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What is Non Destructive Software Testing?

Non Destructive Testing is a software testing type that involves testing and interacting with the software application correctly. In other words, Non Destructive Software Testing (NDT) can also be called Positive Testing or Happy path testing. It gives the expected results and proves that the software application is behaving as expected.

Non Destructive Software Testing Example

To perform Non destructive testing in the above example, enter numeric characters in the username textbox. As such we have entered the numeric character, the desired outcome will be positive.

To perform Non destructive testing in the above example, enter numeric characters in the username textbox. As such we have entered the numeric character, the desired outcome will be positive.

In this tutorial, you will learn-

Why do Non Destructive Software Testing (NDT)?

The major benefit of NDT method is that it results in improved quality of software and bugs get fixed.

To demonstrate that software functions are working according to the specification.

The verify performance requirement has been met

To verify that the requirements of end users are met

To check the small section of code or functionality is working as expected and not breaking the related functionality.

When Non Destructive Testing (NDT) is Performed?

It is also the first form of testing that a tester would perform on an application.(i.e., at the initial stage of SDLC)

Non destructive testing is usually done when we do not have enough time for testing.

Test Strategy for Non Destructive Testing

Approach to Non Destructive testing should be positive.

The intention of NDT technique is to prove that an application will work on giving valid input data.

There is no special requirement to perform Non destructive testing.

Best practice for Non destructive testing is to check whether the system does, what it is supposed to do.

Test Strategy for Non Destructive Software Testing

Examples of Non Destructive Testing

An application has 5 modules viz, login page, home page, user detail page, new user creation and task creation, etc.

Suppose we have a bug in the login page, the username field accepts less than six alpha-numeric characters. This is against the set requirements which state that username should not accept less than six characters. So in the above scenario, it is a bug.

Now the bug is reported to the development team, and it is fixed and again sent back to the testing team. The testing team not only checks the login page where the defect is fixed but also tests the other modules as well. While testing all the modules, it performs the Non-destructive type of testing, just to check the whole application is working properly.


Software Testing is a process used to reveal defects in software, to establish a specified degree of quality.

Non Destructive Testing (NDT) is a software testing type that involves testing and interacting with the software application correctly.

The major benefit of NDT method is that it results in improved quality of software and bugs get fixed.

Non destructive testing is usually done when we do not have enough time for testing.

The intention of NDT technique is to prove that an application will work on giving valid input data.

You're reading Non Destructive Software Testing (Ndt): What Is, Test Strategy

What Is Grey Box Testing?


Greybox testing is a software testing approach that involves evaluating a software program with just a limited understanding of its underlying workings. Because it includes access to internal coding to develop test cases as white box testing and testing methods are done at the functionality level as black-box testing, it is a hybrid of the two.

GreyBox testing is frequently used to identify context-specific problems in online applications. For example, if a tester discovers a flaw during testing, he makes code modifications to fix the problem and then retests it in real-time. It focuses on all levels of any complicated software system in order to enhance testing coverage. It enables the testing of both the display layer and the core code structure. It is typically employed in integration and penetration testing.

Gray Box Testing is a software testing approach that is a hybrid of White Box Testing and Black Box Testing.

Internal structure (code) is known in White Box testing.

The internal structure (code) of Black Box testing is unclear.

The internal structure (code) of Grey Box Testing is only partially website, the Grey box tester can make changes to the HTML code to validate the problem. In this case, white box testing is performed by modifying the code, and black-box testing is performed concurrently as the tester tests the changes at the front end. Grey box testing is produced by combining the White box with the Black box.

#2) Grey box testers with knowledge of and access to the error code database, which includes the cause for each error code, may analyse error codes and explore the cause in more depth. Assume the webpage receives an error code of “Internal server error 500,” and the reason for this issue is listed in the table as a server error. Using this information, a tester may further investigate the problem and same time in order to improve the overall quality of the product.

It shortens the time required for the lengthy process of functional and non-functional testing.

It offers the developer enough time to remedy any product flaws.

