a different name. The name was that these lands were not territories of the EIC anymore. On the contrary, they were supposed to be the possessions of the British monarchy. This is the way the Government used the company as a puppet to manage and regulate different kinds of laws associated with the welfare of India.

Issues regarding Pitt’s India Act

The issues that were found in the Act passed under the signatory of Prime Minister William Pitt are as follows

The Governor General is able to act on the initiatives of their own choice. They can do this by placing the two masters in a pit to face one another.

The Governor General was not able to veto some decisions taken by the monarchy of the United Kingdom. This is the major factor that was able to render the Governor General ineffective.

There were no clear boundaries between the powers that were divided between the three major bodies. Therefore, the Court of Directors, Board of Control and the Governor General of India were not able to find a clear objective.

There were several incidents of nepotism that got the Board of Control accused of the same incidents. The people who used to live in places that were occupied by the invaders from the United Kingdom were not treated properly. Thus such demands were made and the government was forced to take actions that made them incur a few losses on financial resources on the way.


The tutorial is here to explain the provisions and significance of the act devised and passed under the rule of William Pitt. The act was able to bring the government of these Englishmen closer to the country of India. The act had some severe defects that was bringing vehement accuses to the British Government for the following nepotism. These are the reason why this act was brought to an end after the first war of Indian independence. There is an image that is going to help the learners in a proper way to understand the concept clearly.

Q1. What was the authority given to the Court of Directors?

The authority was to represent the EIC at various meetings. They were the ones who used to report to the Crown on administration and public affairs.

Q2. What happened to the officials of the Court of Directors who were found to be corrupt?

The corrupt members of the Court used to get charged with severe punishments. They were usually put in prison and stripped of all their possessions in the country.

Q3. When was the Act passed?

The act was passed in the year 1784 by Prime Minister William Pitts.

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