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What are NFTs?

NFTs (Non-Fungible Tokens) are a type of cryptographic asset that represent unique units of value. They are unlike other tokens such as Bitcoin and Ethereum which are fungible, meaning that each unit is interchangeable with another. This makes them perfect for representing digital assets like collectibles, game items, or real estate. Nowadays there are many online platforms that are helping their users to gain

nft profit


NFTs can be stored on blockchain platforms like Ethereum and used to transfer ownership between users. They can also be used to represent rights and permissions within decentralized applications. For example, an NFT might be used to represent the voting power of a user in a Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO).

How do NFTs work?

NFTs are created by issuing a unique cryptographic key to represent the asset. This key is used to control the ownership of the NFT and can be transferred between users. The NFTs are stored on a blockchain platform where they are tracked and verified by the network.

What are some examples of NFTs?

Some examples of NFTs include digital collectibles like CryptoKitties, game items like swords and armor in games like Blockchain Cuties, and real estate like property on the Ethereum blockchain.

How can I use NFTs?

There are many ways to use NFTs. Some common applications include:

-Transferring ownership of digital assets between users.

-Representing rights and permissions within decentralized applications.

-Tracking the provenance of

digital assets


-Creating digital collectibles.

-Building online marketplaces for NFTs.

What are the benefits of NFTs?

The benefits of NFTs include:

-Security: NFTs are stored on a blockchain platform where they are tracked and verified by the network. This makes them secure and difficult to forge.

-Transparency: The ownership of an NFT is transparent and can be verified by anyone on the blockchain.

-Fungibility: Unlike other tokens such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, NFTs are not fungible meaning that each unit is unique. This makes them perfect for representing digital assets like collectibles, game items, or real estate.

-Portability: NFTs can be transferred between users easily and quickly. This makes them ideal for use in digital applications.

-Decentralization: NFTs are decentralized and not controlled by any central authority. This makes them secure.

How to Invest in NFTs?

When it comes to investing in NFTs, there are a few things that you need to take into account. Firstly, you need to decide what kind of NFTs you want to invest in. There is a range of different options available, from digital collectibles to tokens that represent real-world assets.

Once you’ve decided on the type of NFTs you want to invest in, you need to think about how you’re going to store them. Each type of NFT has its own storage requirements, so make sure you research this before investing.

Finally, you need to think about how you’re going to trade your NFTs. There are a number of different platforms available, so you need to find one that suits your needs.

With these things in mind, investing in NFTs can be a great way to diversify your portfolio and increase your chances of generating returns. So, if you’re thinking about investing in NFTs, make sure you follow these tips!

Risks Involved in NFTs Investment

It is important for investors to be aware of the risks involved in investing in NFTs. One of the main risks is that the value of NFTs can be impacted by a variety of factors, including regulatory changes, technology changes, or simply because the market for NFTs grows or shrinks.

Additionally, there is always a risk that an investor could lose their entire investment if the holder of an NFT decides to sell it. This could occur if the holder is not able to find a buyer at a price they are willing to accept, or if the holder becomes subject to a


that results in the theft of their tokens.

Finally, investors should be aware that there is also risk associated with holding and trading NFTs on exchanges, as these exchanges may be hacked or experience other technical issues that could result in the loss of funds. As with any type of investment, it is important for investors to do their own research and understand the risks before deciding to invest in NFTs.


There are a number of risks involved in investing in NFTs, including the risk that the value of NFTs could be impacted by a variety of factors, the risk that an investor could lose their entire investment, and the risk associated with holding and trading NFTs on exchanges. Investors should do their own research to understand these risks before deciding to invest in NFTs.

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What Are Containers? Uses, Benefits, The Cloud & Devops

In the simplest terms, a container is a “wrapper” that allows software to travel between operating environments. Container technology greatly speeds and enhances cloud computing development.

Cloud computing companies hail containers as a powerful tool for developing, managing and migrating applications and software components from one system or environment to another.

Protecting your company’s data is critical. Cloud storage with automated backup is scalable, flexible and provides peace of mind. Cobalt Iron’s enterprise-grade backup and recovery solution is known for its hands-free automation and reliability, at a lower cost. Cloud backup that just works.


Containers create a unique virtual space – called a “sandbox” – that separates an application from others in the same environment. This abstraction process ensures that the software code doesn’t connect to other virtualized spaces and systems. Containers typically provide a library of content and tools, usually available via a toolbar. Containers and microservices often work together.

Containers are deployed in one of two ways: by creating an image inside a container, or using a pre-made image.

It’s important for organizations to weigh cloud containers versus virtual machines. In some cases, containers may not provide required functionality because of their dependency on a host or server running a specific OS. They can also be affected by vulnerabilities in the OS kernel.

Along with open source Kubernetes or another orchestration platform, organizations can address a number of important tasks using containers. For example:

It’s possible to develop software on a desktop or laptop and transfer the application and data to a test environment.

Developers and IT staff can often move applications from one cloud platform to another without disruption.

Organizations can migrate applications and data from a physical computing device such as a PC or Mac laptop to a virtual machine running (VM) in a public or private cloud.

Containers simplify moving applications from a production environment to a service environment.

During development or testing, an application crash or container that fails will affect only the specific container the code resides in rather than other applications or the entire VM. This allows a service to continue operating without a noticeable impact.

Cloud containers have grown enormously in popularity since Docker introduced a platform in 2013. According to 451 Research, the application container market is projected to grow from $762 million in 2024 to $2.7 billion by 2023.

A Forrester report from Q4 2023 noted that 58 percent of developers report that their companies currently use containers or plan to use containers in the next 12 months.

Along with the many tasks they perform, containers and microservices offer a number of compelling benefits to enterprise environments:

A major argument for containers in the clouds versus virtual machines debate is they consume relatively small amounts of disk space and memory.

Because these components virtualize applications in specific “containers,” they create an isolation boundary at the application level. This means that if a crash, breakdown or security breach occurs within a container, the virtual machine and other applications aren’t affected.