It incorporates the user’s point of view rather than the designer’s or tester’s.

It entails a thorough evaluation of requirements and specification determination from the user’s point of view.

Strategy for Gray Box Testing

It is not required for the tester to have access to the source code in order to do Gray box testing. A test is created using information about algorithms, architectures, internal states, and other high-level descriptions of program behavior.

Gray box testing can be done in a variety of chúng tôi employs a basic black box testing approach. It is based on the development of required test cases, and as a result, it establishes all of the criteria before the program is tested using the assertion technique.

Grey box testing techniques Matrix Testing

Grey Box testing is the term for this type of testing. It lists all of the variables that are utilized in a program. Variables are the components in every program that allows values to move through it. It should be tailored to the requirements; otherwise, the program’s readability and speed would suffer. The matrix approach is a method for removing unneeded and uninitialized variables from a program by detecting utilized variables.

Regression Testing

Regression testing is used to ensure that a change to one area of software does not have an unexpected or undesirable effect on another section of the product. Any defects discovered during confirmation testing were corrected, and that portion of the program began to function as planned; nevertheless, it is possible that the fixed flaw caused a new problem elsewhere in the software. Regression testing addresses these types of problems by employing testing techniques such as retesting hazardous use cases, retesting behind a firewall, retesting everything, and so on.

Orthogonal Array Testing or OAT

The goal of this testing is to cover as much code as possible with as few test cases as possible. The test cases are written in such a manner that they cover the most code as well as the most GUI functionalities with the fewest amount of test cases.

Pattern Testing

Pattern testing applies to software that is created by following the same pattern as prior software. The same kind of flaws is possible in this form of software. Pattern testing identifies the causes of failure so that they may be addressed in future software.

Greybox approach often uses automated software testing tools to carry out the testing procedure. Stubs and module drivers are supplied to a tester to alleviate the need for manual code development.

The following are the steps to do Grey box testing −

Step 1 − Make a list of all the inputs.

Step 2 − Determine the outcomes

Step 3 − Make a list of the key routes.

Step 4 − Determine the Subfunctions

Step 5 − Create subfunction inputs.

Step 6 − Develop Subfunction Outputs

Step 7 − Run the Subfunctions test case.

Step 8 − Check that the Subfunctions result is valid.

Step 9 − Repeat steps 4–8 for each additional Subfunction.

Step 10 − Carry on with steps 7 and 8 for the remaining Subfunctions.

GUI related, security related, database related, browser related, operational system related, and so on are examples of test cases for grey box testing.

Gray Box Testing’s Benefits

The software’s quality is improving.

This method focuses on the user’s perception.

Developers gain from grey box testing since they have more time to resolve bugs.

Grey box testing combines both black box and white box testing, giving you the best of both worlds.

Grey box testers don’t need to have extensive programming expertise in order to evaluate a product.

Integration testing benefits from this testing method.

This testing approach ensures that the developer and the tester are on the same page.

This approach may be used to test complex apps and situations.

This kind of testing is non-intrusive.

Gray Box Testing’s Drawbacks

Grey box testing does not allow for complete white box testing because a source cannot be accessed.

This testing approach makes it harder to link problems in a distributed system.

It is difficult to create test cases for grey box testing.

Access to code path traversal is likewise restricted as a result of limited access.

Gray Box Testing Difficulties

When a component under test fails in some way, the continuing operation may be terminated.

When a test runs completely but the substance of the result is wrong.


Grey box testing can minimize the overall cost of system faults and prevent them from spreading further.

Grey box testing is best suited for GUI, Functional Testing, security assessment, online applications, web services, and other similar applications.

Grey box Testing Methodologies −

Matrix Testing

Regression Testing

OAT or Orthogonal Array Testing

Pattern Testing

Frequently Asked Questions

Q #1) In software testing, what is grey box testing?

Answer − Grey box testing is used to eliminate any faults caused by difficulties with the application’s internal structure. This testing method combines Black box and White box testing techniques.

Q #2) Provide an example of grey box testing.

