Trending December 2023 # Right To Life And Personal Liberty: Article 21 # Suggested January 2024 # Top 20 Popular

You are reading the article Right To Life And Personal Liberty: Article 21 updated in December 2023 on the website We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested January 2024 Right To Life And Personal Liberty: Article 21

In the modern world, right to life and personal liberty is one of the most fundamental rights that almost every constitution of this world ensures to the citizen of respective country. It is a natural right that every citizen must have by default.

Right to Life

The creator of India’s constitution drafted Article 21 and included the phrase “right to life,” which signifies that everyone has the right to live their lives freely. By incorporating non-enforceable DPSP into enforceable basic rights, the Supreme Court has recognized and enforced several socioeconomic rights, such as the right to food, health, education, and a means of livelihood, among others.

Articles 21 of the Constitution

Article 21 is at the heart of the Constitution. It is the most natural and forward-thinking clause in our evolving Constitution. Article 21 can only be invoked when the “State,” as defined in Article 12, deprives a person of his “life or personal liberty.” Therefore, a private individual’s infringement of a right is not covered by Article 21.

Article 21 secures two rights:

Right to life and

Right to personal liberty

The Government of India Act of 1935 established Article 21 of the Indian Constitution. It states that no one shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty unless in accordance with the legal procedure. Article 21 is one of the essential rights given to all Indian citizens and is included in Part III of the Indian Constitution. This article will go through the many rights and liberties guaranteed by Article 21.

Right to Personal Liberty

Person liberty is one of the earliest ideals that humanity has recognized throughout its history. It is included in the Magna Carta.

The notion of ‘liberty’ has been given a very broad meaning in India. The Supreme Court of India has rejected the concept that liberty refers only to freedom from bodily restriction, holding that it also encompasses those rights and benefits recognized as essential to free men’s orderly pursuit of happiness.

Important Cases Related to Article 21 of the Indian Constitution

A.K. Gopalan vs. Madras State, 1951 − In this instance, the Supreme Court used a restrictive reading of Article 21. It was decided that only arbitrary executive activity is covered by Article 21’s protection, not arbitrary legislative action. This indicates that a law may be used by the state to deny a person the rights guaranteed by Article 21.

Maneka Gandhi vs. UOI, 1978 − In this case, the Supreme Court reversed its Gopalan Case decision by using a broader reading of Article 21. It was decided that a person’s right to life and personal liberty can be taken away by a law as long as the process set forth by that legislation is reasonable, fair, and just. It also made clear that the right to life does not just refer to the existence of animals. It was stated that this would cover all elements of life that contribute to a man’s life being meaningful, full, and deserving of living.

Recent Trends to Article 21

In addition to the conventional approach, the Supreme Court recognised Article 21 in the context of social justice when reading it at a specific time and gave Article 21 a new meaning following the Maneka Gandhi era. Some of the seminal judgments are listed below.

Article 21 includes Right to Education

The right to education is seen as man’s third eye, without which no one can live a good, decent, or dignified existence. Previously, one of the guiding principles of state policy was the right to an education.

However, in response to changing societal needs, the Supreme Court ruled in Mohini Jain v. State of Karnataka and Unni Krishna v. State of Andhra Pradesh that the right to education, as a guaranteed fundamental right, is thus included under the right to life because it directly influences mental and physical capacity and is also responsible for individual growth in society.

Furthermore, it was determined in another judgment that the Right to Education encompasses the Right to a Safe Education.

Earlier, the courts interpreted Article 21’s unambiguous declaration of the right to education as Article 21-A’s provisions, making the right to education accessible to all citizens as a basic right.

Article 21 includes Right to Livelihood

The right to livelihood follows from the right to life since no one can exist without food. If the right to livelihood is not regarded as an important part or parcel of the right to life, it will become the simplest method to deprive the person of exercising his right to life and, as a result, he will lose his livelihood. In addition to rejecting their valuable value and purpose, dismissing livelihoods also makes existence difficult.

The right to life has been proclaimed to include the right to one’s means of support. In the case of Olga Tellis v. Bombay Municipal Corporation, the Supreme Court ruled that the idea of the “right to life and personal liberty” protected by Article 21 of the Constitution encompasses the “right to live with dignity,” which includes the right to a livelihood.