Similarly, because containers remain isolated from one another, other applications and software running on the same OS or virtual machine are not impacted by bugs and compatibility issues.

Cloud containers are highly flexible and portable. They can be moved, scaled and reorganized quickly to match changing needs of teams and an enterprise. This also makes it easier for developers to test software across multiple environments.

Users, including development teams, can cluster multiple containers and create microservices that allow these groups to update any application individually rather than pulling the entire group of applications offline for an update.

Cloud containers often reduce costs by streamlining workflows, reducing downtime, and reducing the impact of a bug or breach.

Containers are a natural fit for many organizations with development teams deploying applications into the cloud. Among the benefits:

Developers can make tweaks, adjustments and updates – and deploy the new or updated software as quickly as they complete the changes. This speed increase, as well as the ability to populate the update across systems, is critical within cloud frameworks.

Cloud containers and microservices create a consistent and predictable environment, along with familiar tools and resources. Consequently, tasks such as debugging code and diagnosing errors are greatly reduced, regardless of where the application resides. Developers can spend more time on productive tasks, including adding and improving features in software.

As organizations look to boost speed, often through DevOps and other agile development frameworks, a “run anywhere” approach is critical. Regardless of the operating system, programming language or environment in which the application will run, containers deliver an approach and framework that does not vary across environments. This includes bare metal, clouds, different operating systems and devices.

As organizations look to improve processes and innovate, it’s important to reduce overhead that results from manual and inefficient processes. A big benefit of containers is the ability to automate and orchestrate numerous tasks.

Today, container management software products from companies like Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud and Microsoft Azure allow developers to orchestrate and extend containers into the cloud. These gains revolve around key areas:

Automated rollouts and roll backs. Updates and changes take place without the need for constant oversight and involvement. Staff can devote more time to software improvements and innovation.

Health monitoring. Container orchestration tools can spot bad code and prevent it from being deployed. They also can monitor systems and applications – and restart containers that stall or crash.

Management. Containers allow an organization to declaratively manage resources, including what resources are replicated and retired.

Flexibility. It’s possible to deploy containers anywhere, including hybrid deployments that involve different operating systems, systems and clouds.

Containers make it easier to produce and host applications inside portable environments. DevOps establishes a framework for developing software faster and in a more iterative way. These two approaches are a good fit for one another because, together, they allow organizations to produce and update software code in a more streamlined and efficient manner—while improving security.

There are three major benefits to combining containers and DevOps.

A more robust development framework. Containers simplify and automate many of the tasks involved with DevOps. They eliminate numerous manual processes, reduce errors and, ultimately speed development and deployment.

Streamlined updates. DevOps is all about iterative and incremental updates. Containers make it much easier to achieve goals surrounding speed and quality metrics by providing microservices. It’s possible to handle tasks and address problems in containers without disrupting the overall flow of development.

Support across platforms and frameworks. Today, organizations support multiple software programming languages, operating systems, cloud services and devices. Containers serve as a bridge because they are agnostic and work across different environments. In some cases, it’s also possible to move a container from one environment to another.

In software development around containers, there’s a growing focus on using more modular and flexible approach, including DevOps. In the coming years, it’s likely that these tools will gain a still larger community of developers working on them – making them that much more powerful.

Basics Linux/Unix Commands With Examples & Syntax (List)

File Management becomes easy if you know the right basic command in Linux.

Sometimes, commands are also referred as “programs” since whenever you run a command, it’s the corresponding program code, written for the command, which is being executed.

Let’s learn the must know Linux basic commands with examples:

Listing files (ls)

If you want to see the list of files on your UNIX or Linux system, use the ‘ls’ command.

It shows the files /directories in your current directory.


Directories are denoted in blue color.

Files are denoted in white.

You will find similar color schemes in different flavors of Linux.

Suppose, your “Music” folder has following sub-directories and files.

You can use ‘ls -R’ to shows all the files not only in directories but also subdirectories

NOTE: These Linux basics commands are case-sensitive. If you enter, “ls – r” you will get an error.

‘ls -al’ gives detailed information of the files. The command provides information in a columnar format. The columns contain the following information:

1st Column

File type and access permissions

2nd Column

# of HardLinks to the File

3rd Column

Owner and the creator of the file

4th Column

Group of the owner

5th Column

File size in Bytes

6th Column

Date and Time

7th Column

Directory or File name

Let’s see an example –

Listing Hidden Files

Hidden items in UNIX/Linux begin with –

at the start, of the file or directory.

at the start, of the file or directory.

Any Directory/file starting with a ‘.’ will not be seen unless you request for it. To view hidden files, use the command.

ls -a

Creating & Viewing Files

The ‘cat’ server command is used to display text files. It can also be used for copying, combining and creating new text files. Let’s see how it works.

To create a new file, use the command

Add content

Press ‘ctrl + d’ to return to command prompt.

How to create and view files in Linux/Unix

To view a file, use the command –

cat filename

Let’s see the file we just created –

Let’s see another file sample2

The syntax to combine 2 files is –

Let’s combine sample 1 and sample 2.

As soon as you insert this command and hit enter, the files are concatenated, but you do not see a result. This is because Bash Shell (Terminal) is silent type. Shell Commands will never give you a confirmation message like “OK” or “Command Successfully Executed”. It will only show a message when something goes wrong or when an error has occurred.

To view the new combo file “sample” use the command

cat sample

Note: Only text files can be displayed and combined using this command.

Deleting Files

The ‘rm’ command removes files from the system without confirmation.

To remove a file use syntax –

rm filename

How to delete files using Linux/Unix Commands

Moving and Re-naming files

To move a file, use the command.

mv filename new_file_location

Suppose we want to move the file “sample2” to location /home/guru99/Documents. Executing the command

mv sample2 /home/guru99/Documents

mv command needs super user permission. Currently, we are executing the command as a standard user. Hence we get the above error. To overcome the error use command.

sudo command_you_want_to_execute

Sudo program allows regular users to run programs with the security privileges of the superuser or root.