Answer − Both black box and white box testing are included in grey box testing. All of the specific documentation and requirements are available to the tester. For example, if a website’s link isn’t working, it may be examined and updated immediately in HTML and confirmed in real time.

What Is System Integration Testing (Sit) Example

What is System Integration Testing?

System Integration Testing is defined as a type of software testing carried out in an integrated hardware and software environment to verify the behavior of the complete system. It is testing conducted on a complete, integrated system to evaluate the system’s compliance with its specified requirement.

System Integration Testing (SIT) is performed to verify the interactions between the modules of a software system. It deals with the verification of the high and low-level software requirements specified in the Software Requirements Specification/Data and the Software Design Document. It also verifies a software system’s coexistence with others and tests the interface between modules of the software application. In this type of testing, modules are first tested individually and then combined to make a system. For Example, software and/or hardware components are combined and tested progressively until the entire system has been integrated.

Why do System Integration Testing?

It helps to detect Defect early

Earlier feedback on the acceptability of the individual module will be available

Scheduling of Defect fixes is flexible, and it can be overlapped with development

Correct data flow

Correct control flow

Correct timing

Correct memory usage

Correct with software requirements

How to do System Integration Testing

It’s a systematic technique for constructing the program structure while conducting tests to uncover errors associated with interfacing.

Correction of such errors is difficult because isolation causes is complicated by the vast expansion of the entire program. Once these errors are rectified and corrected, a new one will appear, and the process continues seamlessly in an endless loop. To avoid this situation, another approach is used, Incremental Integration. We will see more detail about an incremental approach later in the tutorial.

There are some incremental methods like the integration tests are conducted on a system based on the target processor. The methodology used is Black Box Testing. Either bottom-up or top-down integration can be used.

Test cases are defined using the high-level software requirements only.

Software integration may also be achieved largely in the host environment, with units specific to the target environment continuing to be simulated in the host. Repeating tests in the target environment for confirmation will again be necessary.

Confirmation tests at this level will identify environment-specific problems, such as errors in memory allocation and de-allocation. The practicality of conducting software integration in the host environment will depend on how much target specific functionality is there. For some embedded systems the coupling with the target environment will be very strong, making it impractical to conduct software integration in the host environment.

Large software developments will divide software integration into a number of levels. The lower levels of software integration could be based predominantly in the host environment,with later levels of software integration becoming more dependent on the target environment.

Note: If software only is being tested then it is called Software Software Integration Testing [SSIT] and if both hardware and software are being tested, then it is called Hardware Software Integration Testing [HSIT].

Entry and Exit Criteria for Integration Testing

Usually while performing Integration Testing, ETVX (Entry Criteria, Task, Validation, and Exit Criteria) strategy is used.

Entry Criteria:

Completion of Unit Testing


Software Requirements Data

Software Design Document

Software Verification Plan

Software Integration Documents


Based on the High and Low-level requirements create test cases and procedures

Combine low-level modules builds that implement a common functionality

Develop a test harness

Test the build

Once the test is passed, the build is combined with other builds and tested until the system is integrated as a whole.

Re-execute all the tests on the target processor-based platform, and obtain the results

Exit Criteria:

Successful completion of the integration of the Software module on the target Hardware

Correct performance of the software according to the requirements specified


Integration test reports

Software Test Cases and Procedures [SVCP].

Hardware Software Integration Testing

Hardware Software Integration Testing is a process of testing Computer Software Components (CSC) for high-level functionalities on the target hardware environment. The goal of hardware/software integration testing is to test the behavior of developed software integrated on the hardware component.

Requirement based Hardware-Software Integration Testing

The aim of requirements-based hardware/software integration testing is to make sure that the software in the target computer will satisfy the high-level requirements. Typical errors revealed by this testing method includes:

Hardware/software interfaces errors

Violations of software partitioning.