Article 21 includes Right to Speedy Justice and Speedy Trial

In regards to the denial of swift justice, the court highlighted its worry over case disposition delays. The concerned authorities have been ordered to act quickly before the situation spirals out of control. If procedural legislation fails to allow for a fast trial, it is ruled null and invalid. A petition for a writ of habeas corpus was submitted by a number of under-trial detainees who had been held in Bihar jails for years awaiting trial. The right to a speedy trial was viewed as an inherent guarantee in the tightrope of life, as was the right to personal liberty.

In Hussainara Khatoon (I) v. Home Secretary, State of Bihar, which was followed by Kadra Pahadia v. State of Bihar, the Supreme Court held that speedy trial is a fundamental right implicit in the guarantee of life and personal liberty enshrined in Art. 21 of the Constitution and that any accused who is denied this right of speedy trial is entitled to approach the Supreme Court under Art. 32 for the purpose of enforcing such a right.

Imposing Capital Punishment is not a violation of Article 21

In the case of Mithu v. State of Punjab, it was determined that the mandatory death penalty for murder committed by a life criminal serving a life sentence under Section 303 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, is unconstitutional.

The constitutionality of the death penalty has been challenged in a number of instances before the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court ruled in Jagmohan Singh v. State of Uttar Pradesh that a statute cannot deny freedom of movement unless it is reasonable and in the public interest.

However, in Bachan Singh v. State of Punjab, it was determined that the death sentence is an alternative punishment for murder under Section 302 of the Indian Penal Code. As a result, it is not irrational and serves the public interest. It should only be applied in the “rarest of rare cases.”

Furthermore, it was determined in the instance of Solitary Confinement that solitary confinement breaches the basic right granted by Article 21.

Article 21 includes Right to Health and Medical Care

The right to health is included in the right to life. Art. 21 and the Directive Principles of State Policy compel the state to protect a person’s life. The Supreme Court held in a landmark decision in Parmanand Katara v. Union of India that in medico legal cases, the preservation of life is of paramount importance, so it is the primary duty of the doctor to give immediate aid to the victims, whether they are criminals or innocent people, and shall not wait for the completion of legal formalities.

In a case similar to this one,Paschim Banga Khet Mazdoor Samiti v. State of West Bengal, the Supreme Court granted compensation to the victims who had been wronged by the government hospitals’ services

Article 21 includes Right to Privacy

The Supreme Court said in R. Rajgopal v. State of Tamil Nadu that the right to privacy is nothing more than the “right to be alone,” and that it is implicit in the right to life and personal liberty given by Art. 21 of the Indian Constitution.

Similarly, the issue of privacy was addressed in relation to the validity of Aadhaar. The Supreme Court’s decision on Justice K.S. Puttaswamy petition on August 24, 2023, holding that the right to privacy is protected as a fundamental constitutional right under Articles 14, 19, and 21 of the Indian Constitution, proved crucial to the rights of Indian citizens in the twenty-first century. This ruling not only overturned certain previous decisions, but it also paved the door for a more progressive and meaningful interpretation of civil and political rights.


Article 21 is the most important right enshrined in our constitution. It is the foundation upon which the entire structure of fundamental rights is built. By giving progressive interpretation, the Supreme Court has consistently broadened the horizon and evolution of this article. We can confidently predict that more features will be added to this unbreakable article.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is Article 21 A?

Ans. Article 21 A specifies that the state shall offer free and compulsory education to all children aged 6 to 14 in a manner determined by law. More information about the Right to Education Act may be found here.

Q2. Is Article 21 an absolute right

Ans. No, it is not an absolute right. The state may put constraints on the right to life and liberty, but they must be fair, reasonable, and just, and they must follow the legal system.

Q3. Can Article 21 be suspended during an emergency?

Ans. During an emergency, Article 21 cannot be suspended. The 44th Amendment to the United States Constitution states that this article cannot be suspended, even in an emergency.

You're reading Right To Life And Personal Liberty: Article 21

Personal Statistics, Early Life, Timeline, Best Movies

About Aditya Shrivastava Personal Statistics of Aditya Shrivastava

Born July 21, 1963

Name Aditya Shrivastava

Nickname Not known

Spouse Manasi Srivastava

Children 2

Alma Mater Not known

Zodiac Sign Gemini

Height 5ft 11in (1.80 m)

Weight 75 Kg (165 lbs)

Residence Mumbai, India

Networth Not Known

Early Life of Aditya Shrivastava

Born in Allahabad, India, in 1963.

Attended Allahabad University to pursue graduation.

He did theater plays at Sangeet Samiti, civil lines, Allahabad.

Moved to Delhi in 1989, got involved in theater work at Sri Ram Center Of Performing Arts.