Sudo command will ask for password authentication. Though, you do not need to know the root password. You can supply your own password. After authentication, the system will invoke the requested command.

Sudo maintains a log of each command run. System administrators can trackback the person responsible for undesirable changes in the system.

guru99@VirtualBox:~$ sudo mv sample2 /home/quru99/Documents [sudo] password for guru99: **** guru99@VirtualBox:~$

For renaming file:

mv filename newfilename

NOTE: By default, the password you entered for sudo is retained for 15 minutes per terminal. This eliminates the need of entering the password time and again.

You only need root/sudo privileges, only if the command involves files or directories not owned by the user or group running the commands

Directory Manipulations

Directory Manipulation in Linux/Unix

Enough with File manipulations! Let’s learn some directory manipulation Linux commands with examples and syntax.

Creating Directories

Directories can be created on a Linux operating system using the following command

mkdir directoryname

This command will create a subdirectory in your present working directory, which is usually your “Home Directory”.

For example,

mkdir mydirectory

If you want to create a directory in a different location other than ‘Home directory’, you could use the following command –


For example:

mkdir /tmp/MUSIC

will create a directory ‘Music’ under ‘/tmp’ directory

You can also create more than one directory at a time.

Removing Directories

To remove a directory, use the command –

rmdir directoryname


rmdir mydirectory

will delete the directory mydirectory

Tip: Ensure that there is no file / sub-directory under the directory that you want to delete. Delete the files/sub-directory first before deleting the parent directory.

Renaming Directory

The ‘mv’ (move) command (covered earlier) can also be used for renaming directories. Use the below-given format:

mv directoryname newdirectoryname

Let us try it:

How to rename a directory using Linux/Unix Commands

Other Important Commands The ‘Man’ command

Man stands for manual which is a reference book of a Linux operating system. It is similar to HELP file found in popular software.

To get help on any command that you do not understand, you can type


The terminal would open the manual page for that command.

For an example, if we type man man and hit enter; terminal would give us information on man command

The History Command

History command shows all the basic commands in Linux that you have used in the past for the current terminal session. This can help you refer to the old commands you have entered and re-used them in your operations again.

The clear command

This command clears all the clutter on the terminal and gives you a clean window to work on, just like when you launch the terminal.

Pasting commands into the terminal

Many times you would have to type in long commands on the Terminal. Well, it can be annoying at times, and if you want to avoid such a situation then copy, pasting the commands can come to rescue.

Printing in Unix/Linux

How to print a file using Linux/Unix commands

Let’s try out some Linux basic commands with examples that can print files in a format you want. What more, your original file does not get affected at all by the formatting that you do. Let us learn about these commands and their use.

‘pr’ command

This command helps in formatting the file for printing on the terminal. There are many Linux terminal commands available with this command which help in making desired format changes on file. The most used ‘pr’ Unix commands with examples are listed below.

Option Function


Divides the data into ‘x’ columns

-h “header”

Assigns “header” value as the report header


Does not print the header and top/bottom margins


Double spaces the output file


Denotes all line with numbers

-l page length

Defines the lines (page length) in a page. Default is 56

-o margin

Formats the page by the margin number

Let us try some of the options and study their effects.

Dividing data into columns

‘Tools’ is a file (shown below).

We want its content to be arranged in three columns. The syntax for the same would be:

pr -x Filename

The ‘-x’ option with the ‘pr’ command divides the data into x columns.

Assigning a header

The syntax is:

pr -h "Header" Filename

The ‘-h’ options assigns “header” value as the report header.

As shown above, we have arranged the file in 3 columns and assigned a header

Denoting all lines with numbers

The syntax is:

pr -n Filename

This command denotes all the lines in the file with numbers.

These are some of the ‘pr’ command options that you can use to modify the file format.

Printing a file

Once you are done with the formatting, and it is time for you to get a hard copy of the file, you need to use the following command:

lp Filename


lpr Filename

In case you want to print multiple copies of the file, you can use the number modifier.

In case you have multiple printers configured, you can specify a particular printer using the Printer modifier

Installing Software

In windows, the installation of a program is done by running the chúng tôi file. The installation bundle contains the program as well various dependent components required to run the program correctly.

Using Linux/Unix basic commands, installation files in Linux are distributed as packages. But the package contains only the program itself. Any dependent components will have to be installed separately which are usually available as packages themselves.

You can use the apt commands to install or remove a package. Let’s update all the installed packages in our system using command –

sudo apt-get update

The easy and popular way to install programs on Ubuntu is by using the Software center as most of the software packages are available on it and it is far more secure than the files downloaded from the internet.

Also Check:- Linux Command Cheat Sheet

Linux Mail Command

For sending mails through a terminal, you will need to install packages ‘mailutils’.

The command syntax is –

sudo apt-get install packagename

Once done, you can then use the following syntax for sending an email.

mail -s 'subject' -c 'cc-address' -b 'bcc-address' 'to-address'

This will look like:

Press Cntrl+D you are finished writing the mail. The mail will be sent to the mentioned address.


You can format and print a file directly from the terminal. The formatting you do on the files does not affect the file contents

In Unix/Linux, software is installed in the form of packages. A package contains the program itself. Any dependent component needs to be downloaded separately.

You can also send e-mails from terminal using the ‘mail’ network commands. It is very useful Linux command.

Linux Command List

Below is a Cheat Sheet of Linux/ Unix basic commands with examples that we have learned in this Linux commands tutorial

Command Description

ls Lists all files and directories in the present working directory

ls – R

Lists files in sub-directories as well

ls – a

Lists hidden files as well

ls – al

Lists files and directories with detailed information like permissions, size, owner, etc.