Inability to detect failures by built-in test

Incorrect response to hardware failures

Feedback loops incorrect behavior

Incorrect or improper control of memory management hardware

Data bus contention problem

Incorrect operation of mechanism to verify the compatibility and correctness of field loadable software

Hardware Software Integration deals with the verification of the high-level requirements. All tests at this level are conducted on the target hardware.

Black box testing is the primary testing methodology used at this level of testing.

Define test cases from the high-level requirements only

A test must be executed on production standard hardware (on target)

Things to consider when designing test cases for HW/SW Integration

Correct acquisition of all data by the software

Scaling and range of data as expected from hardware to software

Correct output of data from software to hardware

Data within specifications (normal range)

Data outside specifications (abnormal range)

Boundary data

Interrupts processing


Correct memory usage (addressing, overlaps, etc.)

State transitions

Note: For interrupt testing, all interrupts will be verified independently from initial request through full servicing and onto completion. Test cases will be specifically designed in order to adequately test interrupts.

Software to Software Integration Testing

It is the testing of the Computer Software Component operating within the host/target computer

Environment, while simulating the entire system [other CSC’s], and on the high-level functionality.

It focuses on the behavior of a CSC in a simulated host/target environment. The approach used for Software Integration can be an incremental approach ( top-down, a bottom-up approach or a combination of both).

Incremental Approach

Incremental testing is a way of integration testing. In this type of testing method, you first test each module of the software individually and then continue testing by appending other modules to it then another and so on.

Incremental integration is the contrast to the big bang approach. The program is constructed and tested in small segments, where errors are easier to isolate and correct. Interfaces are more likely to be tested completely, and a systematic test approach may be applied.

There are two types of Incremental testing

Top down approach

Bottom Up approach

Top-Down Approach

Starting with the main control module, the modules are integrated by moving downward through the control hierarchy

Sub-modules to the main control module are incorporated into the structure either in a breadth-first manner or depth-first manner.

Depth-first integration integrates all modules on a major control path of the structure as displayed in the following diagram:

The module integration process is done in the following manner:

The main control module is used as a test driver, and the stubs are substituted for all modules directly subordinate to the main control module.

The subordinate stubs are replaced one at a time with actual modules depending on the approach selected (breadth first or depth first).

Tests are executed as each module is integrated.

On completion of each set of tests, another stub is replaced with a real module on completion of each set of tests

To make sure that new errors have not been introduced Regression Testing may be performed.

The process continues from step2 until the entire program structure is built. The top-down strategy sounds relatively uncomplicated, but in practice, logistical problems arise.

The most common of these problems occur when processing at low levels in the hierarchy is required to adequately test upper levels.

Stubs replace low-level modules at the beginning of top-down testing and, therefore no significant data can flow upward in the program structure.

Challenges Tester might face:

Delay many tests until stubs are replaced with actual modules.

Develop stubs that perform limited functions that simulate the actual module.

Integrate the software from the bottom of the hierarchy upward.

Note: The first approach causes us to lose some control over correspondence between specific tests and incorporation of specific modules. This may result in difficulty determining the cause of errors which tends to violate the highly constrained nature of the top-down approach.

The second approach is workable but can lead to significant overhead, as stubs become increasingly complex.

Bottom-up Approach

Bottom-up integration begins construction and testing with modules at the lowest level in the program structure. In this process, the modules are integrated from the bottom to the top.

In this approach processing required for the modules subordinate to a given level is always available and the need for the stubs is eliminated.

This integration test process is performed in a series of four steps

Low-level modules are combined into clusters that perform a specific software sub-function.

A driver is written to coordinate test case input and output.

The cluster or build is tested.

Drivers are removed, and clusters are combined moving upward in the program structure.

As integration moves upward, the need for separate test drivers lessons. In fact, if the top two levels of program structure are integrated top-down, the number of drivers can be reduced substantially, and integration of clusters is greatly simplified. Integration follows the pattern illustrated below. As integration moves upward, the need for separate test drivers lessons.

Note: If the top two levels of program structure are integrated Top-down, the number of drivers can be reduced substantially, and the integration of builds is greatly simplified.