Shekar Kapoor gave him his first break in Bandit Queen as Putti Lal.

Career Timeline

1994: Aditya Shrivastava began his acting career with the movie Bandit Queen.

1998: He starred in the movies Sanshodhan, Hazaar Chaurasi ki Maa, Satya.

1998 – 2023: He started his most popular role as Inspector Abhijeet in C.I.D.

2003: He was seen in the movie Paanch.

2004: He played a supporting role in the movie Lakshya, Deewar.

2005: He was seen in the movie Dansh, Nalaai(Tamil).

2006: He appeared in the movie Corporate.

2009: He was seen in the movie Gulaal, Alwar.

2010: He appeared in the movie Kaalo in the main role.

2023: He appeared in the film Super 30.

2023: He was seen in the film Haseen Dilruba.

5 Best Movies

Year Movie Name Character Name Box Office Collection Result 

1998 Dil Se Terrorist ₹356 crore Blockbuster

2004 Black Friday Nasir Khan ₹181 crore Blockbuster

2009 Gulaal Karan Singh ₹150 crore Flop

2010 Kaalo Sameer ₹120 crore Blockbuster

2023 Super 30 Lallan Singh ₹36 crore Blockbuster

Surprising Facts

Aditya Shrivastava is a famous Indian actor who has been active in the Indian film industry since the late 1980s.

He was born in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, on July 21, 1963.

He is best known for his roles in films such as Bandit Queen, Satya, Rankh, Sarfarosh, and Paanch.

His performance in the 2000 film Satya earned him a Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actor.

He has also acted in several television serials, such as Buniyaad, Shanti, and Adalat.

In 2013, he was awarded the Padma Shri, India’s fourth highest civilian award, by the Government of India.

Aditya Shrivastava is also an accomplished singer and has released several albums.

He is also the founder of a charitable trust called ‘SPIC-MACAY’, which promotes Indian classical music and culture among youth.


Aditya Shrivastava has earned recognition for his outstanding performances in films such as Satya and Black Friday. He is best known for portraying Senior Inspector Abhijeet in the longest-running television series, C.I.D. Throughout his career, Aditya has received numerous awards and accolades.

Watch our Demo Courses and Videos


Aditya Shrivastava is an Indian film and television actor who has won several awards for his performances. He has won the National Film Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance in Satya. He also won the Screen Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role in the same film. He has also been honored with the Kalakar Award for his commendable performance in many television series.


Aditya Shrivastava is an established international film actor known for his critical and commercial success in several notable films. He has made a name for himself through his performances in films such as Dil Se.., Mohandas, Dansh, Satya, Mathrubhumi, Black Friday, and Gulaal, among others. These films have received recognition on the International Film Festivals Circuit and have earned Aditya critical acclaim as a parallel lead. He has also been a part of numerous other films, earning praise from critics for his work. In interviews, Aditya has expressed his preference for non-conventional cinema, as he feels it brings depth to his acting abilities.

Recommended Articles

We hope that this EDUCBA information on “Aditya Shrivastava” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information,

Apple And Samsung Bosses Meeting On May 21

As previously hinted, top dogs at Apple and Samsung will meet next month to discuss a possible settlement to the ongoing patent war which has seen minor casualties on both sides, but has otherwise failed to produce an outright winner. A new report claims the upcoming mediation will take place on May 21 and May 22, starting on each day at 9:30am.

The court-moderated settlement talk is to seek an alternative dispute resolution to the more than fifty lawsuits the two technology giants have filed against each other in little more than a year in courts the world over…

Apple, Samsung’s biggest buyer of components, will be represented by CEO Tim Cook. He will engage in talks with his counterpart at Samsung, CEO Gee-Sung Chog.

According to patent expert Florian Müeller, writing for his own blog FOSS Patents:

The meetings will take place in a San Francisco courthouse, while the litigation itself is before the San Jose division of the court. With Oracle v. Google, it was just the opposite: the case is currently being tried in San Francisco, but court-ordered settlement talks took place in San Jose.

Magistrate Judge Joseph C. Spero, who is not directly involved with the lawsuit, will oversee the negotiations, according to FOSS Patents. Unfortunately, the mediation and statements from these talks will apparently remain confidential.

Apple once referred to Samsung in court documents as “the copyist”. The South Korean company returned favor by likening Apple customers to sheep in the Galaxy S III teaser video. A series of Galaxy S II commercials also indirectly spoofed Apple by painting those who would wait in the line for a new iPhone in unfavorable light, as seen below.