Creates a new file

cat filename

Displays the file content

Joins two files (file1, file2) and stores the output in a new file (file3)

mv file “new file path”

Moves the files to the new location

mv filename new_file_name

Renames the file to a new filename


Allows regular users to run programs with the security privileges of the superuser or root

rm filename

Deletes a file


Gives help information on a command


Gives a list of all past basic Linux commands list typed in the current terminal session


Clears the terminal

mkdir directoryname

Creates a new directory in the present working directory or a at the specified path


Deletes a directory


Renames a directory

pr -x

Divides the file into x columns

pr -h

Assigns a header to the file

pr -n

Denotes the file with Line Numbers

lpr c

Prints “c” copies of the File

lp -d

lpr -P

Specifies name of the printer


Command used to install and update packages

mail -s ‘subject’ -c ‘cc-address’ -b ‘bcc-address’ ‘to-address’

Command to send email

mail -s “Subject” to-address < Filename

Command to send email with attachment

Download Linux Tutorial PDF

What Is Microsoft Powershell? Functions And Uses

Instead, you can use a single line of code to complete complex procedures with finesse and ease. This might seem like a dream too good to be true, but it’s not.

Welcome to the world of Microsoft PowerShell!

Microsoft PowerShell is a modern task-based command-line shell, scripting language, and configuration management framework. It’s built on the .NET framework, which allows power users to control and automate the administration of operating systems and apps using code.

Initially built for Windows, PowerShell has evolved into an open-source project, making it accessible for installation on various platforms, including Windows, Linux, and macOS.

in this article, we’ll delve deep into the endless potential of Microsoft PowerShell. We’ll unlock the secrets behind cmdlets, scripts, and pipelines and demonstrate how you can leverage PowerShell to simplify your tasks and supercharge your productivity.

Let’s take a closer look at this powerful tool!

Microsoft PowerShell is a powerful open-source, cross-platform task automation and configuration management solution originally developed by Microsoft. Built on the .NET framework, PowerShell combines the best features of popular shells, providing a modern command shell experience.

One key aspect that sets PowerShell apart from traditional shells is its ability to accept and return .NET objects rather than just text. This functionality allows users to harness the power of .NET libraries when scripting, making complex tasks and automation more streamlined.

In recent updates, such as Windows 11 22H2, the default app used to host console windows has been changed to Windows Terminal. This means that Command Prompt, Windows PowerShell, WSL, and other console apps can now run within an instance of Windows Terminal!

Wide range of customizable scripts and commands suitable for different IT and development needs. It’s built on a Command Line Interface (CLI) that lets you automate repetitive tasks, manage remote machines, etc., using code.

Includes an integrated scripting environment (ISE) which serves as a user interface for creating, editing, and executing PowerShell scripts and commands. You can also use common Integrated Development Environments (IDE), like Visual Studio Code, to create and run PowerShell scripts.

Supports modules and command sets that are reusable and follow a common structure. These modules enhance its functionality and enable users to create and deploy specific solutions tailored to their requirements.

Features Desired State Configuration (DSC), which is a management tool within the solution that allows users to define, deploy, and maintain consistent configurations across various environments.

Additionally, the security features within PowerShell ensure that scripts and cmdlets are executed in a secure environment. It has a robust permissions system and supports various security protocols, including Secure Shell (SSH) for remote access.

This makes PowerShell an ideal tool for managing and automating numerous administrative tasks across local and remote systems.

This includes Azure, Microsoft’s cloud computing service, which has a dedicated Azure PowerShell module for automating tasks related to Azure resources.

Now that we’ve gone over the basics, let’s discuss how you can install and set up PowerShell in the next section!

To get started with PowerShell, you can download the appropriate version for your operating system from various official repositories. Microsoft and other communities also provide extensive resources that you can use to learn how to use PowerShell effectively.

First, let’s look at how you can install it on different operating systems.

Supported versions of Windows provide multiple ways to install PowerShell. Each method supports different scenarios and workflows. Choose the method that best suits your needs.

Some of these methods include:

For Windows clients, the recommended way to install PowerShell is by using Winget. It’s a package manager that comes bundled with Windows 11 and certain versions of Windows 10.

To install PowerShell with it Winget, follow these steps:

Open Command Prompt by using the Windows + R shortcut, then typing cmd in the box.

Next, type the following command into the cmd window to search for the PowerShell package.winget search Microsoft.Powershell

The command will return the latest versions of PowerShell available. You can install either of them using either of the two commands below.winget install --id Microsoft.Powershell --source winget winget install --id Microsoft.Powershell.Preview --source winget

The first command will install the latest stable version of PowerShell on your machine, while the second will install the Preview(beta) version on your PC.

You can download Powershell’s MSI package from GitHub and install it on your machine just like any other program. Here is a link to the package release page.

Once you download the right version for your PC, install it. Then, once the installation is complete, you’ll be able to access the app through the start menu.

This method is best for beginners because it’ll automatically update PowerShell regularly and ensure that you always have the latest stable version installed on your computer.

However, you should know that using this method will run PowerShell in an application sandbox that virtualizes access to some systems. Changes to the virtualized file system won’t persist outside of the sandbox.

PowerShell can also be installed on macOS. Here’s a brief overview of the two main PowerShell installation processes for achieving this in Apple devices:

Homebrew is macOS’s native package manager, and you can easily use it to install Powershell from the command line. Here’s how:

Open up the terminal. Make sure you have Homebrew installed.

To install the latest stable version of PowerShell, run the command belowbrew install --cask powershell

To install the preview version, run the following commands:brew tap homebrew/cask-versionsbrew install --cask powershell-preview

To update PowerShell, you can run either of the commands:brew update brew upgrade powershell--cask This update the stable versionbrew update brew upgrade powershell-preview --cask This will updtae the rpreview version

PowerShell can be installed on various Linux distributions. To get started, visit the official PowerShell installation page from Microsoft and follow the instructions for your specific distribution.

After completing the installation on your chosen platform, you can start using PowerShell by launching the corresponding command-line application.