Big Bang Approach

In this approach, all modules are not integrated until and unless all the modules are ready. Once they are ready, all modules are integrated and then its executed to know whether all the integrated modules are working or not.

In this approach, it is difficult to know the root cause of the failure because of integrating everything at once.

Also, there will be a high chance of occurrence of the critical bugs in the production environment.

This approach is adopted only when integration testing has to be done at once.


Integration is performed to verify the interactions between the modules of a software system. It helps to detect defect early

Integration testing can be done for Hardware-Software or Hardware-Hardware Integration

Integration testing is done by two methods

Incremental approach

Big bang approach

While performing Integration Testing generally ETVX (Entry Criteria, Task, Validation, and Exit Criteria) strategy is used.

China Is Testing A New Long

In November 2023, a Chinese J-16 strike fighter test-fired a gigantic hypersonic missile, successfully destroying the target drone at a very long range.

Looking at takeoff photos, we estimate the missile is about 28 percent of the length of the J-16, which measures 22 meters (about 72 feet). The puts the missile at about 19 feet, and roughly 13 inches in diameter. The missile appears to have four tailfins. Reports are that the size would put into the category of a very long range air to air missile (VLRAAM) with ranges exceeding 300 km (roughly 186 miles), likely max out between 250 and 310 miles. (As a point of comparison, the smaller 13.8-foot, 15-inch-diameter Russian R-37 missile has a 249-mile range).

This is a big deal: this missile would easily outrange any American (or other NATO) air-to-air missile. Additionally, the VLRAAM’s powerful rocket engine will push it to Mach 6 speeds, which will increase the no escape zone (NEZ), that is the area where a target cannot outrun the missile, against even supersonic targets like stealth fighters.


The new, larger missile’s added value is not just in range. Another key feature: its large active electronically scanned (AESA) radar, which is used in the terminal phase of flight to lock onto the target. The AESA radar’s large size—about 300-400% larger than that of most long range air-to-air missiles—and digital adaptability makes it highly effective against distant and stealthy targets, and resilient against electronic countermeasures like jamming and spoofing.

The VLRAAM’s backup sensor is a infrared/electro-optical seeker that can identify and hone in on high-value targets like aerial tankers and airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) radar aircraft. The VLRAAM also uses lateral thrusters built into the rear for improving its terminal phase maneuverability when engaging agile targets like fighters.


This 2023 study in a Chinese scientific journal discusses the flight path and performance of a VLRAAM, which flies 15 km upward of its launching fighter to a 30 km altitude, and is guided by a combination of long range radars (like Chinese AEWC planes) and satellite navigation, before divebombing at hypersonic speeds onto enemy aircraft, including stealth fighters, stealth bombers and AEWC aircraft.

Interestingly, the ability to glide may be a key feature as well. A 2023 research paper by Zhang Hongyuan, Zheng Yuejing, and Shi Xiaorong of Beijing Institute of Control and Electronics Technology linked to the VLRAAM development suggests that the midcourse portion of the VLRAAM’s flight will occur at altitudes above 30 km (about 18.6 miles). Flying at such low pressure, low drag high altitudes would allow the VLRAAM to extend its range (similar to hypersonic gliders). The high altitude also makes it difficult for enemy aircraft and air defenses to shoot it down midflight. Finally, high altitude flight means that the VLRAAM would have a high angle of attack against lower flying targets, which reduces the response time for enemy evasive action.

Divine Eagle at War

The Divine Eagle is shown here in both offensive operations (providing targeting for smart bombs to strike enemy SAM, communications, bunkers and ballistic ICBMs) as well as defensive operations (detecting American stealth aircraft before they enter China airspace).