The 51-year-old CEO of Apple asserted during a recent conference call with Wall Street investors that he’d rather settle, hinting he wasn’t fond of a “thermonuclear” option that late Apple co-founder Steve Jobs so fiercely pursued.

I’ve always hated litigation. We just want people to invent their own stuff. If we could get an arrangement where we can be assured that’s the case, and that a fair settlement on stuff that’s occurred, I would highly prefer to settle vs. battle.

Instead, a recent Bloomberg story pointed out, Cook is seeking ways to settle the long-standing patent dispute as he deems litigation a “necessary evil”.

Later in May, Cook will also open the annual All Things Digital technology conference, which takes place from May 29-31, 2012 at the Terranea Resort in Rancho Palos Verdes, California.

Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak made a point recently by saying that successful corporations like Apple and Facebook were started by young thinkers with bold new ideas who didn’t have to deal with today’s messy patent issues.

Strategy Analytics pegged Samsung’s first-quarter smartphone sales at 44.5 million units, seemingly re-taking the crown of the world’s biggest smartphone maker by volume from Apple. During the same three-month period, California-based Apple sold 35.1 million iPhones.

Samsung also passed Nokia for the first time to become the leading cell phone vendor globally. However, it should be noted that direct performance comparison between Samsung and Apple is prone to inaccuracies because Samsung stopped divulging smartphone and tablet sales data last year, citing competitive reasons.

Research firm IHS iSuppli put shipments of Samsung smartphones at 32 million units, three million units behind Apple – quite an estimate gap between IHS iSuppli and Strategy Analytics.

As legal issues persist, the two frenemies continue to duke it out in both the courtroom and marketplace.

What do you think, will Apple and Samsung settle?

We know Apple demands up to $15 per each Android device sold.

Realistically, is this too high a royalty fee? Which party, if any, will prevail?

Personal Communications In Apa Style

In APA Style, a personal communication is any source that is not accessible to your readers. Personal communications are cited in the text, but not included in the reference list.


Another researcher stated that the results so far looked “very promising” (A. Smith, personal communication, July 15, 2023).

What is a personal communication?

A personal communication is any source you refer to that the reader will not be able to access—either because it was not recorded, is deliberately kept private for reasons of confidentiality, or is accessible only to a specific group (e.g. members of a particular institution or online community).

Because the reader cannot look up these sources independently, APA Style states that it is not appropriate to include them in a reference list. The point of a reference list is to allow the reader to find your sources, so inaccessible sources do not belong there.

Some common examples of sources that should be treated as personal communications include:

Private conversations, emails, letters and messages

Private social media content

Unrecorded performances and speeches

How to cite personal communications

When citing a personal communication in your text, you only need to give the person’s initials and last name, the words “personal communication,” and the date of the communication in parentheses:

(F. Davidson, personal communication, January 12, 2023)

If it’s relevant or important to the reader’s understanding, you can specify the type of communication involved:

During the performance, the term “Anthropocene” was used repeatedly (J. Wilson,


, March 13, 2023).

Private messages on social media are always personal communications. Other social media content should also be cited as personal communication if it is not public – that is, if it can only be accessed by members of a specific group or friends of a specific user:

Scribbr Citation Checker


The AI-powered Citation Checker helps you avoid common mistakes such as:

Missing commas and periods

Incorrect usage of “et al.”

Ampersands (&) in narrative citations

Missing reference entries

Learn more

Quoting your research participants

Quotes from your research participants, such as interviewees and survey respondents, are treated slightly differently from personal communications.

You don’t need to include a citation when quoting your research participants, but the transcript or responses you’re quoting from should usually be included in an appendix. Just refer to this appendix the first time you quote from it, e.g. “(See Appendix A).”

Research participants are often anonymized for reasons of confidentiality. There are several ways of handling this. Where it is not important to distinguish participants from each other, you can simply refer to them without any specific attribution:

One participant stated that…

Where more detail is appropriate, you might want to distinguish participants by personal characteristics like age, profession, or gender:

(male participant, 52 years old)

Where it’s important to be able to refer to specific participants, you can use false names (as long as you clarify somewhere that this is what you’re doing) or numerical/alphabetical labels:

Participant D stated that… A participant named John (names used throughout are pseudonyms) referred to…

Cite this Scribbr article

Caulfield, J. Retrieved July 19, 2023,

Cite this article

Personal Construct Theory: George Kelly

What does the Personal Construct Theory Define?