On Windows, you can launch PowerShell from Windows Terminal or the start menu.

On macOS and Linux, you can launch it from the Terminal by running the pwsh command.

In this section, we’ll explore the features and functionalities of PowerShell. This versatile tool has revolutionized task automation and configuration management in Windows environments, but its potential applications extend far beyond these domains.

A cmdlet is a single, lightweight command used to perform tasks in a PowerShell environment. They are specialized .NET classes that perform tasks by accessing data stores, processes, or other system resources.

After performing the tasks, they return a .NET object that can be piped into another cmdlet. PowerShell provides a robust command-line interface with history, tab completion, and command prediction.

It utilizes commands and cmdlets to perform tasks in the command prompt. A common example is the Test-Connection cmdlet used to test a PC’s connectivity.

You can also check out this cmdlet for creating a new directory using PowerShell.

A PowerShell function is another way of running commands in PowerShell, similar to cmdlets. It’s made up of PowerShell statement(s) intended to perform a specific task, grouped under a specific name.

To run the function, all you have to do is to call the function name on the cli. Just like cmdlets, functions can also take in parameters and return data.

Functions are very helpful for performing repetitive tasks in PowerShell. With them, you can write the task’s logic once in the function and call it several times.

Here’s an example of a simple function that takes in your name and greets you:

function Get-Name { param( [string] $name ) Write-Host "Hello $name!" }

PowerShell includes a powerful scripting language built on .NET Core, allowing users to create scripts and automate tasks.

Users can define functions and classes to encapsulate reusable logic within a PowerShell script or define complex data structures.

Using scripts and automation helps streamline administration tasks and manage systems more efficiently.

Modules are a way to organize and distribute PowerShell tools. They are self-contained packages containing cmdlets, functions, aliases, providers, and other resources required for their functionality.

Users can import modules to extend the functionality of PowerShell, making it a highly extensible platform. For example, you can install Power Bi cmdlets on Windows PowerShell.

You can learn how to do this in our video on How To Install And Use Windows PowerShell Cmdlets For Power BI:

PowerShell Desired State Configuration (DSC) is a configuration management platform built on PowerShell.

It allows administrators to define the desired state of a system and automates the process of bringing the system to that state.

DSC uses a declarative syntax called configuration to describe the desired state and ensures systems remain compliant with desired configurations. You can use the Get-DscResource cmdlet to get the available resource.

Azure PowerShell is a set of modules that enable administrators to manage Azure resources through PowerShell cmdlets.

It provides a simplified and automated way to perform administration tasks within Azure environments.

Users can easily manage virtual machines, storage accounts, databases, and other Azure resources using the familiar PowerShell language.

PowerShell remoting provides a means for system administrators to run PowerShell commands on remote machines. Using this feature, they can retrieve data, run commands or configure one or more machines across a network.

To run commands remotely, PowerShell supports many remoting protocols such as SSH, RPC (Only Windows), WMI, and WS-Management.

Windows PowerShell Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE) is a graphical host application for Windows PowerShell. It provides a user-friendly interface to work with PowerShell scripts and commands.

ISE facilitates the creation, execution, debugging, and testing of PowerShell scripts in a single Windows-based graphical user interface (GUI). It offers several features, such as:

Syntax coloring: Color-coding for different elements in scripts, like commands, parameters, and variables, enhancing readability.

IntelliSense: Auto-completion of commands and parameters based on the context, reducing the possibility of errors.

Tabbed Interface: Multiple script tabs for working on various files simultaneously.

Split-pane view: Script Pane and Console Pane are displayed side-by-side, allowing users to write and execute scripts concurrently.

Context-sensitive help: Quick access to relevant help documentation based on the current selection.

While ISE was the primary PowerShell development environment in the past, it’s important to note that it is now in maintenance mode.

Microsoft recommends using Visual Studio Code with the PowerShell extension for a more feature-rich and updated experience.

Writing a script in ISE is quite easy. Here’s how you can write a simple ISE script:

Open the PowerShell ISE. To do that, type in the following:powershell_ise

In the console that opens, type in the followingWrite-Host 'Hello Powershell world!'

Save the file somewhere on your PC. Make sure you remember the file path.

Note: To run scripts on your machine, you might need to change the Execution Policy first. The default policy restricts scripts from running on your local machine, so you will need to change it to RemoteSigned.

You can do this by running this command below in PowerShell or cmd admin:

Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned

In the menu that comes up, select Y to change the policy.

Debugging and testing scripts are essential for ensuring functionality and efficiency. Windows PowerShell ISE provides useful debugging features to simplify the process:

Breakpoints: Set breakpoints to pause script execution at specific lines, making it easier to identify issues within the script.

Step-through debugging: Execute the script line by line or step over functions and modules to observe script behavior.

Variable monitoring: In the interactive console, inspect and modify variables to observe changes in script output.

Error indication: Highlighting errors in the script, with explanations and suggestions on how to fix them.

ISE’s integrated features allow users to quickly identify problems, test solutions, and verify script functionality before deploying it in a production environment.

In an era where cybersecurity is of paramount importance, understanding and implementing security best practices for any computing platform or language is crucial. PowerShell, a powerful scripting language and automation framework from Microsoft, is no exception.

This section will delve into the comprehensive approach towards security considerations for PowerShell, focusing on strategies to harden the environment, secure scripts, and minimize potential attack vectors.

PowerShell’s execution policy is a safety feature that controls the conditions under which configuration files and scripts are loaded and executed. This helps prevent the execution of malicious scripts.

You can also use Group Policy settings to set execution policies for computers and users, but these policies only apply to the Windows platform. To enhance security further, always ensure to sign your scripts after having them vetted before importing them for usage.

Managing PowerShell modules effectively is essential for both security and functionality. The SecretManagement module, for example, provides a useful way to store and manage secrets (like API keys and credentials), while preventing unauthorized access.