Another researched VLRAAM function is datalinking; the papers called for the VLRAAM to be embedded within a highly integrated combat networks. It is envisioned as just part of a larger wave of networked solutions aggregated through multiple Chinese systems. For example, a J-20 stealth fighter wouldn’t mount the missile (the VLRAAM is too large to fit in the J-20’s weapons bay), but could use its low observable features to fly relatively close in order to detect enemy assets like AEW&C aircraft (which are vital to gather battlespace data for manned and unmanned assets, but subsonic in speed and less able to evade missiles). Then before breaking off contact, the J-20 would signal a J-16 400 km (249 miles) away (outside the range of most air to air missiles) providing it the data needed to launch the VLRAAM at the target. This would offer China a longer range version of present U.S. tactics that involve using the fifth generation F-22 as a sensor for 4th generation fighters as the “shooters.”

The Future is Here

In operation, the VLRAAM will provide J-20 stealth fighters with long range “aerial artillery” to even the odds against numerically superior air forces, while giving new life to J-11 and J-16 fighters. It can also give J-15 carrier fighters a long range interception capability to defend Chinese naval forces.

The gains in range and speed of the VLRAAM pose another significant risk to the concepts of the U.S. military’s “Third Offset.” U.S. operations are highly dependent on assets like aerial tankers, dedicated electronic warfare aircraft, and AEW&C. For example, without aerial tankers, the relatively short range of the F-35s would become even more of a liability in long range operations in the South China Seas and Taiwan Straits. Similarly, without AEW&C aircraft, F-22s would have to use onboard radars more, raising their risk of detection. Even for stealthy tanker platforms like the planned MQ-25 Stingray drone and proposed KC-Z tanker will be vulnerable to VLRAAMs if detected by emerging dedicated anti-stealth systems such as the Divine Eagle drone and Yuanmeng airship.

By pushing the Chinese air defense threat bubble hundreds of miles out further, they also offer to turn the long range tables on the putative U.S. “Arsenal” Plane concept, a Pentagon plan to launch missiles from non-stealthy planes from afar. In sum, VLRAAM is not just a big missile, but a potential big deal for the future of air warfare.

You may also be interested in:

Come Look at China’s Coolest New Missiles

Chinese Air to Air Missile Hits Target, Spooks USAF General

Divine Eagle, China’s Enormous Stealth Hunting Drone, Takes Shape

Beyond the J-20: The Many Planes of China China Builds Its own ‘Wild Weasel’ to Suppress Air Defenses

What Are The Digital Marketing Strategies For Non


Planning and carrying out a marketing strategy can be difficult for non−profit organisations since they frequently have small teams and limited resources. This tutorial offers instructions on how to design a non-profit’s digital marketing strategy and a summary of the digital tactics that will enable the non-profit organization to connect with more people.

Digital Marketing Strategy for Charity and Non-Profit Organizations

Though a large portion of a non-profit organization’s work is carried out physically in the areas it supports, digital platforms are frequently the first point of contact for those who are interested in learning more about a non−profit or cause. Beyond the first point of contact, an increasing number of charity organisations now provide comprehensive programming via digital channels, enabling them to reach more people and connect with participants on their chosen channels.

Social Media

Your campaigns may be strengthened by using social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, or Instagram. It’s the simplest approach to provide information, news, programme announcements, and social responsibility initiatives to both supporters and recipients.

When making a social media strategy, make sure to include the platform you’ll be utilising, the date, and the timetable. It’s crucial to choose the information that will be most appropriate for the situation. Which format will you choose−a movie or an infographic? When you have everything in order, it’s time to publish your material. To determine which campaign is more effective for your company, you may also do an A/B split test.

Email Marketing

In the meanwhile, you may customise or customise the material for your customers using email marketing. Your clients are sure to take notice if you continually write well-written copy. Add a call−to−action button to encourage potential customers to visit your website or tell their friends and family about your good news.

Video Campaign

A 30-second video may do better than a five−minute video in terms of distance. Even better, you can use these films as brief teasers to get more users to your platforms. The objective is to use dynamic graphics to evoke emotions in your audience.

Non-profit Marketing Issues

A non-profit organisation is the best at comprehending the difficulties of efficient marketing on a tight budget. Non-profits want as much money as possible to go toward their mission rather than marketing. But raising money without spending money is difficult.