The personal Construct Theory states that individuals develop their ideas and rules to interpret things and events around them. Given in the 1950s by George Kelly, an American psychologist, this theory views people as scientists. Like scientists, every person observes their environment, understands the events, and draws conclusions. Thus, they formulate hypotheses about how the world works and test them daily. This is why people who may be experiencing the same thing perceive it differently.

What are Constructs?

When people use their experiences and perceptions to conclude something, they use what is known as ‘constructs.’ We behave following the expectation that our constructs will predict and explain the reality of our world. These are used to test the hypotheses that individuals develop. Constructs are constantly evaluated and modified as we go through life experiencing new things.

The structure of Personal Construct Theory The Basic Postulate

The basic postulate says, “A person’s processes are psychologically channelized by how he anticipates events.” This means that humans build a construct based on how they perceive or construe an event, and this construct is used in the future to verify if that prediction was true or not. Hence, the postulate reaffirms the idea of humans acting like scientists by developing and testing hypotheses.

The 11 Corollaries

The corollaries, as suggested by Kelly, expand on the primary postulate.

Construction Corollary − No event or experience can happen again exactly as it did, but an event can still be repeated with some changes. We predict how we will behave in a similar event based on these similarities.

Individuality Corollary − People differ from each other in their constructions of events. Each person is unique and has unique experiences and perceptions, and hence, their constructs are different.

Organization Corollary − We arrange our constructs in patterns and how they relate to each other. We consider their similarities as well as their differences. We organize these constructs in a hierarchy, with some constructs subordinate to others. A construct can include one or more subordinate constructs.

Dichotomy Corollary − A person’s construction system is composed of a finite number of dichotomous constructs. The constructs we store are bipolar or dichotomous. For example, if there is a construct of ‘kindness,’ there will also be a construct of ‘unkindness.’ This is important for us to anticipate future events correctly. Just as we note similarities among people or events, we must also account for dissimilarities.

Choice Corollary − A person chooses for himself that alternative in a dichotomized construct through which he anticipates the greater possibility for the elaboration of his system. This construct explains that people choose the alternative construct that helps them expand on their experiences.

Range Corollary − A construct is applicable for anticipating only a finite range of events, and a construct may have a great range or a very short range. This means that our constructs can apply to a wide set of objects or very narrow objects.

Experience Corollary − We modify or reconstruct our constructs as we experience things we did not expect. If we observe that a construct does not predict the outcome of a situation correctly, then it must be reformulated or replaced.

Modulation Corollary − Constructs differ based on their permeability. A permeable construct will be one in which newer and bigger ideas can be included after the construct has been made. A permeable construct is open to new experiences and is capable of being revised or extended by them.

Fragmentation Corollary − A person may have a variety of construction subsystems that are incompatible with each other.

Commonality Corollary − Kelly suggested that if a group of people interprets an experience similarly, we can conclude that their cognitive processes are similar. This can be true when it comes to cultural experiences.

Sociality Corollary − This talks about how commonalities do not necessarily bring out positive relationships. To have positive relations, people must understand each other’s constructs. We must understand how another person thinks if we are to anticipate how that person will predict events.


The Personal Construct Theory is very significant in cognitive psychology and personality psychology. While it introduced many new concepts and terms, it has also been criticized. Despite the criticism, the theory left its mark shortly after its conception.

Difference Between Right And Left Lung


Breathing is the natural process that involves the inspiration or intake of oxygen and the expiration or removal of carbon dioxide. This process is possible due to the respiratory system that involves the nostrils, pharynx, windpipe or trachea, bronchi and lungs. The trachea further bifurcates to form the right and the left lung. Its contraction and relaxation result in the intake and expel of the air.

Right lung

The right lung is shorter and wider as compared to the left lung and both perform the function of breathing.

Location of the right lung

The right lung is present in the right hemithorax region i.e. on the right side of the heart and mediastinum.

Structure of the right lung

The right lung comprises three lobes i.e the right upper lobe (RUL), the right middle lobe (RML) and the right lower lobe (RLL) and all these lobes are divided by two interlobular fissures. One of the fissures divides the right lower lobe from the middle and upper one and it closely resembles the fissure of the left lung and it is called a horizontal fissure. The other fissure divides the right upper lobe from the middle one and it is called an oblique fissure. The right lung comprises ten segments of which three segments are present in the right upper lobe i.e the apical, anterior and posterior and two segments are present in the right middle lobe i.e the medial and lateral and the remaining five are present in the right lower lobe i.e the superior, medial, anterior, lateral and posterior.