To manage your modules, consider the following best practices:

Use a version control system (e.g., Git) to track and manage module changes

Regularly update your modules to receive the latest security patches and features

Use PSScriptAnalyzer to examine your modules for potential issues and follow its recommendations

When writing PowerShell scripts, adhering to best practices can improve security, maintainability, and performance. A few key practices to follow include:

Abstract away concepts as much as possible to simplify your scripts.

Avoid creating a parameter if you can come up with the value in the code.

Restrict the user from running unnecessary commands if they don’t have to

Use PSScriptAnalyzer to analyze your scripts and improve their quality

PowerShell is a powerful tool for system administration and automation. To help you learn and master PowerShell, it’s essential to be aware of the various resources and community platforms available.

In addition to Microsoft’s official resources, the PowerShell community plays a significant role in its development and support. This section will provide you with information on official documentation, community websites, and forums, as well as social media and community interactions.

PowerShell Gallery: The PowerShell Gallery is a central repository for PowerShell modules, making it easy to find useful scripts and tools shared by fellow PowerShell developers. It’s also a reliable platform for publishing your own modules.

chúng tôi : chúng tôi is a community-driven, non-profit organization dedicated to promoting PowerShell education. They provide free resources, including webinars, ebooks, and articles.

Tech Community: The Microsoft Tech Community is a forum where you can ask questions, share insights, and learn from industry experts on a wide array of Microsoft products, including PowerShell.

Stack Overflow: On Stack Overflow, PowerShell developers can ask and answer questions, helping each other solve scripting challenges.

r/PowerShell: The r/PowerShell subreddit is a popular forum where PowerShell users share scripts, solutions, and best practices.

Slack: A dedicated PowerShell Slack workspace hosts community discussions and allows users to collaborate on projects.

Discord: The PowerShell Discord server serves as yet another platform for users to engage in conversations, ask questions, and share resources.

Spiceworks: This PowerShell community on Spiceworks covers topics related to PowerShell, offers tips, tricks, and shares scripts.

GitHub: Many PowerShell projects are hosted on GitHub. You can find repositories with useful scripts, tools, and modules, as well as contribute to open-source initiatives.

As we wrap up our exploration of PowerShell, it becomes clear that this scripting language is an essential component of modern IT environments. With its rich set of features, PowerShell empowers users to tackle complex tasks with ease.

From system administration to managing cloud resources, PowerShell provides the flexibility and control needed to navigate the ever-evolving technological landscape.

Whether you’re a seasoned IT professional or a beginner, learning PowerShell opens up a world of possibilities for streamlining operations and maximizing productivity.

Fancy learning more about PowerShell? Check out this great article on PowerShell Global Variables.

Some common commands work, while others do not. Commands like touch, sudo, ifconfig do not work in PowerShell.

However, commands like ls, pwd, echo, rm, etc., work in PowerShell.

Some basic PowerShell commands include:

Get-ChildItem lists items in a directory

New-Item creates a new item, such as a file or directory

Remove-Item deletes an item

Rename-Item changes the name of an item

You can check out more cmdlets in this article on 10 PowerShell Examples You Need to Know. You can also list all the commands installed on your machine using the Get-Command cmdlet.

PowerShell comes pre-installed in Windows 10 and 11. You can open it as mentioned in the “How to Install and Set Up PowerShell” section.

Ketosis – Symptoms, Benefits, Risks, And More

Ketosis is a condition in which the ketone levels of the body rise. These ketones are derived from fats. The body uses the ketones as a source of energy in replacement to glucose. The condition of ketosis develops when a person is following a very low-carb diet. Some studies show that ketosis can improve blood sugar levels and keep the body away from disorders such as seizures. However, the keto diet is not suitable for everyone.

Doctors recommend ketosis for wight loss management, or for the treatment of chronic illnesses. The keto diet can produce side-effects because of the nutrient-deficiencies it puts the body into. In this tutorial, we will discuss the impact of keto diet on health conditions, called ketosis.

What is Ketosis?

Ketosis is a metabolic state in which the body burns fat for fuel instead of carbohydrates. It occurs when the body does not have enough carbohydrates available to burn for energy release which results in the breakdown of stored fat into molecules called ketones. These ketones can be used as an alternative energy source.

Symptoms of Ketosis

A lot of people who follow a ketogenic diet and want to track their progress can keep a check on the following symptoms −

Bad Breath − People following a ketogenic diet can notice bad breath as a key symptom. This condition occurs due to the accumulation of a ketone called acetone.

Nausea − People with a ketogenic diet plan may experience frequent nausea, stomach cramps, bloating, and discomfort. This is because the body is adjusting to the new way of processing fats for energy instead of carbohydrates.

Brain Fog − Individuals following ketogenic diet plans have reported instances of brain fog and confusion.

Weight Loss − One of the key reasons for starting a keto diet in the first place is to lose weight. In ketosis, the body loses weight considerably.

Increased Thirst and Dry Mouth − Another frequently reported symptom of following a ketogenic diet is increased thirst and mouth dryness. When the body is in the state of ketosis, it produces ketones, which can make the blood more acidic. The kidneys work to remove excess ketones from the blood, which can lead to an increase in urine production and dehydration. This, in turn, can cause increased thirst.

Constipation − As the body gets used to digesting more fats than carbs, people following a ketogenic diet may experience dehydration and constipation. Constipation is one of the major symptoms of ketosis.

Insomnia − People with a ketogenic diet plan have also reported sleeping disorders like insomnia.

It’s important to note that not everyone will experience all of these symptoms because these symptoms are based on the studies and data collected by researchers across the world.

Benefits of Ketosis

Some research also suggests that a ketogenic diet may be beneficial for certain neurological conditions, such as epilepsy, and may have anti-inflammatory effects. However, it is important to note that more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of following a ketogenic diet. Here is a list of benefits of ketosis.