Non-profits are particularly impacted, even though they face some of the same general marketing issues as other enterprises. Other difficulties are wholly unique to non-profits.

Nonprofit’s Intended Audience is Too Big

It might be difficult to convince people of the urgency of your cause in the current atmosphere of nonstop news about conflicts and natural catastrophes. Consider that not

Making a plan for your market research is the first step in reducing the size of your target market.

Targeting everyone as a prospective donor or supporter is a serious error that many charitable organizations make. Find out who, how much they earn, where they hang out, and why your ideal fans and contributors would be interested in sponsoring you.

You may adjust your marketing messaging by focusing more narrowly on the people who will most likely identify with your cause and contribute to it.

Challenge for Non-Profits to Persuade Individuals to Donate Money

All businesses find it tough to persuade customers to leave with their cash, but non-profit organisations find it extremely difficult. People don’t feel immediate satisfaction when they give money to non-profit organisations.

Additionally, if the non-profit is new, donors can be unwilling to give anything at all since they are unsure of where their money is going.

Try these suggestions to persuade others that parting with their money is the proper thing to do −

Tell your narrative with video marketing.

Make sure contributors understand exactly where their money is going.

Display a rating from a charity evaluator. To reassure individuals that they are working with trustworthy non-profits, organisations like Charity Navigator assess and rank non-profits.

To increase your organization’s reputation and donor confidence, collect testimonials from those who have benefited from it.

Non-Profits Depend On Volunteers

Non−profits gain from the free labour of volunteers, but because they participate on their own time and schedule, volunteers are less dependable than paid staff. Additionally, there is no assurance that volunteers will have an extensive marketing background.

When it comes to marketing, relying only on volunteers might lead to inconsistency or even stagnation. It’s difficult to criticise or place more demands on someone who feels strongly enough about your cause to give their time, though. To get beyond this obstacle, use these tactics:

If at all feasible, employ qualified marketing assistance, even part-time. Select a person based on their area of expertise, but more importantly, make sure they share your purpose and guiding principles.

Schedule frequent meetings with your volunteers to keep them informed, up to date, and educated in marketing techniques. They will continue to be vital team members if they feel valued and understand that their job has a larger purpose.

Use the free marketing assistance available. There are several good ones that can guide you in developing a marketing plan, direct you to marketing tools, and act as a sounding board when you’re stuck.

People May Not Be Aware of Your Non-Profit

Even if you employ email, direct mail, and digital promotion, you can still be excluding potential donors. It’s important to make sure that there is lots of information about your organisation online since people who are contemplating giving to a cause frequently utilise the internet to learn more.

To attract their attention and enlighten them about your cause, you should be present everywhere possible donations could be. In addition to your website, keep in mind the value of social networking sites like Facebook, YouTube, and LinkedIn.

Show prospective contributors that you value their trust and your cause. To stay in compliance, it’s essential to follow all laws and rules pertaining to non-profits, particularly those governing non-profit accounting.


In the twenty−first century, digital marketing has developed into a potent instrument. Nowadays, almost everyone has access to the internet, making digital marketing an essential tool for disseminating information. Digital marketing is a cost−effective tool for NGOs to connect with internet users, funders, and donations.

It’s Time To Check What Software Version Your Phone Is Running

This story has been updated. It was first published on June 16, 2023.

Soon after you bring a shiny new smartphone home, you’ll start receiving a continuous stream of software updates from app makers, as well as operating system upgrades from Apple and Google.

It may seem simple, but you probably have questions. Maybe you’re wondering how to find out what version of Android or iOS your phone is running, and why it matters. Or perhaps you’re not sure what you have to do to get the new iOS on your iPhone, or why your Android phone has to wait so long to get the latest software. We’ve got those answers.

And let’s be clear: operating system updates are not to be neglected. Not only do they bring new features to your handset, like better battery management and new notification options, but they carry critical security and stability improvements each time.


Android is actually made up of several different pieces of software that are all referred to as “Android” for convenience’s sake. At the most fundamental level is the Android Open Source Project (AOSP), developed by Google but released as open-source software with publicly available code, and free for anyone to use.