Left lung

The left lung is narrow and oblong and both lungs perform the process of breathing.

Location of the left lung

The left lung is present in the left hemithorax region i.e on the left side of the heart and mediastinum.

Structure of the left lung

The left lung comprises two lobes i.e the left upper lobe (LUL) and the left lower lobe (LLL). There is only one fissure present in the left lung and it is called the oblique fissure that divides the left upper and left lower lobe. There are eight to nine segments present in the left lung. Within the left upper lobe, there are 4 segments i.e the anterior, apicoposterior, inferior and superior lingula. The remaining 4 to 5 segments are present in the left lower lobe i.e the lateral, anteromedial, superior and posterior.

Images coming soon

Similarities between left and right lungs

The major similarity between the left and right lungs is that they both perform the function of breathing.

The alveoli of both the left and right lungs perform the function of respiration in which the carbon dioxide is exchanged with oxygen and is transported to the body parts via the bloodstream.

Both of them are guarded by a sack of tissue called the pleura.

Both the lungs are lobular in structure.

The left and right lungs share a common windpipe or trachea.

Differences between left and right lung

Right lung Left lung

Structure The right lung is short and wide in a structure. The left lung is narrow and oblong in structure.

Position The right lung is present in the right hemithorax region. The left lung is present in the right hemithorax region.

Weight The right lung is heavier than the left lung and weighs about 700 gms. The left lung is lighter than the right lung and weighs about 650 gms.

Lobes The right lung comprises three lobes i.e the upper, middle and lower. The left lung comprises two lobes i.e the upper and lower.

No. of fissure There are two fissures in the right lobe i.e the oblique and horizontal. There is only one fissure in the left lobe i.e the oblique.

No. of bronchus The bronchus is a structure that arises from the division of the trachea and in the right lung, there are two bronchi. There is a single bronchus in the left lung.


Lungs are spongy structures that help in the process of breathing. The lungs are divided into two parts i.e the left and the right lung. The right lung is short and wide while the left is narrow and oblong. The right lung has three lobes i.e the upper, middle and lower lobes and is located on the right side of the heart and mediastinum. The left lung comprises two lobes i.e the upper and lower lobes and is located at the left side of the heart and mediastinum. These lobes are divided by inter-lobular fissures. Both the left and right lungs are segmented. They share some similarities like both perform the function of breathing or respiration, are lobular, etc. The left and lungs can be differentiated based on their location, structure, weight, no. of fissures, lobes, etc.


Q1. Write the sequence of the respiratory system.

Q2. What is the mediastinum and where lungs are located?

Ans. The mediastinum is a region that provides space for vital organs like the heart, trachea, great vessels and essential nerves. The lungs are present on either side of the mediastinum i.e on the right and left.

Q3. What is hilum?

Ans. Hilum or root is a depressed structure at the centre of the lung and is located anteriorly at the 5th to 7th thoracic vertebrae. It is the place at which various structures enter and exit from the lung. It is guarded by a pleural layer and contains bronchi and pulmonary vasculature along with lymphatic nodes, bronchial vessels, etc.

Q4. Where does the exchange of gases take place?

Ans. Alveoli are considered the functional unit of the lungs that provide surface area for exchanging gases like carbon dioxide and oxygen.

Q5. Explain the blood system present between the lungs and heart.

Ans. The pulmonary artery from the right ventricle of the heart is responsible to carry deoxygenated blood toward the lungs. The pulmonary artery then expands along the branches of the bronchial tree and branches off into capillaries. The exchange of carbon dioxide from the blood with oxygen is carried out between the alveoli and the capillaries that contain deoxygenated or carbon dioxide-rich blood. The oxygen-rich blood is collected from the alveolar capillaries by the pulmonary vein. Then the oxygen-rich or oxygenated blood is taken up to the left atria and further, it is pumped throughout the body tissues.

Q6. Name some diseases associated with the lungs of the respiratory system.

Ans. Diseases of the lungs can be divided into the following −

Airway diseases- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, etc.

Lung tissue diseases- Sarcoidosis, pulmonary fibrosis.

Lung circulation diseases- Pulmonary hypertension.

Lung diseases are usually a combination of the above diseases. Lung collapse, lung cancer, infections like pneumonia, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolus, bronchitis, etc. are a few diseases.

Update the detailed information about Right To Life And Personal Liberty: Article 21 on the website. We hope the article's content will meet your needs, and we will regularly update the information to provide you with the fastest and most accurate information. Have a great day!