Improves Neurological Disorders

Ketosis can contribute towards the treatment of neurological disorders like epilepsy. Epilepsy is a condition in which the patient suffers recurring seizures. Although medication is available for the treatment of epilepsy, in case, there is medical management failure, a ketogenic diet can help manage the problem. According to multiple studies, individuals following a ketogenic diet had reported a significant dip in the frequency of seizure accidents.

Weight Loss

Ketogenic diet has gained popularity because of its weight loss aspect. Many celebrities and icons have opted for the trend of following this diet and using it as a fitness tool. When the body is in ketosis, it begins to break down stored fat into molecules called ketones, which can be used as an energy source. The absence of carbohydrates in the diet can lead to decreased insulin levels and a decrease in water weight.

Additionally, because the body is using fat for fuel, it may begin to break down fat stores, leading to weight loss. However, it’s important to note that weight loss on a ketogenic diet may not be as significant as weight loss on a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet. The weight loss on a ketogenic diet may be mostly due to water loss, which can be regained once an individual returns to a diet containing carbohydrates.


Before we conclude, let us consider understanding the risks and other aspects that one may have to encounter while following a ketogenic diet. A ketogenic diet can undoubtedly produce outstanding results but the side effects of this dietary plan might make our dieting endeavour potentially risky. The short-term sideeffects are −





Bad breath

A ketogenic diet can be low in certain essential vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin C, potassium, and magnesium. It is important to ensure that these deficiencies are adequately addressed through nutrient-dense foods or supplements. Kidney stones are also one potential risk that can be caused due to ketosis. Those who have a history of kidney stones should consult a healthcare professional before starting a ketogenic diet.

Ketosis can also impact the liver. A high concentration of fat is never a piece of good news for the liver and it can cause serious damage and complications to the body.

What Is Big Data? Introduction, Uses, And Applications.

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.

What is Big Data?

Big data is exactly what the name suggests, a “big” amount of data. Big Data means a data set that is large in terms of volume and is more complex. Because of the large volume and higher complexity of Big Data, traditional data processing software cannot handle it. Big Data simply means datasets containing a large amount of diverse data, both structured as well as unstructured.

Big Data allows companies to address issues they are facing in their business, and solve these problems effectively using Big Data Analytics. Companies try to identify patterns and draw insights from this sea of data so that it can be acted upon to solve the problem(s) at hand.

Although companies have been collecting a huge amount of data for decades, the concept of Big Data only gained popularity in the early-mid 2000s. Corporations realized the amount of data that was being collected on a daily basis, and the importance of using this data effectively.

5Vs of Big Data

Volume refers to the amount of data that is being collected. The data could be structured or unstructured.

Velocity refers to the rate at which data is coming in.

Variety refers to the different kinds of data (data types, formats, etc.) that is coming in for analysis. Over the last few years, 2 additional Vs of data have also emerged – value and veracity.

Value refers to the usefulness of the collected data.

Veracity refers to the quality of data that is coming in from different sources.

How Does Big Data Work?

Big Data helps corporations in making better and faster decisions, because they have more information available to solve problems, and have more data to test their hypothesis on.

Customer Experience Machine Learning

Machine Learning is another field that has benefited greatly from the increasing popularity of Big Data. More data means we have larger datasets to train our ML models, and a more trained model (generally) results in a better performance. Also, with the help of Machine Learning, we are now able to automate tasks that were earlier being done manually, all thanks to Big Data.

Demand Forecasting

Demand forecasting has become more accurate with more and more data being collected about customer purchases. This helps companies build forecasting models, that help them forecast future demand, and scale production accordingly. It helps companies, especially those in manufacturing businesses, to reduce the cost of storing unsold inventory in warehouses.

Big data also has extensive use in applications such as product development and fraud detection.

How to Store and Process Big Data?

The volume and velocity of Big Data can be huge, which makes it almost impossible to store it in traditional data warehouses. Although some and sensitive information can be stored on company premises, for most of the data, companies have to opt for cloud storage or Hadoop.

Cloud storage allows businesses to store their data on the internet with the help of a cloud service provider (like Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, or Google Cloud Platform) who takes the responsibility of managing and storing the data. The data can be accessed easily and quickly with an API.

Hadoop also does the same thing, by giving you the ability to store and process large amounts of data at once. Hadoop is an open-source software framework and is free. It allows users to process large datasets across clusters of computers.

Apache Hadoop is an open-source big data tool designed to store and process large amounts of data across multiple servers. Hadoop comprises a distributed file system (HDFS) and a MapReduce processing engine.

Apache Spark is a fast and general-purpose cluster computing system that supports in-memory processing to speed up iterative algorithms. Spark can be used for batch processing, real-time stream processing, machine learning, graph processing, and SQL queries.

Apache Cassandra is a distributed NoSQL database management system designed to handle large amounts of data across commodity servers with high availability and fault tolerance.

Apache Flink is an open-source streaming data processing framework that supports batch processing, real-time stream processing, and event-driven applications. Flink provides low-latency, high-throughput data processing with fault tolerance and scalability.

Apache Kafka is a distributed streaming platform that enables the publishing and subscribing to streams of records in real-time. Kafka is used for building real-time data pipelines and streaming applications.

Splunk is a software platform used for searching, monitoring, and analyzing machine-generated big data in real-time. Splunk collects and indexes data from various sources and provides insights into operational and business intelligence.

Talend is an open-source data integration platform that enables organizations to extract, transform, and load (ETL) data from various sources into target systems. Talend supports big data technologies such as Hadoop, Spark, Hive, Pig, and HBase.

Tableau is a data visualization and business intelligence tool that allows users to analyze and share data using interactive dashboards, reports, and charts. Tableau supports big data platforms and databases such as Hadoop, Amazon Redshift, and Google BigQuery.

Apache NiFi is a data flow management tool used for automating the movement of data between systems. NiFi supports big data technologies such as Hadoop, Spark, and Kafka and provides real-time data processing and analytics.