Then you have the Google Mobile Services (GMS) bundle. It’s not open source, but Google licenses it for free to its hardware partners in return for all the extra users Google gets in return. GMS includes Google Search, Gmail, the Chrome browser, YouTube, and—crucially—the Google Play Store.

[Related: Google’s new data guidance takes a page from Apple’s privacy playbook]

When you buy an Android phone, you’re usually getting AOSP and GMS, plus whatever extra apps and flourishes the manufacturer has chosen to add—so Android looks slightly different on phones from Samsung, LG, OnePlus, Sony, and others.

If you want to know what a device looks like without GMS, the best examples are Amazon Fire tablets. Instead, these come with Amazon’s own app store, and you can’t officially run Google apps on them (though there are ways around this).

With Android catering to so many different shapes and sizes of devices, and with phone makers adding their own code on top of the AOSP framework, the platform has had fragmentation problems—the latest version of Android doesn’t always arrive on each manufacturer’s device at the same time.

To combat fragmentation, Google has tried various ways to make it easier for hardware partners to update different bits of Android at a time. It has also shifted more responsibility to the Google Play Store, so phones can get the latest security scanning updates and the newest versions of Google’s apps and services, even if they’re not running the freshest version of Android.

What all that means is your Android phone will be running a particular version of Android with a specific iteration of the phone manufacturer’s software on top. On Samsung phones that’d be the Samsung One UI, for example, while OnePlus calls their software OxygenOS.

To check what version of Android you’re running, open up Settings, then tap About Phone and look under Android version to see how up-to-date your phone is. You’ll handle updates in a separate screen: from Settings tap System, System update, and Check for update to see if new software is available, but you should get an alert when an update has arrived and is ready to install.

We can’t take you through the process for every Android phone out there, but it should be similar for whatever model you’re using. On Samsung phones, for instance, head to Settings, then tap About phone, followed by Software information, to see which versions of One UI and Android you’re We can’t take you through the process for every Android phone out there, but it should be similar for whatever model you’re using. On Samsung phones, for instance, head to Settings, then swipe and tap Software update (or System update, depending on the model you have) to see which versions of One UI and Android you’re running. Again, update prompts should appear automatically, but you can run a manual check for a newer Android iteration by tapping Check for system updates, and then Download and install if a new software version is available for your device.

Some phone makers deliver Android updates faster than others, so if you really want to know how long you’ll be waiting, your best bet is to contact the company directly, or at least browse its support forums. The Pixel phones, developed by Google itself, are typically first in line for the major Android update that happens every year.


Apple has an easier time pushing iOS updates out into the world because it doesn’t have multiple hardware partners to worry about, and it simultaneously develops both the software and the hardware it’s going to run.

For that reason, iOS always beats Android when it comes to quickly getting more users on the latest version. In fact, Apple regularly deauthorizes older versions of iOS so that once you’ve upgraded, you can’t hack your iPhone or iPad to go back to an earlier iteration.

As well as refreshing iOS every year, Apple also updates all of its built-in apps—including Mail, Safari, and Apple Maps—at the same time. So, when a new version of iOS arrives, you’ll see a host of updates to the Apple apps on your phone, too.

[Related: Make your Android and Apple devices work together]

With each new version, Apple sometimes leaves behind some of its older devices, which remain on the previous version for the rest of their digital lives. This wasn’t the case with iOS 12, which ran on every device iOS 11 could run on, but it’s something to watch out for.

To see if you’re up-to-date on iOS, open up Settings, then tap General and About. The current iOS version number will be listed under Software Version. You will get a notification when a new version of iOS is available, but if you want to check manually, tap General, then Software Update inside Settings. If you want iOS to automate the update process, tap Automatic Updates and make sure the Download iOS Updates toggle switch is on. When it is, you’ll also get the option to automatically Install iOS Updates. Activate this toggle switch and your phone will install updates overnight on its own, though it’ll still notify you before it installs them.

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