QlikView is a business intelligence and data visualization tool that enables users to analyze and share data using interactive dashboards, reports, and charts. QlikView supports big data platforms such as Hadoop, and provides real-time data processing and analytics.

Big Data Best Practices

To effectively manage and utilize big data, organizations should follow some best practices:

Define clear business objectives: Organizations should define clear business objectives while collecting and analyzing big data. This can help avoid wasting time and resources on irrelevant data.

Collect and store relevant data only: It is important to collect and store only the relevant data that is required for analysis. This can help reduce data storage costs and improve data processing efficiency.

Ensure data quality: It is critical to ensure data quality by removing errors, inconsistencies, and duplicates from the data before storage and processing.

Use appropriate tools and technologies: Organizations must use appropriate tools and technologies for collecting, storing, processing, and analyzing big data. This includes specialized software, hardware, and cloud-based technologies.

Establish data security and privacy policies: Big data often contains sensitive information, and therefore organizations must establish rigorous data security and privacy policies to protect this data from unauthorized access or misuse.

Leverage machine learning and artificial intelligence: Machine learning and artificial intelligence can be used to identify patterns and predict future trends in big data. Organizations must leverage these technologies to gain actionable insights from their data.

Focus on data visualization: Data visualization can simplify complex data into intuitive visual formats such as graphs or charts, making it easier for decision-makers to understand and act upon the insights derived from big data.


1. Data Growth

Managing datasets having terabytes of information can be a big challenge for companies. As datasets grow in size, storing them not only becomes a challenge but also becomes an expensive affair for companies.

To overcome this, companies are now starting to pay attention to data compression and de-duplication. Data compression reduces the number of bits that the data needs, resulting in a reduction in space being consumed. Data de-duplication is the process of making sure duplicate and unwanted data does not reside in our database.

2. Data Security

Data security is often prioritized quite low in the Big Data workflow, which can backfire at times. With such a large amount of data being collected, security challenges are bound to come up sooner or later.

Mining of sensitive information, fake data generation, and lack of cryptographic protection (encryption) are some of the challenges businesses face when trying to adopt Big Data techniques.

Companies need to understand the importance of data security, and need to prioritize it. To help them, there are professional Big Data consultants nowadays, that help businesses move from traditional data storage and analysis methods to Big Data.

3. Data Integration

Data is coming in from a lot of different sources (social media applications, emails, customer verification documents, survey forms, etc.). It often becomes a very big operational challenge for companies to combine and reconcile all of this data.

There are several Big Data solution vendors that offer ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) and data integration solutions to companies that are trying to overcome data integration problems. There are also several APIs that have already been built to tackle issues related to data integration.

Advantages of Big Data

Improved decision-making: Big data can provide insights and patterns that help organizations make more informed decisions.

Increased efficiency: Big data analytics can help organizations identify inefficiencies in their operations and improve processes to reduce costs.

Better customer targeting: By analyzing customer data, businesses can develop targeted marketing campaigns that are relevant to individual customers, resulting in better customer engagement and loyalty.

New revenue streams: Big data can uncover new business opportunities, enabling organizations to create new products and services that meet market demand.

Privacy concerns: Collecting and storing large amounts of data can raise privacy concerns, particularly if the data includes sensitive personal information.

Risk of data breaches: Big data increases the risk of data breaches, leading to loss of confidential data and negative publicity for the organization.

Technical challenges: Managing and processing large volumes of data requires specialized technologies and skilled personnel, which can be expensive and time-consuming.

Difficulty in integrating data sources: Integrating data from multiple sources can be challenging, particularly if the data is unstructured or stored in different formats.

Complexity of analysis: Analyzing large datasets can be complex and time-consuming, requiring specialized skills and expertise.

Implementation Across Industries 

Here are top 10 industries that use big data in their favor – 

IndustryUse of Big dataHealthcareAnalyze patient data to improve healthcare outcomes, identify trends and patterns, and develop personalized treatmentRetailTrack and analyze customer data to personalize marketing campaigns, improve inventory management and enhance CXFinanceDetect fraud, assess risks and make informed investment decisionsManufacturingOptimize supply chain processes, reduce costs and improve product quality through predictive maintenanceTransportationOptimize routes, improve fleet management and enhance safety by predicting accidents before they happenEnergyMonitor and analyze energy usage patterns, optimize production, and reduce waste through predictive analyticsTelecommunicationsManage network traffic, improve service quality, and reduce downtime through predictive maintenance and outage predictionGovernment and publicAddress issues such as preventing crime, improving traffic management, and predicting natural disastersAdvertising and marketingUnderstand consumer behavior, target specific audiences and measure the effectiveness of campaignsEducationPersonalize learning experiences, monitor student progress and improve teaching methods through adaptive learning

The Future of Big Data

The volume of data being produced every day is continuously increasing, with increasing digitization. More and more businesses are starting to shift from traditional data storage and analysis methods to cloud solutions. Companies are starting to realize the importance of data. All of these imply one thing, the future of Big Data looks promising! It will change the way businesses operate, and decisions are made.


In this article, we discussed what we mean by Big Data, structured and unstructured data, some real-world applications of Big Data, and how we can store and process Big Data using cloud platforms and Hadoop. If you are interested in learning more about big data uses, sign-up for our Blackbelt Plus program. Get your personalized career roadmap, master all the skills you lack with the help of a mentor and solve complex projects with expert guidance. Enroll Today!

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is big data in simple words?

A. Big data refers to the large volume of structured and unstructured data that is generated by individuals, organizations, and machines.

Q2. What is big data in example?

A. An example of big data would be analyzing the vast amounts of data collected from social media platforms like Facebook or Twitter to identify customer sentiment towards a particular product or service.

Q3. What are the 3 types of big data?

A. The three types of big data are structured data, unstructured data, and semi-structured data.

Q4. What is big data used for?

A. Big data is used for a variety of purposes such as improving business operations, understanding customer behavior, predicting future trends, and developing new products or services, among others.

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